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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346858/circulating-soluble-il-6-receptor-concentration-and-visceral-adipocyte-size-are-related-to-insulin-resistance-in-taiwanese-adults-with-morbid-obesity
#1
Feng-Chih Kuo, Ya-Hsien Huang, Fu-Huang Lin, Yi-Jen Hung, Chang-Hsun Hsieh, Chieh-Hua Lu, Sheng-Chiang Su, Chia-Luen Huang, Chien-Hsing Lee, Nain-Feng Chu
BACKGROUND: Morbid obesity is related to chronic inflammation and many metabolic complications. Interleukin (IL)-6 plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in obesity, and IL-6 trans-signaling through the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) has a major proinflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sIL-6R, adipocyte size, and insulin resistance in morbidly obese individuals. METHODS: We measured concentrations of sIL-6R, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and lipid parameters and estimated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) before the patients underwent bariatric surgery...
March 27, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346545/aqueous-cytokine-levels-are-associated-with-reduced-macular-thickness-after-intravitreal-ranibizumab-for-diabetic-macular-edema
#2
Tomoyasu Shiraya, Satoshi Kato, Fumiyuki Araki, Takashi Ueta, Tempei Miyaji, Takuhiro Yamaguchi
PURPOSE: It is controversial whether the administration of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs for diabetic macular edema (DME) affects intraocular inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we measured cytokine concentration in aqueous humor before and after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR). The aim was to determine changes in cytokine concentration and their effects on DME reduction. METHODS: Twelve patients (13 eyes) with DME received two IVR (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346347/biosynthesis-of-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-by-a-newly-isolated-bacterium-paenibacillus-sp-tku042-and-its-effect-on-reducing-plasma-glucose-in-a-mouse-model
#3
Van Bon Nguyen, Anh Dzung Nguyen, Yao-Haur Kuo, San-Lang Wang
Paenibacillus sp. TKU042, a bacterium isolated from Taiwanese soil, produced α-glucosidase inhibitors (aGIs) in the culture supernatant when commercial nutrient broth (NB) was used as the medium for fermentation. The supernatant of fermented NB (FNB) showed stronger inhibitory activities than acarbose, a commercial anti-diabetic drug. The IC50 and maximum α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (aGIA) of FNB and acarbose against α-glucosidase were 81 μg/mL, 92% and 1395 μg/mL, 63%, respectively. FNB was found to be strongly thermostable, retaining 95% of its relative activity, even after heating at 100 °C for 30 min...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345916/molecular-mechanism-of-nucleotide-dependent-allosteric-regulation-in-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#4
Navjeet Ahalawat, Rajesh Kumar Murarka
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central enzyme in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is an important drug target for type 2 diabetes, obesity and cancer. Binding of adenosine nucleotides to the regulatory γ-subunit tightly regulates the activity of this enzyme. Though recent crystal structures of AMPK have provided important insights into the allosteric activation of AMPK, molecular details of the regulatory mechanism of AMPK activation is still elusive. Here, we have performed extensive all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and shown that the kinase domain (KD) and γ-subunit comes closer resulting in a more compact heterotrimeric AMPK complex in AMP-bound state compared to the ATP-bound state...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345792/adding-fast-acting-insulin-aspart-to-basal-insulin-significantly-improved-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomised-18-week-open-label-phase-3-trial-onset-3
#5
Helena W Rodbard, Devjit Tripathy, Maricela Vidrio Velázquez, Marek Demissie, Søren Can Tamer, Milivoj Piletič
AIM: To confirm glycaemic control superiority of mealtime fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) in a basal-bolus (BB) regimen versus basal-only insulin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, 18-week trial (51 sites; 6 countries) adults (n = 236) with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D; mean glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c ] ±SD: 7.9 ± 0.7% [63.1 ± 7.5 mmol/mol) receiving basal insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs underwent 8-week optimisation of prior once-daily basal insulins followed by randomisation 1:1 to a BB regimen with faster aspart (n = 116) or continuation of once-daily basal insulin (n = 120), both with metformin...
March 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345527/prevalence-and-factors-promoting-the-occurrence-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-the-elderly
#6
Magdalena Wyskida, Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis, Jerzy Chudek
Vitamin D deficiency affects a large part of the population of elderly people, especially women, who live in moderate climate countries due to a reduced amount of vitamin D in the diet (small sea fish consumption) and reduced content of 7-dehydrocholesterol, which causes decreased skin synthesis. The lowest seasonal concentration of 25(OH)D3 is usually observed during winter and spring. Sun exposure influences 25(OH)D3 concentration more strongly in men than in women. Sociodemographic factors that increase the risk of vitamin D deficiency in the elderly include poor environmental conditions, low economic status, lower educational level, drug exposure (smoking), reduced physical activity, overall poor health and obesity, which causes reduced skin exposure to sunlight...
