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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911399/tools-to-study-the-role-of-architectural-protein-hmgb1-in-the-processing-of-helix-distorting-site-specific-dna-interstrand-crosslinks
#1
Anirban Mukherjee, Karen M Vasquez
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a non-histone architectural protein that is involved in regulating many important functions in the genome, such as transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair. HMGB1 binds to structurally distorted DNA with higher affinity than to canonical B-DNA. For example, we found that HMGB1 binds to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), which covalently link the two strands of the DNA, cause distortion of the helix, and if left unrepaired can cause cell death. Due to their cytotoxic potential, several ICL-inducing agents are currently used as chemotherapeutic agents in the clinic...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910992/tug-of-war-between-two-elastically-coupled-molecular-motors-a-case-study-on-force-generation-and-force-balance
#2
Mehmet Can Uçar, Reinhard Lipowsky
Intracellular transport is performed by molecular motors that pull cargos along cytoskeletal filaments. Many cellular cargos are observed to move bidirectionally, with fast transport in both directions. This behaviour can be understood as a stochastic tug-of-war between two teams of antagonistic motors. The first theoretical model for such a tug-of-war, the Müller-Klumpp-Lipowsky (MKL) model, was based on two simplifying assumptions: (i) both motor teams move with the same velocity in the direction of the stronger team, and (ii) this velocity matching and the associated force balance arise immediately after the rebinding of an unbound motor to the filament...
December 2, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910963/daratumumab-monoclonal-antibody-therapy-to-treat-multiple-myeloma
#3
C Xia, M Ribeiro, S Scott, S Lonial
Daratumumab (Darzalex[TM]) is a human monoclonal antibody (MAb) that targets CD38; a surface protein highly expressed across multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Preclinical studies have shown daratumumab induces MM cell death through several mechanisms, including complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), apoptosis upon secondary crosslinking and immunomodulatory effects via a decrease in immune suppressive cells. Daratumumab has a favorable toxicity profile and encouraging clinical activity as a single agent and in combination with lenalidomide in heavily pretreated, relapsed patients in whom other novel agents (such as bortezomib, thalidomide and lenalidomide) and stem cell transplant have already failed...
October 2016: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909638/four-rod-instrumentation-for-treatment-of-charcot-spinal-arthropathy-causing-autonomic-dysreflexia-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Stephanie Zyck, Gentian Toshkezi, John Pizzuti, Satya Marawar
Late complications of spinal cord injury can include Charcot arthropathy, in which spinal instability occurs as a result of repetitive trauma in the insensate spine. In rare cases, this can present as autonomic dysreflexia. We present the case of a 60-year-old man with longstanding C6 quadriplegia who presented with six months of hypertension, diaphoresis and dizziness. After an extensive workup, the patient's symptoms were attributed to autonomic dysreflexia in the setting of spinal instability from Charcot spinal arthropathy...
October 27, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909121/the-rate-of-wear-of-second-generation-highly-crosslinked-polyethylene-liners-five-years-post-operatively-does-not-increase-if-large-femoral-heads-are-used
#5
S A Callary, J R Field, D G Campbell
AIMS: The increased in vivo resistance to wear of highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has led to an increased use of larger articulations which have been shown to reduce the incidence of early dislocation. To date, there are few reports of the wear of larger articulations using second generation HXLPE liners. Our prospective cohort study measured the bedding-in and early wear of large (36 mm and 40 mm diameter) articulations involving a second generation X3 HXLPE liner and compared our findings with previous clinical and in vitro studies of the same material...
December 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908496/mixed-mode-acrylamide-based-continuous-beds-bearing-tert-butyl-groups-for-capillary-electrochromatography-synthesized-via-complexation-of-n-tert-butylacrylamide-with-a-water-soluble-cyclodextrin-part-i-retention-properties
#6
Ayat Allah Al-Massaedh, Ute Pyell
With the aim to improve the understanding of morphology and efficiency properties, we investigate in this series the impact of the complex formation constant of the hydrophobic monomer with respect to statistically methylated-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD) on the electrochromatographic properties of highly crosslinked amphiphilic mixed-mode acrylamide-based monolithic stationary phases. Based on our previous work on amphiphilic mixed-mode monolithic stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) using N-(1-adamantyl)acrylamide (Ad-AAm) as hydrophobic monomer that forms an extremely strong water-soluble inclusion complex with Me-β-CD, we now selected N-tert-butylacrylamide (NTBA) as hydrophobic monomer forming an inclusion complex with Me-β-CD with a much lower value of the formation constant...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905610/dendritic-polyglycerol-and-n-isopropylacrylamide-based-thermoresponsive-nanogels-as-smart-carriers-for-controlled-delivery-of-drugs-through-the-hair-follicle
#7
Fitsum Feleke Sahle, Michael Giulbudagian, Julian Bergueiro, Jürgen Lademann, Marcelo Calderón
Nanoparticles with a size of several hundred nanometers can effectively penetrate into the hair follicles and may serve as depots for controlled drug delivery. However, they can neither overcome the hair follicle barrier to reach the viable cells nor release the loaded drug adequately. On the other hand, small drug molecules cannot penetrate deep into the hair follicles. Thus, the most efficient way for drug delivery through the follicular route is to employ nanoparticles that can release the drug close to the target structure upon exposure to some external or internal stimuli...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904965/chitosan-hydrogel-microspheres-an-effective-covalent-matrix-for-crosslinking-of-soluble-dextranase-to-increase-stability-and-recycling-efficiency
#8
Faiza Shahid, Afsheen Aman, Muhammad Asif Nawaz, Asad Karim, Shah Ali Ul Qader
Dextranase is a unique biocatalyst that has high specificity and stereo-selectivity towards a complex biopolymer known as dextran. Dextranase has wide industrial application, but most of the time harsh environmental conditions adversely affect the functionality and stability of the enzyme. To overcome this issue, a covalent cross-linking immobilization method was adapted in the current study utilizing a nontoxic and biocompatible matrix known as chitosan. Chitosan hydrogel microspheres were synthesized using chitosan which exhibited noteworthy physical and mechanical strength...
