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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531772/diet-induced-weight-loss-and-markers-of-endothelial-dysfunction-and-inflammation-in-treated-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
K A Berk, T P Oudshoorn, A J M Verhoeven, M T Mulder, A J M Roks, W A Dik, R Timman, E J G Sijbrands
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Overweight and obesity increase cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a recent trial, however, diet-induced weight loss did not reduce the cardiovascular risk of patients with T2D, possibly due to the parallel intensive medical treatment. We investigated the effect of diet-induced weight loss on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese patients with T2D, and whether this effect was influenced by the use of statins, ACE inhibitors, metformin and duration of T2D...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531112/effects-of-polyphenols-on-oxidative-stress-mediated-injury-in-cardiomyocytes
#2
REVIEW
Rosanna Mattera, Monica Benvenuto, Maria Gabriella Giganti, Ilaria Tresoldi, Francesca Romana Pluchinotta, Sonia Bergante, Guido Tettamanti, Laura Masuelli, Vittorio Manzari, Andrea Modesti, Roberto Bei
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes and anti-cancer drugs contribute to heart failure through oxidative and nitrosative stresses which cause cardiomyocytes nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, denaturation of intracellular proteins, lipid peroxidation and inflammation. Oxidative or nitrosative stress-mediated injury lead to cardiomyocytes apoptosis or necrosis. The reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) concentration is dependent on their production and on the expression and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530786/morphine-for-chronic-neuropathic-pain-in-adults
#3
REVIEW
Tess E Cooper, Junqiao Chen, Philip J Wiffen, Sheena Derry, Daniel B Carr, Dominic Aldington, Peter Cole, R Andrew Moore
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain, which is caused by a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system, may be central or peripheral in origin. Neuropathic pain often includes symptoms such as burning or shooting sensations, abnormal sensitivity to normally painless stimuli, or an increased sensitivity to normally painful stimuli. Neuropathic pain is a common symptom in many diseases of the nervous system. Opioid drugs, including morphine, are commonly used to treat neuropathic pain...
May 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530702/metformin-alters-the-gut-microbiome-of-individuals-with-treatment-naive-type-2-diabetes-contributing-to-the-therapeutic-effects-of-the-drug
#4
Hao Wu, Eduardo Esteve, Valentina Tremaroli, Muhammad Tanweer Khan, Robert Caesar, Louise Mannerås-Holm, Marcus Ståhlman, Lisa M Olsson, Matteo Serino, Mercè Planas-Fèlix, Gemma Xifra, Josep M Mercader, David Torrents, Rémy Burcelin, Wifredo Ricart, Rosie Perkins, José Manuel Fernàndez-Real, Fredrik Bäckhed
Metformin is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but its mechanism of action is poorly defined. Recent evidence implicates the gut microbiota as a site of metformin action. In a double-blind study, we randomized individuals with treatment-naive T2D to placebo or metformin for 4 months and showed that metformin had strong effects on the gut microbiome. These results were verified in a subset of the placebo group that switched to metformin 6 months after the start of the trial. Transfer of fecal samples (obtained before and 4 months after treatment) from metformin-treated donors to germ-free mice showed that glucose tolerance was improved in mice that received metformin-altered microbiota...
May 22, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530546/the-role-of-qsar-and-virtual-screening-studies-in-type-2-diabetes-drug-discovery
#5
Simone Q Pantaleão, Drielli G V Fujji, Vinícius G Maltarollo, Danielle da C Silva, Gustavo H G Trossini, Karen C Weber, Luis P B Scott, Kathia M Honorio
BACKGROUND: Due to the increasing number of diabetes cases worldwide, there is an international concern to provide even more effective treatments to control this condition. METHODS: This review brings together a selection of studies that helped to broaden the comprehension of various biological targets and associated mechanisms involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: Such studies demonstrated that QSAR techniques and virtual screenings have been successfully employed in drug design projects...
May 22, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530382/diabetes-update-new-pharmacotherapy-for-type-2-diabetes
#6
Beth Choby
Multiple new drugs for managing type 2 diabetes have entered the market in the past 5 years. Guidelines from the American Diabetes Association recommend metformin for initial therapy, followed by a second drug if A1c goals are not met or initially for patients with A1c levels greater than 9%. Conversely, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists recommends initial management with two drugs if the A1c level is greater than 7.5%. The risk of lactic acidosis associated with metformin has been shown to be less than previously thought, with newer guidelines permitting use with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 45 to 60 mL/min/1...
May 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530381/diabetes-update-risk-factors-screening-diagnosis-and-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes
#7
Beth Choby
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the result of insulin resistance. Significant differences are noted in the prevalence of T2D among races. Screening recommendations vary by subspecialty society. Asian Americans should be screened for T2D at a lower body mass index (BMI) (ie, 23 kg/m(2)) than other racial groups. Risk factors for T2D include high-risk ethnicity, obesity, taking of certain drugs (including statins), and gestational diabetes. Health disparities and genetics also influence risk of T2D, although these complexities continue to be poorly understood...
