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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227582/role-of-the-sodium-hydrogen-exchanger-in-mediating-the-renal-effects-of-drugs-commonly-used-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Diabetes is characterized by an increased activity of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in the glomerulus and renal tubules, which contributes importantly to the development of nephropathy. Despite the established role played by the exchanger in experimental studies, it has not been specifically targeted by those seeking to develop novel pharmacological treatments for diabetes. This review demonstrates that many existing drugs that are commonly prescribed to patients with diabetes act on the NHE1 and NHE3 isoforms in the kidney...
December 11, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227575/effect-of-a-single-dose-of-the-dpp-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-on-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-incretin-hormone-secretion-after-meal-ingestion-in-healthy-volunteers-and-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-well-controlled-type-2-diabetes-subjects
#2
Wathik Alsalim, Olga Göransson, Richard D Carr, Roberto Bizzotto, Andrea Tura, Giovanni Pacini, Andrea Mari, Bo Ahrén
To explore the effects of a single dose of the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on glucose-standardized insulin secretion and β-cell glucose sensitivity after meal ingestion, twelve healthy- and twelve drug naïve well-controlled type 2 diabetes subjects (T2D; mean HbA1c 43 mmol/mol, 6.2%) received sitagliptin (100mg) or placebo before a meal (525 kcal). β-cell function was measured as the insulin secretory rate at a standardized glucose concentration and the β-cell glucose sensitivity (the slope between glucose and insulin secretory rate)...
December 11, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227571/comparative-effectiveness-of-metformin-monotherapy-in-extended-release-and-immediate-release-formulations-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-chinese-patients-analysis-of-results-from-the-consent-trial
#3
Linong Ji, Jing Liu, Jing Yang, Yufeng Li, Li Liang, Dalong Zhu, Quanmin Li, Tianrong Ma, Haiyan Xu, Yanlan Yang, Jiaoe Zeng, Bo Feng, Shen Qu, Yiming Li, Lizhen Ma, Shanshan Lin, Jianping Wang, Wei Li, Weihong Song, Xiaoxing Li, Yong Luo, Shugang Xi, Mei Lin, Yu Liu, Zerong Liang
AIMS: Metformin treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) can be limited by gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs), resulting in treatment discontinuation. We investigated whether once-daily metformin extended release (XR) is superior in terms of GI tolerability, with non-inferior efficacy, compared with thrice-daily metformin immediate release (IR) in treatment-naïve Chinese patients with T2DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, open-label, randomized, multicenter, phase IV interventional study enrolled Chinese T2DM patients to receive either metformin XR or metformin IR with a 2-week screening period, 16-week treatment period, and 2-week follow-up period without treatment...
December 11, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227526/bioactive-peptides-derived-from-seaweed-protein-and-their-health-benefits-antihypertensive-antioxidant-and-antidiabetic-properties
#4
REVIEW
Habtamu Admassu, Mohammed Abdalbasit A Gasmalla, Ruijin Yang, Wei Zhao
Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are the biggest causes of death globally. Therefore, prevention of these diseases is a focus of pharmaceuticals and functional food manufacturers. This review summarizes recent research trends and scientific knowledge in seaweed protein-derived peptides with particular emphasis on production, isolation and potential health impacts in prevention of hypertension, diabetes and oxidative stress. The current status and future prospects of bioactive peptides are also discussed...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226729/formulation-of-sitagliptin-loaded-oral-polymeric-nano-scaffold-process-parameters-evaluation-and-enhanced-anti-diabetic-performance
#5
Mohammed Asadullah Jahangir, Ruqaiyah Khan, Syed Sarim Imam
PURPOSE: The aim of the study to formulate and statistically optimize sitagliptin-loaded eudragit nanoparticles (SIT-NPs) and evaluate the in-vitro pharmaceutical quality and in-vivo anti-diabetic assessment. METHOD: SIT-NPs were prepared by using combination method of solvent evaporation and nano-precipitation techniques. The influence of different independent variables as eudragit RL100 concentration (%), tween 80 concentration (%) and sonication time (min) were evaluated on dependent variables like particle size (nm), drug loading (%) and in-vitro drug release (%)...
December 9, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226685/size-effect-on-lipid-nanocapsules-mediated-glp-1-secretion-from-enteroendocrine-l-cells
#6
Yining Xu, Dario Carradori, Mireille Alhouayek, Giulio G Muccioli, Patrice D Cani, Veronique Preat, Ana Beloqui
L cells are enteroendocrine cells located throughout the gastrointestinal tract that secrete physiologically important peptides. The most characterized peptides secreted by L cells are the peptide YY (PYY) and the glucagon-like peptide (GLP) -1 and -2. These peptides are released rapidly into the circulation after oral nutrient ingestion. Recently, lipid-based nanoparticles (NP) have been described as triggers for GLP-1 secretion by L cells. NP physicochemical properties play a key role in the NP-cell interaction, and drive NP cell internalization...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226587/cellular-models-for-beta-cell-function-and-diabetes-gene-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Alastair D Green, Srividya Vasu, Peter R Flatt
Diabetes is characterised by the destruction and/or relative dysfunction of insulin secreting beta-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Consequently, considerable effort has been made to understand the physiological processes governing insulin production and secretion in these cells, and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their deterioration in the pathogenesis of diabetes. To date, considerable research has exploited clonal beta-cell lines derived from rodent insulinomas. Such cell-lines have proven to be a great asset in diabetes research, in vitro drug testing, and studies of beta-cell physiology; and provide a sustainable, and in many cases, more practical alternative to the use of animals or primary tissue...
