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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912601/phf7-a-novel-male-gene-influences-female-fecundity-and-population-growth-in-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l-hemiptera-delphacidae
#1
Lin-Quan Ge, Ting Xia, Bo Huang, Hao-Tian Gu, Qi-Sheng Song, Guo-Qing Yang, Fang Liu, Jin-Cai Wu
PHF7 exhibits male-specific expression in early germ cells, germline stem cells and spermatogonia in insects, and its expression promotes spermatogenesis in germ cells when they are present in a male soma. However, the influence of male-specific PHF7 on female reproductive biology via mating remains unclear. Thus, we investigated the potential impacts of male PHF7, existed in seminal fluid of Nilaparvata lugens (NlPHF7), on fecundity and population growth via mating. Our results revealed that suppressing male NlPHF7 expression by RNAi led to decreases in body weight, soluble accessory gland protein content, arginine content, and reproductive organ development in males, resulting in significant reduction of oviposition periods and fecundity in females, and significant decrease in body weight, fat body and ovarian protein content, yeast-like symbionts abundance, ovarian development and vitellogenin gene expression in their female mating partners...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883837/role-of-the-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-in-regulating-the-behavior-of-germline-stem-cells
#2
REVIEW
Shiqin Li, Meng Wang, Yanghui Chen, Wei Wang, Junying Wu, Chengpeng Yu, Yuehui Zheng, Zezheng Pan
Germline stem cells (GSCs) are adult stem cells that are responsible for the production of gametes and include spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and ovarian germline stem cells (OGSCs). GSCs are located in a specialized microenvironment in the gonads called the niche. Many recent studies have demonstrated that multiple signals in the niche jointly regulate the proliferation and differentiation of GSCs, which is of significance for reproductive function. Previous studies have demonstrated that the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway participates in the proliferation and differentiation of various stem cells, including GSCs in Drosophila and male mammals...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853925/sex-determination-in-the-mammalian-germline
#3
Cassy Spiller, Peter Koopman, Josephine Bowles
Sexual reproduction crucially depends on the production of sperm in males and oocytes in females. Both types of gamete arise from the same precursor, the germ cells. We review the events that characterize the development of germ cells during fetal life as they commit to, and prepare for, oogenesis or spermatogenesis. In females, fetal germ cells enter meiosis, whereas in males they delay meiosis and instead lose pluripotency, activate an irreversible program of prospermatogonial differentiation, and temporarily cease dividing...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844904/germ-cell-cysts-and-simultaneous-sperm-and-oocyte-production-in-a-hermaphroditic-nematode
#4
Caitlin M McCaig, Xiaoxue Lin, Maureen Farrell, Kathryn Rehain-Bell, Diane C Shakes
Studies of gamete development in the self-fertile hermaphrodites of Caenorhabditis elegans have significantly contributed to our understanding of fundamental developmental mechanisms. However, evolutionary transitions from outcrossing males and females to self-fertile hermaphrodites have convergently evolved within multiple nematode sub-lineages, and whether the C. elegans pattern of self-fertile hermaphroditism and gamete development is representative remains largely unexplored. Here we describe a pattern of sperm production in the trioecious (male/female/hermaphrodite) nematode Rhabditis sp...
August 24, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841213/complete-in-vitro-oogenesis-retrospects-and-prospects
#5
REVIEW
Jun-Jie Wang, Wei Ge, Jing-Cai Liu, Francesca Gioia Klinger, Paul W Dyce, Massimo De Felici, Wei Shen
Precise control of mammalian oogenesis has been a traditional focus of reproductive and developmental biology research. Recently, new reports have introduced the possibility of obtaining functional gametes derived in vitro from stem cells. The potential to produce functional gametes from stem cells has exciting applications for regenerative medicine though still remains challenging. In mammalian females ovulation and fertilization is a privilege reserved for a small number of oocytes. In reality the vast majority of oocytes formed from primordial germ cells (PGCs) will undergo apoptosis, or other forms of cell death...
