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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449543/nanoporous-cyanate-ester-resins-structure-gas-transport-property-relationships
#1
Kristina Gusakova, Alexander Fainleib, Eliane Espuche, Olga Grigoryeva, Olga Starostenko, Fabrice Gouanve, Gisèle Boiteux, Jean-Marc Saiter, Daniel Grande
This contribution addresses the relationships between the structure and gas transport properties of nanoporous thermostable cyanate ester resins (CERs) derived from polycyclotrimerization of 1,1'-bis(4-cyanatophenyl)ethane in the presence of 30 or 50 wt% of inert high-boiling temperature porogens (i.e., dimethyl- or dibutyl phthalates), followed by their quantitative removal. The nanopores in the films obtained were generated via a chemically induced phase separation route with further porogen extraction from the densely crosslinked CERs...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449067/using-high-throughput-barcode-sequencing-to-efficiently-map-connectomes
#2
Ian D Peikon, Justus M Kebschull, Vasily V Vagin, Diana I Ravens, Yu-Chi Sun, Eric Brouzes, Ivan R Corrêa, Dario Bressan, Anthony M Zador
The function of a neural circuit is determined by the details of its synaptic connections. At present, the only available method for determining a neural wiring diagram with single synapse precision-a 'connectome'-is based on imaging methods that are slow, labor-intensive and expensive. Here, we present SYNseq, a method for converting the connectome into a form that can exploit the speed and low cost of modern high-throughput DNA sequencing. In SYNseq, each neuron is labeled with a unique random nucleotide sequence-an RNA 'barcode'-which is targeted to the synapse using engineered proteins...
April 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449042/long-noncoding-rna-a-crosslink-in-biological-regulatory-network
#3
Yuwei Zhang, Yang Tao, Qi Liao
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) had been defined as a novel class of functional RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides around a decade ago. It is widely acknowledged that lncRNAs play a significant role in regulation of gene expression, but the biological and molecular mechanisms are diverse and complex, and remain to be determined. Especially, the regulatory network of lncRNAs associated with other biological molecules is still a controversial matter, thus becoming a new frontier of the studies on transcriptome. Recent advance in high-throughput sequencing technologies and bioinformatics approaches may be an accelerator to lift the mysterious veil...
April 24, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448715/acyl-carrier-protein-cyanylation-delivers-a-ketoacyl-synthase-carrier-protein-crosslink
#4
Grace Thiele, Conne Friedman, Kathleen Tsai, Joris Beld, Casey H Londergan, Louise K Charkoudian
Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) are central hubs in polyketide and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways, but the fast motions of the ACP's phosphosphopantetheine (Ppant) arm make its conformational dynamics difficult to capture using traditional spectroscopic approaches. Here we report that converting the terminal thiol of E. coli ACP's Ppant arm into a thiocyanate activates this site to form a selective crosslink with the active site cys-teine of its partner ketoacyl synthase (KS; FabF). The reaction releases a cyanide anion, which can be detected by infrared spectroscopy...
April 27, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448198/boronic-acids-as-tools-to-study-plant-developmental-processes
#5
Michaela Matthes, Ramón A Torres-Ruiz
Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for organisms. In plants, B is known to stabilise the cell wall by crosslinking Rhamnogalacturonan II through ester bonds formed with cis-diols of sugar moieties. However, B is believed to be required for additional functions such as stability and function of (plasma membrane) proteins involved in signal transduction pathways. We have recently shown that boronic acids, competitors of B, efficiently induce perfect phenocopies of monopteros mutants. This effect is enigmatic because like B, boronic acids should find numerous cellular targets and thus disturb many biological processes ending in a spectrum of unspecific embryo phenotypes...