December 11, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226105/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-clinical-update
#8
REVIEW
Joseph M Pappachan, Shithu Babu, Babu Krishnan, Nishal C Ravindran
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease in developed countries because of the obesity epidemic. The disease increases liver-related morbidity and mortality, and often increases the risk for other comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance related to metabolic syndrome is the main pathogenic trigger that, in association with adverse genetic, humoral, hormonal and lifestyle factors, precipitates development of NAFLD...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226041/dapagliflozin-cardiovascular-safety-and-benefits-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
REVIEW
Fatima Saleem
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) such as dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, and empagliflozin, are a promising new therapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SGLT2is can effectively reduce hyperglycemia thus improving glycemic control and they offer some beneficial effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system which can benefit patients with heart failure in addition toT2DM. The United States Food and Drug Administration requires new diabetes mellitus therapies to show a CV safety profile...
October 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225896/incidence-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-factors-associated-with-its-development-in-hiv-positive-patients-over-the-age-of-50
#10
Faizal Samad, Marianne Harris, Cathy M Puskas, Monica Ye, Jason Chia, Sarah Chacko, Gregory P Bondy, Viviane D Lima, Julio Sg Montaner, Silvia A Guillemi
Objective: We sought to determine the incidence and factors associated with development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in older HIV-infected individuals. Research design and methods: We analyzed data from people living with HIV (PLWH) ≥50 years of age enrolled in a large urban HIV outpatient clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia. Patients were categorized as having DM if they had random blood sugar ≥11.1 mmol/L, fasting blood sugar ≥7 mmol/L, HbA1C ≥6.5%, antidiabetic medication use during the follow-up period, or medical chart review confirming diagnosis of DM...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225892/correlates-of-second-line-type-2-diabetes-medication-selection-in-the-usa
#11
Ronald T Ackermann, Amisha Wallia, Matthew J O'Brien, Raymond Kang, Andrew Cooper, Margaret R Moran, David T Liss
Objective: Past research provides insufficient evidence to inform second-line diabetes medication prescribing when metformin is no longer sufficient. We evaluated patient, prescriber, and health plan characteristics associated with selection of second-line diabetes medications in the USA. Research design and methods: We used a multiple case-comparison study design to identify characteristics associated with the probability of starting each of six second-line diabetes medication alternatives within 77 744 adults enrolled in commercial or Medicare Advantage health plans from 2011 to 2015...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225112/fisetin-a-bioactive-phytochemical-with-potential-for-cancer-prevention-and-pharmacotherapy
#12
REVIEW
Dharambir Kashyap, Ajay Sharma, Katrin Sak, Hardeep Singh Tuli, Harpal Singh Buttar, Anupam Bishayee
A wide variety of chronic diseases, such as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthtitis, obesity and various cancers, are now being treated with cost effective phytomedicines. Since synthetic medicines are very expensive, concerted efforts are being made in developing and poor countries to discover cost effective medicines for the treatment of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Understanding the underlying mechanisms of bioactive medicines from natural sources would not only open incipient avenues for the scientific community and pharmaceutical industry to discover new drug molecules for the therapy of NCDs, but also help to garner knowledge for alternative therapeutic approaches for the management of chronic diseases...
December 7, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224633/over-the-counter-medicines-and-diabetes-care
#13
Jeff Taylor
OBJECTIVES: People with diabetes turn to over-the-counter (OTC) medicines for many ailments. The focus of this brief review is the impact common OTC medicines might have on this group of patients. METHODS: Three types of OTC medicines were selected as most deserving of attention: 3 herbal agents, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cough/cold products. Existing literature was used to determine precautions that might be in order. RESULTS: Herbal/natural agents with the potential to impact blood sugar have been identified in various reports...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223804/oxindole-based-oxadiazole-hybrid-analogs-novel-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors
#14
Muhammad Taha, Syahrul Imran, Fazal Rahim, Abdul Wadood, Khalid Mohammed Khan
Inhibition of α-glucosidase is an effective strategy for controlling post-prandial hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. Beside these α-glucosidase inhibitors has been also used as anti-obesity and anti-viral drugs. Keeping in view the greater importance of α-glucosidase inhibitors here in this study we are presenting oxindole based oxadiazoles hybrid analogs (1-20) synthesis, characterized by different spectroscopic techniques including 1H NMR and EI-MS and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. All compounds were found potent inhibitors for the enzyme with IC50 values ranging between 1...