March 13, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345434/effect-of-diabetes-treatment-related-attributes-on-costs-to-type-2-diabetes-patients-in-a-real-world-population
#7
Jie Meng, Roman Casciano, Yi-Chien Lee, Lee Stern, Dmitry Gultyaev, Liyue Tong, Brice Kitio-Dschassi
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results in a substantial economic burden on patients, health care systems, and society. Most literature assessing the cost of T2DM focuses on the long-term complications of the disease, the association between glucose control and cost, and patient characteristics resulting in poor and costly outcomes. However, it is likely that attributes specific to diabetes therapy can affect the use of costly resources. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of diabetes treatment-related attributes, such as improved efficacy, adherence, and reduced risk for hypoglycemia, on costs to T2DM patients...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345030/wearable-disposable-sweat-based-glucose-monitoring-device-with-multistage-transdermal-drug-delivery-module
#8
Hyunjae Lee, Changyeong Song, Yong Seok Hong, Min Sung Kim, Hye Rim Cho, Taegyu Kang, Kwangsoo Shin, Seung Hong Choi, Taeghwan Hyeon, Dae-Hyeong Kim
Electrochemical analysis of sweat using soft bioelectronics on human skin provides a new route for noninvasive glucose monitoring without painful blood collection. However, sweat-based glucose sensing still faces many challenges, such as difficulty in sweat collection, activity variation of glucose oxidase due to lactic acid secretion and ambient temperature changes, and delamination of the enzyme when exposed to mechanical friction and skin deformation. Precise point-of-care therapy in response to the measured glucose levels is still very challenging...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344753/statin-testosterone-and-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitor-treatments-and-age-related-mortality-in-diabetes
#9
Geoffrey Hackett, Peter W Jones, Richard C Strange, Sudarshan Ramachandran
AIM: To determine how statins, testosterone (T) replacement therapy (TRT) and phosphodiesterase 5-inhibitors (PDE5I) influence age related mortality in diabetic men. METHODS: We studied 857 diabetic men screened for the BLAST study, stratifying them (mean follow-up = 3.8 years) into: (1) Normal T levels/untreated (total T > 12 nmol/L and free T > 0.25 nmol/L), Low T/untreated and Low T/treated; (2) PDE5I/untreated and PDE5I/treated; and (3) statin/untreated and statin/treated groups...
March 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344668/diabetes-and-bone-health-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Vikram Sundararaghavan, Matthew M Mazur, Brad Evans, Jiayong Liu, Nabil A Ebraheim
As the prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide, research on some of the lesser-known effects, including impaired bone health, are gaining a lot of attention. The two most common forms of diabetes are type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These two differ in their physiology, with T1DM stemming from an inability to produce insulin, and T2DM involving an insufficient response to the insulin that is produced. This review aims to highlight the most current information regarding diabetes as it relates to bone health...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344207/dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibition-for-the-treatment-of-cardiovascular-disease%C3%A3-recent-insights-focusing-on-angiogenesis-and-neovascularization
#11
Yanna Lei, Lina Hu, Guang Yang, Limei Piao, Minggen Jin, Xianwu Cheng
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a complex enzyme that acts as a membrane-anchored cell surface exopeptidase and transmits intracellular signals through a small intracellular tail. DPP-IV exists in human blood in a soluble form, and truncates a large number of peptide hormones, chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors in vitro and in vivo. DPP-IV has gained considerable interest as a therapeutic target, and a variety of DPP-IV inhibitors that prolong the insulinotropic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are widely used in clinical settings as antidiabetic drugs...
March 25, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344112/efficacy-and-safety-of-once-weekly-semaglutide-versus-once-daily-insulin-glargine-as-add-on-to-metformin-with-or-without-sulfonylureas-in-insulin-naive-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-sustain-4-a-randomised-open-label-parallel-group-multicentre-multinational
#12
Vanita R Aroda, Stephen C Bain, Bertrand Cariou, Milivoj Piletič, Ludger Rose, Mads Axelsen, Everton Rowe, J Hans DeVries
BACKGROUND: Several pharmacological treatment options are available for type 2 diabetes; however, many patients do not achieve optimum glycaemic control and therefore new therapies are necessary. We assessed the efficacy and safety of semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue in clinical development, compared with insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes who were inadequately controlled with metformin (with or without sulfonylureas). METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority, parallel-group, multicentre, multinational, phase 3a trial (SUSTAIN 4) at 196 sites in 14 countries...
March 23, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344053/reduced-cancer-mortality-at-high-altitude-the-role-of-glucose-lipids-iron-and-physical-activity
#13
M Thiersch, E R Swenson, T Haider, M Gassmann
Residency at high altitude (HA) demands adaptation to challenging environmental conditions with hypobaric hypoxia being the most important one. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that chronic exposure to HA reduces cancer mortality and lowers prevalence of metabolic disorders like diabetes and obesity implying that adaption to HA modifies a broad spectrum of physiological, metabolic and cellular programs with a generally beneficial outcome for humans. However, the complexity of multiple, potentially tumor-suppressive pathways at HA impedes the understanding of mechanisms leading to reduced cancer mortality...