April 27, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448131/silk-resin-with-hydrated-dual-chemical-physical-crosslinks-achieves-high-strength-and-toughness
#6
Keiji Numata, Nao Ifuku, Hiroyasu Masunaga, Takaaki Hikima, Takamasa Sakai
Native silk fibers are known to demonstrate excellent mechanical properties such as high strength and ductility. However, regenerated silk material has not yet been used as a tough structural material in our everyday life. To recreate the mechanical properties with regenerated silk material, the network structure and hydration state of silk materials are studied and optimized in this study. This is the first to demosntrate the effect of chemial and physical crosslinks in hydrated and dehydrated silk materials, namely, silk hydrogels and resins...
April 27, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448124/bioinspired-engineering-of-poly-ethylene-glycol-hydrogels-and-natural-protein-fibers-for-layered-heart-valve-constructs
#7
Qian Li, Yun Bai, Tao Jin, Shuo Wang, Wei Cui, Ilinca Stanciulescu, Rui Yang, Hemin Nie, Linshan Wang, Xing Zhang
Layered constructs from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels and chicken eggshell membranes (ESMs) are fabricated, which can be further crosslinked by glutaraldehyde (GA) to form GA-PEG-ESM composites. Our results indicate that ESMs composed of protein fibrous networks show elastic moduli ~3.3-5.0 MPa and elongation percentages ~47-56%, close to human heart valve leaflets. Finite element simulations reveal obvious stress concentration on a partial number of fibers in the GA-crosslinked ESM (GA-ESM) samples, which can be alleviated by efficient stress distribution among multiple layers of ESMs embedded in PEG hydrogels...
April 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448050/single-molecule-analysis-of-laser-localized-psoralen-adducts
#8
Jing Huang, Himabindu Gali, Julia Gichimu, Marina A Bellani, Durga Pokharel, Manikandan Paramasivam, Michael M Seidman
The DNA Damage Response (DDR) has been extensively characterized in studies of double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by laser micro beam irradiation in live cells. The DDR to helix distorting covalent DNA modifications, including interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs), is not as well defined. We have studied the DDR stimulated by ICLs, localized by laser photoactivation of immunotagged psoralens, in the nuclei of live cells. In order to address fundamental questions about adduct distribution and replication fork encounters, we combined laser localization with two other technologies...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448024/synthesis-of-hydrogels-with-antifouling-properties-as-membranes-for-water-purification
#9
Thien N Tran, Sankara N Ramanan, Haiqing Lin
Hydrogels have been widely utilized to enhance the surface hydrophilicity of membranes for water purification, increasing the antifouling properties and thus achieving stable water permeability through membranes over time. Here, we report a facile method to prepare hydrogels based on zwitterions for membrane applications. Freestanding films can be prepared from sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) with a crosslinker of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) via photopolymerization. The hydrogels can also be prepared by impregnation into hydrophobic porous supports to enhance the mechanical strength...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447989/fabrication-of-extracellular-matrix-derived-foams-and-microcarriers-as-tissue-specific-cell-culture-and-delivery-platforms
#10
Anna Kornmuller, Cody F C Brown, Claire Yu, Lauren E Flynn
Cell function is mediated by interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM), which has complex tissue-specific composition and architecture. The focus of this article is on the methods for fabricating ECM-derived porous foams and microcarriers for use as biologically-relevant substrates in advanced 3D in vitro cell culture models or as pro-regenerative scaffolds and cell delivery systems for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Using decellularized tissues or purified insoluble collagen as a starting material, the techniques can be applied to synthesize a broad array of tissue-specific bioscaffolds with customizable geometries...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445728/blocking-surgically-induced-lysyl-oxidase-activity-reduces-the-risk-of-lung-metastases
#11
Chen Rachman-Tzemah, Shelly Zaffryar-Eilot, Moran Grossman, Dario Ribero, Michael Timaner, Joni M Mäki, Johanna Myllyharju, Francesco Bertolini, Dov Hershkovitz, Irit Sagi, Peleg Hasson, Yuval Shaked
Surgery remains the most successful curative treatment for cancer. However, some patients with early-stage disease who undergo surgery eventually succumb to distant metastasis. Here, we show that in response to surgery, the lungs become more vulnerable to metastasis due to extracellular matrix remodeling. Mice that undergo surgery or that are preconditioned with plasma from donor mice that underwent surgery succumb to lung metastases earlier than controls. Increased lysyl oxidase (LOX) activity and expression, fibrillary collagen crosslinking, and focal adhesion signaling contribute to this effect, with the hypoxic surgical site serving as the source of LOX...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445035/characteristics-of-reduced-graphene-oxide-quantum-dots-for-a-flexible-memory-thin-film-transistor
#12
Yo-Han Kim, Eun Yeol Lee, Hyun Ho Lee, Tae Seok Seo
Reduced graphene oxide quantum dot (rGOQD) devices in formats of capacitor and thin film transistor (TFT) were demonstrated and examined as the first trial to achieve non-ambipolar channel property. In addition, through gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) layer embedded between the rGOQD active channel and dielectric layer, memory capacitor and TFT performances were realized by capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis and gate program, erase, and reprogram biases. First, capacitor structure of the rGOQD memory device was constructed to examine memory charging effect featured in hysteretic C-V behavior with a 30 nm dielectric layer of crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)...