August 25, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840245/centromere-dynamics-in-male-and-female-germ-cells
#6
Elaine M Dunleavy, Caitríona M Collins
In sexually reproducing organisms the germ line is the cellular lineage that gives rise to gametes. All germ cells originate from germline stem cells that divide asymmetrically to generate gonial pre-cursors, which are amplified in number by mitotic divisions, undergo meiosis and eventually differentiate into mature gametes (haploid eggs and sperm). Information transmitted with gametes is inherited by offspring, and potentially by subsequent generations, instructing in organismal development and beyond. Meiosis comprises one round of DNA replication, followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation; homologous chromosomes segregate in the first division (meiosis I) and sister chromatids segregate in the second division (meiosis II)...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809393/ythdc2-is-an-n-6-methyladenosine-binding-protein-that-regulates-mammalian-spermatogenesis
#7
Phillip J Hsu, Yunfei Zhu, Honghui Ma, Yueshuai Guo, Xiaodan Shi, Yuanyuan Liu, Meijie Qi, Zhike Lu, Hailing Shi, Jianying Wang, Yiwei Cheng, Guanzheng Luo, Qing Dai, Mingxi Liu, Xuejiang Guo, Jiahao Sha, Bin Shen, Chuan He
N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most common internal modification in eukaryotic mRNA. It is dynamically installed and removed, and acts as a new layer of mRNA metabolism, regulating biological processes including stem cell pluripotency, cell differentiation, and energy homeostasis. m(6)A is recognized by selective binding proteins; YTHDF1 and YTHDF3 work in concert to affect the translation of m(6)A-containing mRNAs, YTHDF2 expedites mRNA decay, and YTHDC1 affects the nuclear processing of its targets. The biological function of YTHDC2, the final member of the YTH protein family, remains unknown...
September 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691729/in-vitro-differentiation-of-primordial-germ-cells-and-oocyte-like-cells-from-stem-cells
#8
REVIEW
José J N Costa, Glaucinete B Souza, Maria A A Soares, Regislane P Ribeiro, Robert van den Hurk, José R V Silva
Infertility is the result of failure due to an organic disorder of the reproductive organs, especially their gametes. Recently, much progress has been made on generating germ cells, including oocytes, from various types of stem cells. This review focuses on advances in female germ cell differentiation from different kinds of stem cells, with emphasis on embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. The advantages and disadvantages of the derivation of female germ cells from several types of stem cells are also highlighted, as well as the ability of stem cells to generate mature and functional female gametes...
July 10, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691222/the-morphology-of-the-male-reproductive-system-spermatogenesis-and-the-spermatozoon-of-daphnia-magna-crustacea-branchiopoda
#9
Maggie Wuerz, Erwin Huebner, Judith Huebner
This study analyses the histological and cellular morphology of the testis and sperm development in the male Daphnia magna Straus 1820. Due to the rarity of males and predominately parthenogenetic lifecycle of Daphnia, there has been limited detailed information on males in contrast to the well-studied female. Using light and electron microscopy approaches, we describe the morphology of the testis during the progression from an immature to mature testis. The testis has an encasing muscular mesh sheath outside the basal lamina, beneath which is a thin somatic epithelial cell layer...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669362/putative-germline-and-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-adult-mouse-ovary-and-their-in-vitro-differentiation-potential-into-oocyte-like-and-somatic-cells
#10
Yashar Esmaeilian, Arzu Atalay, Esra Erdemli
According to classical knowledge of reproductive biology, in the ovary of female mammals there is a limited number of oocytes and there is no possibility of renewal if the oocytes are lost due to disease or injury. However, in recent years, the results of some studies on renewal and formation of oocytes and follicles in the adult mammalian ovary have led to the questioning of this opinion. The aim of our study is to demonstrate the presence of putative germline and pluripotent stem cells in the adult mouse ovary and their differentiation potential into germ and somatic cells...