December 2, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223646/exploring-the-effects-of-dpp-4-inhibitors-on-the-kidney-from-the-bench-to-clinical-trials
#15
REVIEW
Giuseppe Coppolino, Christian Leporini, Laura Rivoli, Francesco Ursini, Eugenio Donato di Paola, Valeria Cernaro, Franco Arturi, Davide Bolignano, Emilio Russo, Giovambattista De Sarro, Michele Andreucci
Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a relatively new class of non-insulin glucose-lowering agents, belonging to the incretin family, which are able to improve glycemic control with a favorable safety profile, since they are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia, no weight gain, and good tolerability in patients with chronic renal failure. Some experimental and clinical studies suggest that these drugs may exert significant pleiotropic effects, in particular on chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, but data from clinical trials are still controversial...
December 6, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223569/isolated-mangiferin-and-naringenin-exert-antidiabetic-effect-via-ppar%C3%AE-glut4-dual-agonistic-action-with-strong-metabolic-regulation
#16
Ashok K Singh, Vinit Raj, Amit K Keshari, Amit Rai, Pranesh Kumar, Atul Rawat, Biswanath Maity, Dinesh Kumar, Anand Prakash, Arnab De, Amalesh Samanta, Bolay Bhattacharya, Sudipta Saha
In this study, we isolated two compounds from the leaves of Salacia oblonga (SA1, mangiferin and SA2, naringenin), and their structures were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. SA1 and SA2 were orally administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at 50 and 100 mg/kg daily for 15 days. Blood glucose level, serum lipid profile, oxidative stress parameters, histopathology, docking, molecular parameters, and NMR-based metabolic perturbation studies were performed to investigate the pharmacological activities of SA1 and SA2...
December 6, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223443/response-to-pioglitazone-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-with-vs-without-type-2-diabetes
#17
Fernando Bril, Srilaxmi Kalavalapalli, Virginia C Clark, Romina Lomonaco, Consuelo Soldevila-Pico, I-Chia Liu, Beverly Orsak, Fermin Tio, Kenneth Cusi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pioglitazone is effective for long-term treatment of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with prediabetes or type-2 diabetes. However, it is not clear how the presence of type-2 diabetes affects the drug's efficacy. We compared metabolic and histologic responses to pioglitazone in patients with NASH and prediabetes vs type-2 diabetes. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of adults with biopsy-proven NASH (52 with type-2 diabetes and 49 with prediabetes), enrolled from the general population of San Antonio, Texas from 2008 through 2014...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223225/poor-glycemic-control-as-a-risk-factor-for%C3%A2-pseudophakic-cystoid-macular-edema-in-patients-with-diabetes
#18
Petteri Ylinen, Ilkka Laine, Juha-Matti Lindholm, Raimo Tuuminen
PURPOSE: To specify the risk factors for pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CME) in patients with diabetes. SETTING: Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Unit of Ophthalmology, Kotka, Finland. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes having routine cataract surgery were evaluated. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging was performed before surgery and 1 month postoperatively...
November 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222456/bmps-as-new-insulin-sensitizers-enhanced-glucose-uptake-in-mature-3t3-l1-adipocytes-via-ppar%C3%AE-and-glut4-upregulation
#19
Isabelle Schreiber, Gina Dörpholz, Claus-Eric Ott, Bjørt Kragesteen, Nancy Schanze, Cory Thomas Lee, Josef Köhrle, Stefan Mundlos, Karen Ruschke, Petra Knaus
Insulin-resistance is the main cause of type 2 diabetes. Here we describe the identification and characterization of BMP2 and BMP6 as new insulin-sensitizing growth factors in mature adipocytes. We show that BMP2 and BMP6 lead to enhanced insulin-mediated glucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive and -insensitive adipocytes. We exclude a direct effect of BMP2 or BMP6 on translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane and demonstrate that these BMPs increase GLUT4 protein levels equipotent to Rosiglitazone. BMPs induce expression of PPARγ as the crucial mediator for the insulin-sensitizing effect...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221962/drug-delivery-and-tissue-engineering-to-promote-wound-healing-in-the-immunocompromised-host-current-challenges-and-future-directions
#20
Alexander M Tatara, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Antonios G Mikos
As regenerative medicine matures as a field, more promising technologies are being translated from the benchtop to the clinic. However, many of these strategies are designed with otherwise healthy hosts in mind and validated in animal models without other co-morbidities. In reality, many of the patient populations benefiting from drug delivery and tissue engineering-based devices to enhance wound healing also have significant underlying immunodeficiency. Specifically, patients suffering from diabetes, malignancy, human immunodeficiency virus, post organ transplantation, and other compromised states have significant pleotropic immune defects that affect wound healing...
December 5, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
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