March 23, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343901/gper-blockers-as-nox-downregulators-a-new-drug-class-to-target-chronic-non-communicable-diseases
#14
Matthias R Meyer, Matthias Barton
Oxidative stress is a hallmark of chronic non-communicable diseases such as arterial hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke. Cardiovascular diseases are characterized by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NAPDH oxidase 1 (Nox1) and additional Nox isoforms among other sources. Activation of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) can mediate multiple salutary effects on the cardiovascular system. However, GPER also has constitutive activity, e.g. in the absence of specific agonists, that was recently shown to promote hypertension and aging-induced tissue damage by enabling Nox1-derived production of ROS...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343613/effects-of-the-use-of-growth-hormone-in-children-and-adolescents-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-a-systematic-review
#15
Renan Bazuco Frittoli, Barbara Sugui Longui, Amanda Meireles Silva, Antônio de Azevedo Barros Filho, Maria Ângela Reis de Góes Monteiro, Simone Appenzeller
INTRODUCTION: Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) often have impaired growth and short stature. There is evidence that the therapeutic use of growth hormone (GH) is useful and safe in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of GH use in patients with JIA. METHOD: A systematic review of the literature over the last 18 years in Medline and Embase databases. The criteria were analyzed independently by the researchers. We used the following keywords: "growth hormone", "arthritis, juvenile", "arthritis, rheumatoid", "child" and "adolescent"...
March 2017: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343125/structural-modeling-of-human-organic-cation-transporters
#16
Tikam Chand Dakal, Rajender Kumar, Dindial Ramotar
Human organic cation transporters (hOCTs) belong to solute carriers (SLC) 22 family of membrane proteins that play a central role in transportation of chemotherapeutic drugs for several clinical and pathological conditions, including cancer and diabetes. These transporters mediate drug transport; however, the precise mechanism of drug-binding and transport by them is not fully uncovered yet, partly due to unavailability of any crystal structure record. In this work, we performed a multi-phasic approach to compute the 3D structural models of seven human organic cation transporters (hOCTs) starting from primary protein sequence...
March 18, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342850/structural-basis-for-differential-activities-of-enantiomeric-ppar%C3%AE-agonists-binding-of-s35-to-the-alternate-site
#17
Jun Young Jang, Minseob Koh, Hwan Bae, Doo Ri An, Ha Na Im, Hyoun Sook Kim, Ji Young Yoon, Hye-Jin Yoon, Byung Woo Han, Seung Bum Park, Se Won Suh
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. It functions as a ligand-activated transcription factor and plays important roles in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inflammation. Many PPARγ agonists bind to the canonical ligand-binding pocket near the activation function-2 (AF-2) helix (i.e., helix H12) of the ligand-binding domain (LBD). More recently, an alternate ligand-binding site was identified in PPARγ LBD; it is located beside the Ω loop between the helices H2' and H3...
March 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342822/antiplatelet-activity-of-drugs-used-in-hypertension-dislipidemie-and-diabetes-additional-benefit-in-cardiovascular-diseases-prevention
#18
REVIEW
Cesar Sepúlveda, Iván Palomo, Eduardo Fuentes
Beyond its function in hemostasis, platelets activation has an important role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) development. There are different clinical conditions that can mediate abnormal platelet activation and favors pathological thrombosis and CVD. These include Hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia, all risks factors from CVD development. Different drugs employed in the handled of these conditions have showed decreases platelet activation and related markers. This effect is in part by improved the base condition; however someone of these drugs can modulate platelet targets...
March 22, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342735/inhibition-of-effector-antigen-specific-t-cells-by-intradermal-administration-of-heme-oxygenase-1-inducers
#19
Thomas Simon, Julien Pogu, Séverine Rémy, Frédéric Brau, Sylvie Pogu, Maud Maquigneau, Jean-François Fonteneau, Nicolas Poirier, Bernard Vanhove, Gilles Blancho, Eliane Piaggio, Ignacio Anegon, Philippe Blancou
Developing protocols aimed at inhibiting effector T cells would be key for the treatment of T cell-dependent autoimmune diseases including type 1 autoimmune diabetes (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS). While heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducers are clinically approved drugs for non-immune-related diseases, they do have immunosuppressive properties when administered systemically in rodents. Here we show that HO-1 inducers inhibit antigen-specific effector T cells when injected intradermally together with the T cell cognate antigens in mice...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342563/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-treatment-patterns-across-europe-a-population-based-multi-database-study
#20
Jetty A Overbeek, Edith M Heintjes, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Patrick Blin, Régis Lassalle, Gillian C Hall, Francesco Lapi, Elisa Bianchini, Niklas Hammar, Irene D Bezemer, Ron M C Herings
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the similarities and differences of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment patterns in daily practice in 5 European countries and whether these reflect differences in guidelines. METHODS: Prescriptions for drugs used in diabetes treatment during a 5-year study period were obtained from electronic databases. Patients initiating T2DM treatment during the study period were included. An SAS analysis tool was developed to create episodes of use of drug classes, which resulted in treatment patterns...
March 22, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
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