June 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582519/x-chromosome-inactivation-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-model-for-human-development-back-to-the-drawing-board
#11
Mieke Geens, Susana M Chuva De Sousa Lopes
BACKGROUND: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), both embryonic and induced (hESC and hiPSC), are regarded as a valuable in vitro model for early human development. In order to fulfil this promise, it is important that these cells mimic as closely as possible the in vivo molecular events, both at the genetic and epigenetic level. One of the most important epigenetic events during early human development is X chromosome inactivation (XCI), the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes in female cells...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555405/molecular-characterization-and-expression-profile-of-nanos-in-schistosoma-japonicum-and-its-influence-on-the-expression-several-mammalian-stem-cell-factors
#12
Bikash Ranjan Giri, Xiaoli Du, Tianqi Xia, Yongjun Chen, Hao Li, Guofeng Cheng
Pluripotent stem cells, called neoblasts, are well known for the regenerative capability and developmental plasticity in flatworms. Impressive advancement has been made in free-living flatworms, while in case of its parasitic counterpart, neoblast-like stem cells have attracted recent attention for its self-renewal and differentiation capacity. Nanos is a key conserved post-transcriptional regulator critical for the formation, development, and/or maintenance of the pluripotent germ line stem cell systems in many metazoans including schistosomes...
July 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508054/flexible-adaptation-of-male-germ-cells-from-female-ipscs-of-endangered-tokudaia-osimensis
#13
Arata Honda, Narantsog Choijookhuu, Haruna Izu, Yoshihiro Kawano, Mizuho Inokuchi, Kimiko Honsho, Ah-Reum Lee, Hiroki Nabekura, Hiroshi Ohta, Tomoyuki Tsukiyama, Yasuhide Ohinata, Asato Kuroiwa, Yoshitaka Hishikawa, Mitinori Saitou, Takamichi Jogahara, Chihiro Koshimoto
In mammals, the Y chromosome strictly influences the maintenance of male germ cells. Almost all mammalian species require genetic contributors to generate testes. An endangered species, Tokudaia osimensis, has a unique sex chromosome composition XO/XO, and genetic differences between males and females have not been confirmed. Although a distinctive sex-determining mechanism may exist in T. osimensis, it has been difficult to examine thoroughly in this rare animal species. To elucidate the discriminative sex-determining mechanism in T...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464323/ssm1b-expression-and-function-in-germ-cells-of-adult-mice-and-in-early-embryos
#14
Sarayu Ratnam, Grazyna Bozek, Terence Martin, Shannon J Gallagher, Christopher J Payne, Ursula Storb
Ssm1b (Strain-specific modifier of DNA methylation 1b) is a Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) zinc finger gene that promotes CpG methylation in the mouse transgene HRD (Heavy chain enhancer, rearrangement by deletion). We report here that Ssm1b expression and concomitant HRD methylation are also present in the male and female germ cells of adult mice. Ssm1b is expressed in both diploid (2N) and haploid (1N) oocytes, as well as in 1N spermatids and spermatozoa, but not in 2N spermatogonia. Interestingly, Ssm1b mRNA is not detected in any other adult mouse organ examined, although Ssm1-family mRNAs are highly expressed in the heart...
July 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463397/treatment-and-outcomes-of-uk-and-german-patients-with-relapsed-intracranial-germ-cell-tumors-following-uniform-first-line-therapy
#15
Matthew J Murray, Shivani Bailey, Katja Heinemann, Jillian Mann, Ulrich K Göbel, Frank Saran, Juliet P Hale, Gabriele Calaminus, James C Nicholson
We aimed to retrospectively assess treatments/outcomes, including the value of high-dose-chemotherapy and autologous-stem-cell-rescue (HDC + AuSCR) and re-irradiation, in a large, European patient-cohort with relapsed intracranial germ-cell-tumors (GCTs) receiving uniform first-line therapy, including radiotherapy as standard-of-care. Fifty-eight UK/German patients (48 male/10 female) with relapsed intracranial-GCTs [13 germinoma/45 non-germinomatous GCT (NGGCT)] treated 1996-2010 as per the SIOP-CNS-GCT-96 protocol were evaluated...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456466/constitutive-wnt-ctnnb1-activation-triggers-spermatogonial-stem-cell-proliferation-and-germ-cell-depletion
#16
Anne-Amandine Chassot, Morgane Le Rolle, Maxime Jourden, Maketo M Taketo, Norbert B Ghyselinck, Marie-Christine Chaboissier
The differentiation of germ cells into oogonia or spermatogonia is the first step that eventually gives rise to fully mature gametes. In the female fetal gonad, the RSPO1/WNT/CTNNB1 signalling pathway is involved in primordial germ cell proliferation and differentiation into female germ cells, which are able to enter meiosis. In the postnatal testis, the WNT/CTNNB1 pathway also mediates proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells and progenitor cells. Here we show that forced activation of the WNT/CTNNB1 pathway in fetal gonocytes using transgenic mice leads to deregulated spermatogonial proliferation, and exhaustion of the spermatocytes by apoptosis, resulting in a hypoplastic testis...