May 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530081/-evaluation-of-the-association-between-antihypertensive-treatment-and-development-of-stroke
#8
Margarita Fraimovitch, Yosef Tzvi, Reuven Zimlichman
INTRODUCTION: An ischemic stroke is an event that occurs due to cerebral vascular disease and is directly related to the degree of vascular damage. This process is associated with atherosclerosis progression and is influenced by the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. AIMS: One of the goals of our research was to examine whether specific medications used for treating hypertension are associated with the development of strokes. METHODS: In a retrospective study of patients who were hospitalized between the years 2003-2008 due to a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or a transient ischemic attack (TIA), 916 cases of stroke patients were reviewed...
September 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530076/-osteoporosis-and-diabetes-in-which-way-are-they-related
#9
REVIEW
Osnat Tell-Lebanon, Pnina Rotman-Pikielny
Diabetes and osteoporosis are common diseases with growing prevalence in the aging population. Many recent studies have reported an association between diabetes mellitus and an increased osteoporotic fracture rate. Compared to control subjects, decreased bone mineral density has been observed in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, while those with type 2 diabetes display a unique skeletal phenotype of increased bone mineral density, but impaired architectural structure and mineral properties. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products changes collagen structure and suppression of bone turnover causes impairment of repair and adaptation mechanisms...
November 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529795/crystal-structure-of-isopropyl-2-hy-droxy-2-phenyl-acetate-a-pharmacopoeia-reference-standard
#10
Ivan Isaiev, Svitlana Shishkina, Igor Ukrainets, Elena Bevz
The title compound, C11H14O3, is used as a pharmacopoeia reference standard for determining impurities in the drug Pregabalin, used for the treatment of epilepsy and diabetic neuropathic pain. The mol-ecule is far from being planar, with the dihedral angle between the planes of the aromatic ring and the carboxyl fragment (O-C=O) being 76.1 (6)°. The isopropyl substituent is located in a synperiplanar position relative to the C=O bond and is turned so that the C-O-C-H torsion angle is -43.7°. In the crystal, bifurcated O-H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bonds, enclosing R1(2)(5) ring motifs, lead to the formation of chains propagating along the c-axis direction...
May 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529721/the-impact-of-antihypertensives-on-kidney-disease
#11
REVIEW
Diego F Marquez, Gema Ruiz-Hurtado, Luis Ruilope
Arterial hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are intimately related. The control of blood pressure (BP) levels is strongly recommended in patients with CKD in order to protect the kidney against the accompanying elevation in global cardiovascular (CV) risk. Actually, the goal BP in patients with CKD involves attaining values <140/90 mmHg except if albuminuria is present. In this case, it is often recommended to attain values <130/80 mmHg, although some guidelines still recommend <140/90 mmHg...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529619/effects-of-prolonged-exposure-to-low-dose-metformin-in-thyroid-cancer-cell-lines
#12
Safar Kheder, Karen Sisley, Sirwan Hadad, Sabapathy P Balasubramanian
Background: Thyroid cancer is generally associated with an excellent prognosis, but there is significant long-term morbidity with standard treatment. Some sub-types however have a poor prognosis. Metformin, an oral anti-diabetic drug is shown to have anti-cancer effects in several types of cancer (breast, lung and ovarian cancer). The proposed mechanisms include activation of the Adenosine Mono-phosphate-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) pathway and inhibition of the mTOR pathway (which promotes growth and proliferation)...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529539/jiangtang-decoction-ameliorate-diabetic-nephropathy-through-the-regulation-of-pi3k-akt-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-in-kk-ay-mice
#13
Jin-Ni Hong, Wei-Wei Li, Lin-Lin Wang, Hao Guo, Yong Jiang, Yun-Jia Gao, Peng-Fei Tu, Xue-Mei Wang
BACKGROUND: Jiangtang decoction (JTD) is a China patented drug which contains Euphorbia humifusa Willd, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Astragalus mongholicus Bunge, Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, and Coptis chinensis Franch. For decades, it has also been used clinically to treat diabetic nephropathy (DN) effectively; however, the associated mechanisms remain unknown. Thus, the present study aimed to examine the protective efficacy of JTD in DN and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529466/the-serum-protein-responses-to-treatment-with-xiaoke-pill-and-glibenclamide-in-type-2-diabetes-patients
#14
Xiuying Zhang, Haidan Sun, Sanjoy K Paul, Quanhui Wang, Xiaomin Lou, Guixue Hou, Bo Wen, Linong Ji, Siqi Liu
AIM: The Xiaoke Pill containing Chinese herb extracts and Glibenclamide, is used in therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and is effective in reducing the risk of hypoglycemia and improving diabetes symptoms compared with Glibenclamide. We describe a quantitative proteomics project to measure the T2DM serum proteome response to the Xiaoke Pill and Glibenclamide. METHODS: Based on a recently conducted 48-week clinical trial comparing the safety and efficacy of Glibenclamide (n = 400) and Xiaoke Pill (n = 400), after matching for age, sex, BMI, drug dose and whether hypoglycemia occurred, 32 patients were selected for the serum based proteomic analysis and divided into four groups (with/without hypoglycemia treated with Xiaoke Pill or Glibenclamide, n = 8 for each group)...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529319/therapeutic-targeting-of-the-angiopoietin-tie-pathway