November 30, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904390/ascorbate-oxidase-based-amperometric-biosensor-for-l-ascorbic-acid-determination-in-beverages
#9
Gábor Csiffáry, Péter Fűtő, Nóra Adányi, Attila Kiss
A novel biosensor for l-ascorbic acid determination in different beverages was elaborated. The ascorbate oxidase enzyme (AAO) from Cucurbita sp., EC 1.10.3.3, was immobilized on a screen-printed carbon electrode with poly(ethylene glycol) (400) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) as a crosslinking agent. The standards and samples were measured first with a blank electrode. An inert protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was immobilized on the surface of this electrode with PEGDGE. The BSA mass was equivalent to the mass of 10 U of AAO enzyme immobilized on the electrodes (0...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902860/genetic-and-biochemical-interactions-between-the-bacterial-replication-initiator-dnaa-and-the-nucleoid-associated-protein-rok-in-bacillus-subtilis
#10
Charlotte A Seid, Janet L Smith, Alan D Grossman
We identified interactions between the conserved bacterial replication initiator and transcription factor DnaA and the nucleoid-associated protein Rok of Bacillus subtilis. DnaA binds directly to clusters of DnaA boxes at the origin of replication and elsewhere, including the promoters of several DnaA-regulated genes. Rok, an analog of H-NS from gamma-proteobacteria that affects chromosome architecture and Lsr2 from Mycobacteria, binds A+T-rich sequences throughout the genome and represses expression of many genes...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902441/biosynthesis-of-selenate-reductase-in-salmonella-enterica-critical-roles-for-the-signal-peptide-and-dmsd
#11
Katherine Connelly, Calum Stevenson, Holger Kneuper, Frank Sargent
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a Gram negative bacterium with a flexible respiratory capability. Under anaerobic conditions, S. enterica can utilise a range of terminal electron acceptors to sustain respiratory electron transport chains, including the potentially toxic compound selenate. The S. enterica selenate reductase is a membrane-bound enzyme encoded by the ynfEFGH-dmsD operon. The active enzyme is predicted to comprise at least three subunits where YnfE is a molybdenum-containing catalytic subunit...
October 20, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901170/bilayer-hydrogel-actuators-with-tight-interfacial-adhesion-fully-constructed-from-natural-polysaccharides
#12
Jiangjiang Duan, Xichao Liang, Kunkun Zhu, Jinhua Guo, Lina Zhang
Smart hydrogel actuators with excellent biocompatibility and biodegradation are extremely desired for biomedical applications. Herein, we have constructed bio-hydrogel actuators inspired by the bilayer structures of plant organs from chitosan and cellulose/carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution in an alkali/urea aqueous system containing epichlorohydrin (ECH) as a crosslinker, and demonstrated tight adhesion between two layers through strong electrostatic attraction and chemical crosslinking. The bilayer hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties could carry out rapid, reversible, and repeated self-rolling deformation actuated by pH-triggered swelling/deswelling, and transformed into rings, tubules, and flower-, helix-, bamboo-, and wave-like shapes by effectively designing the geometric shape and size...
November 30, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901139/the-structure-and-volume-phase-transition-behavior-of-poly-n-vinylcaprolactam-based-hybrid-microgels-containing-carbon-nanodots
#13
Wenhui Sun, Peiyi Wu
In this paper, we investigated the internal structure and the volume phase transition (VPT) behavior of poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-vinylimidazole)/polymerizable carbon nanodot (P(VCL-co-VIM)/PCND) microgels with different amounts of PCNDs. Our study shows that compared to the pure P(VCL-co-VIM) microgel, the hybrid microgels undergo a two-step VPT as the temperature increases and a core-shell(-corona) structure of the hybrid microgels is formed by copolymerization with PCNDs. A change in the amount of PCNDs has effects on both of the volume phase transition temperature and internal structure of microgels...