April 26, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413001/development-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-line-from-a-60year-old-female-patient-with-multiple-schwannoma
#17
Shaokun Zhang, Zhenshan Lv, Yan Liu, Qiao Li, Weiquan Gong, Lidi Liu, Hong Wu
Peripheral blood was collected from a clinically diagnosed 60-year old female patient with multiple schwannoma. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were reprogrammed with the Yamanaka KMOS reprogramming factors using the Sendai-virus reprogramming system. The transgene-free iPSC line showed pluripotency verified by immunofluorescent staining for pluripotency markers, and the iPSC line was able to differentiate into the 3 germ layers in vivo. The iPSC line also showed normal karyotype. This in vitro cellular model will be useful for further pathological studies of multiple schwannoma...
March 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404936/systematic-identification-and-comparison-of-expressed-profiles-of-lncrnas-and-circrnas-with-associated-co-expression-and-cerna-networks-in-mouse-germline-stem-cells
#18
Xiaoyong Li, Junping Ao, Ji Wu
Accumulating evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) involve in germ cell development. However, little is known about the functions and mechanisms of lncRNAs and circRNAs in self-renewal and differentiation of germline stem cells. Therefore, we explored the expression profiles of mRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs in male and female mouse germline stem cells by high-throughput sequencing. We identified 18573 novel lncRNAs and 18822 circRNAs in the germline stem cells and further confirmed the existence of these lncRNAs and circRNAs by RT-PCR...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395808/generation-of-non-integrated-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-a-59-year-old-female-with-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-1-syndrome
#19
Dongsheng Guo, Feima Wu, Haikun Liu, Ge Gao, Shanglong Kou, Fan Yang, Nasir Abbas, Tiancheng Zhou, Xiujuan Cai, Hui Zhang, Dajiang Qin, Jialiang Li, Kecheng Xu, Yin-Xiong Li
Urine resource cells were collected from a 59-year-old female patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) for generating iPS cells with episomal plasmids carrying Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and miR-302-367. The patient sustained a heterozygous G>T transition mutation on the exon 9 of Men1 gene that was confirmed by sequencing analysis on the obtained iPSC lines. Karyotyping indicated the chromosomes with normal appearances and numbers. Their pluripotency was demonstrated by gene expression, as well as their abilities for differentiating into three germ layers...
January 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395803/derivation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-line-with-lrrk2-gene-r1398h-variant-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Dongrui Ma, Murni Tio, Shin Hui Ng, Li Zeng, Christina Ying Yan Lim, Yi Zhao, Eng King Tan
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from a clinically diagnosed 72-year old female Parkinson's disease (PD) patient with R1398H variant in the LRRK2 gene. The PMBCs were reprogrammed with the human OSKM transcription factors using the Sendai-virus reprogramming system. The transgene-free iPSC showed pluripotency confirmed by immunofluorescent staining for pluripotency markers and differentiated into the 3 germ layers in vivo. The iPSC line also showed normal karyotype. This cellular model provides a good platform for studying the mechanism of PD, and also for drug testing and gene therapy studies...
January 2017: Stem Cell Research
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