#15
REVIEW
Pipsa Saharinen, Lauri Eklund, Kari Alitalo
The endothelial angiopoietin (ANG)-TIE growth factor receptor pathway regulates vascular permeability and pathological vascular remodelling during inflammation, tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. Drugs that target the ANG-TIE pathway are in clinical development for oncological and ophthalmological applications. The aim is to complement current vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-based anti-angiogenic therapies in cancer, wet age-related macular degeneration and macular oedema. The unique function of the ANG-TIE pathway in vascular stabilization also renders this pathway an attractive target in sepsis, organ transplantation, atherosclerosis and vascular complications of diabetes...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529037/diabetes-development-increased-concentrations-of-the-conjugated-bile-acid-taurocholic-acid-in-serum-while-treatment-with-microencapsulated-taurocholic-acid-exerted-no-hypoglycaemic-effects
#16
Sangeetha Mathavan, Momir Mikov, Svetlana Golocorbin-Kon, Hani Al-Salami
CONTEXT: The bile acid taurocholic acid (TCA) is endogenously produced, and has shown formulation-stabilising effects when incorporated into microcapsules containing potential antidiabetic drugs. This study aimed to develop and characterise TCA-microcapsules, and test their antidiabetic effects, in an animal model of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Using the polymer sodium alginate (SA), SA-microcapsules (control) and TCA-microcapsules (test) were prepared, and assessed for morphology, surface composition, chemical and thermal stability, swelling, buoyancy, mechanical, release and rheological properties...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528338/chronic-glibenclamide-treatment-attenuates-walker-256-tumour-growth-in-prediabetic-obese-rats
#17
Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Carina Previate, Kátia Gama de Barros Machado, Silvano Piovan, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Kelly Valério Prates, Veridiana Mota Moreira, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Luiz Felipe Barella, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Audrei Pavanello, Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Laize Peron Tófolo, Ananda Malta, Aline Amenencia de Souza, Vander Silva Alves, Sandra da Silva Silveira, Maria Raquel Marçal Natali, Jean Carlos Fernando Besson, Hely de Morais, Helenir Medri de Souza, Juliane Rocha de Sant Anna, Marialba Avezum Alves de Castro Prado, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The sulphonylurea glibenclamide (Gli) is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition to its antidiabetic effects, low incidences of certain types of cancer have been observed in Gli-treated diabetic patients. However, the mechanisms underlying this observation remain unclear. The aim of the present work was to evaluate whether obese adult rats that were chronically treated with an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide, exhibit resistance to rodent breast carcinoma growth...
May 11, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528298/emerging-role-of-monoamine-oxidase-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-cardiovascular-disease
#18
REVIEW
Soni Deshwal, Moises Di Sante, Fabio Di Lisa, Nina Kaludercic
In the past decade, accumulating evidence highlighted the role of monoamine oxidases (MAOs) in cardiovascular disease (CVD). MAOs are flavoenzymes located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, responsible for the degradation of neurotransmitters and biogenic amines. During this process they generate hydrogen peroxide, aldehydes and ammonia, species that can target mitochondria and induce mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte death. Indeed, MAO inhibition affords cardioprotection in several models of CVD, such as ischemia/reperfusion, heart failure and diabetes...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528076/systematic-review-can-non-mydriatic-cameras-accurately-detect-diabetic-retinopathy
#19
REVIEW
Chloe Bedard, Siying Sherry Liu, Christopher Patterson, Hertzel Gerstein, Lauren Griffith
AIMS: Diabetes puts many individuals at risk for developing diabetic retinopathy (DR). Non-mydriatic (NM) retinal photography without pharmacological pupil dilation can be used to detect DR, however, its value in a general clinical setting has not been established. The objective of this review is to evaluate the validity of NM retinal photos, as compared to the reference standard of seven standard stereoscopic 30 degree field photographs (7SF), for their use of detecting DR in community-dwelling adults...
May 10, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527578/tr2-and-tr4-orphan-nuclear-receptors-an-overview
#20
Shin-Jen Lin, Dong-Rong Yang, Guosheng Yang, Chang-Yi Lin, Hong-Chiang Chang, Gonghui Li, Chawnshang Chang
Testicular nuclear receptors 2 and 4 (TR2, TR4), also known as NR2C1 and NR2C2, belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily and were first cloned in 1989 and 1994, respectively. Although classified as orphan receptors, several natural molecules, their metabolites, and synthetic compounds including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), PUFA metabolites 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and the antidiabetic drug thiazolidinediones can transactivate TR4. Importantly, many of these ligands/activators can also transactivate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), also known as NR1C3 nuclear receptor...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
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