November 30, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901092/a-microfluidic-platform-to-design-crosslinked-hyaluronic-acid-nanoparticles-chanps-for-enhanced-mri
#14
Maria Russo, Paolo Bevilacqua, Paolo Antonio Netti, Enza Torino
Recent advancements in imaging diagnostics have focused on the use of nanostructures that entrap Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Contrast Agents (CAs), without the need to chemically modify the clinically approved compounds. Nevertheless, the exploitation of microfluidic platforms for their controlled and continuous production is still missing. Here, a microfluidic platform is used to synthesize crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid NanoParticles (cHANPs) in which a clinically relevant MRI-CAs, gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA), is entrapped...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899371/refractive-improvements-and-safety-with-topography-guided-corneal-crosslinking-for-keratoconus-1-year-results
#15
Maria Nordström, Maria Schiller, Anneli Fredriksson, Anders Behndig
PURPOSE: To assess the refractive improvements and the corneal endothelial safety of an individualised topography-guided regimen for corneal crosslinking in progressive keratoconus. METHODS: An open-label prospective randomised clinical trial was performed at the Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden. Thirty-seven patients (50 eyes) with progressive keratoconus planned for corneal crosslinking were included. The patients were randomised to topography-guided crosslinking (photorefractive intrastromal crosslinking (PiXL); n=25) or uniform 9 mm crosslinking (corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL); n=25)...
November 29, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897156/quantitative-evaluation-of-the-mechanical-risks-caused-by-focal-cartilage-defects-in-the-knee
#16
Mikko S Venäläinen, Mika E Mononen, Jari Salo, Lasse P Räsänen, Jukka S Jurvelin, Juha Töyräs, Tuomas Virén, Rami K Korhonen
Focal cartilage lesions can proceed to severe osteoarthritis or remain unaltered even for years. A method to identify high risk defects would be of utmost importance to guide clinical decision making and to identify the patients that are at the highest risk for the onset and progression of osteoarthritis. Based on cone beam computed tomography arthrography, we present a novel computational model for evaluating changes in local mechanical responses around cartilage defects. Our model, based on data obtained from a human knee in vivo, demonstrated that the most substantial alterations around the defect, as compared to the intact tissue, were observed in minimum principal (compressive) strains and shear strains...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895899/oxidatively-degradable-poly-thioketal-urethane-ceramic-composite-bone-cements-with-bone-like-strength
#17
Madison A P McEnery, Sichang Lu, Mukesh K Gupta, Katarzyna J Zienkiewicz, Joseph C Wenke, Kerem N Kalpakci, Daniel Shimko, Craig L Duvall, Scott A Guelcher
Synthetic bone cements are commonly used in orthopaedic procedures to aid in bone regeneration following trauma or disease. Polymeric cements like PMMA provide the mechanical strength necessary for orthopaedic applications, but they are not resorbable and do not integrate with host bone. Ceramic cements have a chemical composition similar to that of bone, but their brittle mechanical properties limit their use in weight-bearing applications. In this study, we designed oxidatively degradable, polymeric bone cements with mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering applications...
2016: RSC Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895888/in-situ-formation-of-poly-vinyl-alcohol-heparin-hydrogels-for-mild-encapsulation-and-prolonged-release-of-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor
#18
Justine J Roberts, Brooke L Farrugia, Rylie A Green, Jelena Rnjak-Kovacina, Penny J Martens
Heparin-based hydrogels are attractive for controlled growth factor delivery, due to the native ability of heparin to bind and stabilize growth factors. Basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are heparin-binding growth factors that synergistically enhance angiogenesis. Mild, in situ encapsulation of both basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor and subsequent bioactive dual release has not been demonstrated from heparin-crosslinked hydrogels, and the combined long-term delivery of both growth factors from biomaterials is still a major challenge...
January 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894692/the-ex-vivo-l-cbmn-assay-detects-significant-human-exposure-to-butadiene
#19
REVIEW
Claudia Bolognesi, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
1,3-Butadiene (BD), an important industrial chemical used in the production of synthetic rubber and resins and a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, was classified as a human carcinogen by IARC. BD requires metabolic activation to different epoxides that are known to bind to DNA, inducing also DNA-DNA and DNA-protein crosslinks. The DNA damage leading to mutations has been identified as the mode of action of BD. Experimental studies in rodents revealed widely different BD carcinogenic/mutagenic potency in rat and mice, associated to differences in BD metabolism...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892797/nek8-regulates-dna-damage-induced-rad51-foci-formation-and-replication-fork-protection
#20
Antonio Abeyta, Maria Castella, Celine Jacquemont, Toshiyasu Taniguchi
Proteins essential for homologous recombination play a pivotal role in the repair of DNA double strand breaks, DNA inter-strand crosslinks and replication fork stability. Defects in homologous recombination also play a critical role in the development of cancer and the sensitivity of these cancers to chemotherapy. RAD51, an essential factor for homologous recombination and replication fork protection, accumulates and forms immunocytochemically detectable nuclear foci at sites of DNA damage. To identify kinases that may regulate RAD51 localization to sites of DNA damage, we performed a human kinome siRNA library screen, using DNA damage-induced RAD51 foci formation as readout...
November 28, 2016: Cell Cycle
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