April 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443925/the-effect-of-ligand-ligand-interactions-on-the-formation-of-photoluminescent-gold-nanoclusters-embedded-in-au-i-thiolate-supramolecules
#13
Hsiang-Yu Chang, Yu-Ting Tseng, Zhiqin Yuan, Hung-Lung Chou, Ching-Hsiang Chen, Bing-Joe Hwang, Meng-Che Tsai, Huan-Tsung Chang, Chih-Ching Huang
In this study, we prepared photoluminescent l-cysteine (Cys)-capped gold nanoclusters (Cys-Au NCs) via NaBH4-mediated reduction of aggregated coordination polymers (supramolecules) of -[Cys-Au(i)]n-. The -[Cys-Au(i)]n- supramolecules with interesting chiral properties were formed through simple reactions of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) with Cys at certain pH values (pH 3-7). The -[Cys-Au(i)]n- polymers could self-assemble into -[Cys-Au(i)]n- supramolecules with irregular morphologies and diameters larger than 500 nm through stacked hydrogen bonding and zwitterionic interactions between Cys ligands and through Au(i)Au(i) aurophilic interactions in solutions with pH values ≤7...
April 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443878/influence-of-high-energy-electron-irradiation-on-the-network-structure-of-gelatin-hydrogels-as-investigated-by-small-angle-x-ray-scattering-saxs
#14
Emilia I Wisotzki, Paolo Tempesti, Emiliano Fratini, Stefan G Mayr
The impact of high energy crosslinking on the network structure of gelatin hydrogels was investigated in comparison to physically entangled gels by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Physically entangled gelatin of increasing concentration exhibited a nearly constant correlation length of several nanometers. These gels had scattering behavior close to that of polymer coils swollen in a good solvent, as evidenced by the Porod exponent of 1.8. The mass fractal dimension decreased towards 1, indicating increased formation of semiflexible gelatin triple helices and rod-like structures as a function of the gelatin concentration...
April 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443850/selective-adsorption-of-carbohydrates-and-glycoproteins-via-molecularly-imprinted-hydrogels-application-to-visible-detection-by-a-boronic-acid-monomer
#15
Takuya Kubo, Hayato Furuta, Toyohiro Naito, Tomoharu Sano, Koji Otsuka
Selective adsorption of carbohydrates and glycoproteins was effectively achieved by molecularly imprinted hydrogels (MIHs) with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based crosslinker and 4-vinylphenylboronic acid. In addition, an MIH with a novel boronic acid monomer provided selective adsorption and enabled visible detection of fructose.
April 26, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442758/an-amidase_3-domain-containing-n-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine-amidase-is-required-for-mycobacterial-cell-division
#16
Sibusiso Senzani, Dong Li, Ashima Bhaskar, Christopher Ealand, James Chang, Binayak Rimal, Chengyin Liu, Sung Joon Kim, Neeraj Dhar, Bavesh Kana
Mycobacteria possess a multi-layered cell wall that requires extensive remodelling during cell division. We investigated the role of an amidase_3 domain-containing N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, a peptidoglycan remodelling enzyme implicated in cell division. We demonstrated that deletion of MSMEG_6281 (Ami1) in Mycobacterium smegmatis resulted in the formation of cellular chains, illustrative of cells that were unable to complete division. Suprisingly, viability in the Δami1 mutant was maintained through atypical lateral branching, the products of which proceeded to form viable daughter cells...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441880/a-three-dimensional-collagen-fiber-network-model-of-the-extracellular-matrix-for-the-simulation-of-the-mechanical-behaviors-and-micro-structures
#17
Shoubin Dong, Zetao Huang, Liqun Tang, Xiaoyang Zhang, Yongrou Zhang, Yi Jiang
The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structural and biochemical support to cells and tissues, which is a critical factor for modulating cell dynamic behavior and intercellular communication. In order to further understand the mechanisms of the interactive relationship between cell and the ECM, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) collagen-fiber network model to simulate the micro structure and mechanical behaviors of the ECM and studied the stress-strain relationship as well as the deformation of the ECM under tension...
April 26, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441503/robust-uniform-and-highly-emissive-quantum-dot-polymer-films-and-patterns-using-thiol-ene-chemistry
#18
Markus Smith, Sidney T Malak, Jaehan Jung, Young Jun Yoon, Chun Hao Lin, Sunghan Kim, Kyung Min Lee, Ruilong Ma, Timothy J White, Timothy J Bunning, Zhiqun Lin, Vladimir V Tsukruk
This work demonstrates a facile and versatile method for generating low scattering crosslinked quantum dots (QD)-polymer composite films and patterned highly emissive structures with ultra-high QD loading, minimal phase-separation, and tunable mechanical properties. Uniform QD-polymer films are fabricated using thiol-ene chemistry, in which cross-linked polymer networks are rapidly produced in ambient conditions via fast UV polymerization in bulk to suppress QD aggregation. UV-controlled thiol-ene chemistry limits phase separation through producing highly QD loaded crosslinked composites with loading rate above majority of those reported in literature (<1%) and approaching 30%...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441501/hooked-on-cryogels-a-carbamate-linker-based-depot-for-slow-drug-release
#19
Duygu Aydin, Mehmet Arslan, Amitav Sanyal, Rana Sanyal
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based bulk hydrogels and cryogels containing activated carbonate groups as amine reactive handles to facilitate drug conjugations through carbamate linkages were fabricated and evaluated as slow releasing drug reservoirs. As an initial approach, photopolymerization of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated carbonate functional group containing monomer and PEG-methacrylate in the presence of a crosslinker was utilized to obtain bulk hydrogels with high gel conversions. The resultant hydrogels possessed moderate water uptake (170-340 %) which was dependent on the monomer ratios...
April 25, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441009/bisazide-cyanine-dyes-as-fluorogenic-probes-for-bis-cyclooctynylated-peptide-tags-and-as-fluorogenic-crosslinkers-of-cyclooctynylated-proteins
#20
Orsolya Demeter, Attila Kormos, Christine Koehler, Gábor Mezõ, Krisztina Németh, Eszter Kozma, Levente Takacs, Edward A Lemke, Peter Kele
Herein we present the synthesis and fluorogenic characterization of a series of double-quenched bisazide cyanine probes with emission maxima between 565-580 nm that can participate in covalent, two-point binding bioorthogonal tagging schemes in combination with bis-cyclooctynylated peptides. Compared to other fluorogenic cyanines these double-quenched systems showed remarkable fluorescence intensity increase upon formation of cyclic dye-peptide conjugates. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that these bisazides are useful fluorogenic crosslinking platforms that are able to form a covalent linkage between monocyclooctynylated proteins...
April 25, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
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