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Rotavirus immune response

Ayaa S M Hashim, Khaled M A Aboshanab, Aly F M El-Sayed
There is a high demand for public immunization against Rotavirus (RV), especially in Africa. In Africa, the attenuated RV vaccination is contraindicated in patients with immune diseases and nutrition deficiency. Therefore, the inactivated RV vaccine (IRVV) could be an alternative. In this study, we aimed to develop a pentavalent-IRVV using the most circulating RV strains in Egypt and evaluate it against the commercially available Rotarix(®) vaccine. Trial-IRVV was developed with 5% sucrose, 2% polysorbate-80, and adsorbed on Alum to potentiate the vaccine immune response...
November 18, 2016: Viral Immunology
Sujit K Mohanty, Bryan Donnelly, Inna Lobeck, Ashley Walther, Phylicia Dupree, Abigail Coots, Jaroslaw Meller, Monica McNeal, Karol Sestak, Greg Tiao
: Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal obstructive cholangiopathy which progresses to end stage liver disease, often requiring transplantation. The murine model of BA, employing rhesus rotavirus (RRV), parallels human disease and has been used to elucidate mechanistic aspects of a virus induced biliary cholangiopathy. We previously reported that RRV VP4 gene plays an integral role in activating the immune system and induction of BA. Utilizing rotavirus binding and blocking assays, this study elucidated how RRV VP4 protein governs cholangiocyte susceptibility to infection both in vitro and in vivo in the murine model of BA...
November 17, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Rodrigo Locatelli Pedro Paulo, André Broggin Dutra Rodrigues, Beatriz Marcondes Machado, Alfredo Elias Gilio
Introduction: Acute diarrheal disease is the second cause of death in children under 5 years. In Brazil, from 2003 to 2009, acute diarrhea was responsible for nearly 100,000 hospital admissions per year and 4% of the deaths in children under 5 years. Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute diarrhea worldwide. In 2006, the rotavirus monovalent vaccine (RV1) was added to the Brazilian National Immunization Program. Objectives: To analyze the impact of the RV1 on emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions for acute diarrhea...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Katayi Mwila, Roma Chilengi, Michelo Simuyandi, Sallie R Permar, Sylvia Becker-Dreps
The role of maternal immunity received by infants either transplacentally or orally from breast milk on rotavirus vaccine (RV) performance is evaluated. Breast feeding withholding has no effect on vaccine response, but higher levels of transplacental rotavirus-specific IgG antibody contribute to reduced vaccine seroconversion. The gaps in knowledge on the factors associated with low RV efficacy in low and middle income countries (LMIC) remain and further research is needed to shed more light on these issues...
November 9, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Stanley L Block, Nicola P Klein, Kwabena Sarpong, Stephen Russell, John Fling, Maria Petrecz, Sheryl Flores, Jin Xu, Guanghan Liu, Jon E Stek, Ginamarie Foglia, Andrew W Lee
BACKGROUND: This multicenter Phase III study (NCT01340937) evaluated the consistency of immune responses to 3 separate lots of DTaP5-IPV-Hib-HepB, an investigational hexavalent vaccine (HV). METHODS: Healthy infants were randomized (2:2:2:1) to receive HV or Pentacel (Control). Groups 1, 2, and 3 received HV at 2, 4, and 6 months, and Control at 15 months. Group 4 received Control at 2, 4, 6, and 15 months, plus Recombivax HB (HepB) at 2 and 6 months. Concomitant Prevnar 13 (PCV13) was given to all groups at 2, 4, 6, and 15 months; pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) was given to all groups at 2, 4, and 6 months...
November 11, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Erica L Twitchell, Christine Tin, Ke Wen, Husen Zhang, Sylvia Becker-Dreps, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Samuel Vilchez, Guohua Li, Ashwin Ramesh, Mariah Weiss, Shaohua Lei, Tammy Bui, Xingdong Yang, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Lijuan Yuan
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccines have poor efficacy in infants from low- and middle-income countries. Gut microbiota is thought to influence the immune response to oral vaccines. Thus, we developed a gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of enteric dysbiosis to study the effects of human gut microbiota (HGM) on immune responses to rotavirus vaccination, and the effects of rotavirus challenge on the HGM by colonizing Gn pigs with healthy HGM (HHGM) or unhealthy HGM (UHGM). The UHGM was from a Nicaraguan infant with a high enteropathy score (ES) and no seroconversion following administration of oral rotavirus vaccine, while the converse was characteristic of the HHGM...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Yuhuan Wang, Anastasia Vlasova, Daniel E Velasquez, Linda J Saif, Sukumar Kandasamy, Efrat Kochba, Yotam Levin, Baoming Jiang
Live-attenuated oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines have lower efficacy in low income countries, and additionally are associated with a rare but severe adverse event, intussusception. We have been pursuing the development of an inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV) using the human rotavirus strain CDC-9 (G1P[8]) through parenteral immunization and previously demonstrated dose sparing and enhanced immunogenicity of intradermal (ID) unadjuvanted IRV using a coated microneedle patch in comparison with intramuscular (IM) administration in mice...
2016: PloS One
Swapnil Jain, Nutan Thakur, Jitendraa Vashistt, Neelam Grover, Triveni Krishnan, Harish Changotra
Group A Rotavirus remains the leading cause of gastroenteritis in children and accounts for 0.2 million fatalities each year; out of which, approximately 47,100 deaths occur in India. In adults also, rotavirus is reported to be responsible for diarrhea severe enough to require hospitalizations. India has recently introduced rotavirus vaccine in the Universal Immunization Programme and Himachal Pradesh became the first Indian state to implement this project. This study is an attempt to provide the pre-vaccination data on rotavirus gastroenteritis burden and circulating genotypes in Himachal Pradesh, India...
October 30, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Alasdair Bamford, Emma C Manno, Maria Jose Mellado, Vana Spoulou, Laura Marques, Henriette J Scherpbier, Tim Niehues, Agnieszka Oldakowska, Paolo Rossi, Paolo Palma
BACKGROUND: Current national immunisation schedules differ between countries in terms of vaccine formulation, timing of vaccinations and immunisation programme funding and co-ordination. As a result, some HIV infected paediatric population may be left susceptible to vaccine preventable infections. Vaccines used in healthy population should be subjected to high quality ethical research and be explicitly validated for use in children with special vaccination needs such as those infected with HIV...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
Theano Georgakopoulou, Damianos Menegas, Antonis Katsioulis, Maria Theodoridou, Jenny Kremastinou, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
Vaccination coverage studies are important in determining a population vaccination status and strategically adjusting national immunization programs. This study assessed full and timely vaccination coverage of preschool children aged 2-3 years attending nurseries-kindergartens (N-K) nationwide at the socioeconomic crisis onset. Geographically stratified cluster sampling was implemented considering prefectures as strata and N-K as clusters. The N-K were selected by simple random sampling from the sampling frame while their number was proportional to the stratum size...
September 26, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Aurora Bautista-Marquez, Daniel E Velasquez, Marcelino Esparza-Aguilar, Maria Luna-Cruz, Tatiana Ruiz-Moran, Ken Sugata, Baoming Jiang, Umesh Parashar, Manish Patel, Vesta Richardson
We examined potential risk factors on vaccine virus shedding and antibody seroresponse to human rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) in Mexican infants. Two doses of Rotarix were administered to infants during the first two visits for their routine childhood immunization (∼8 and 15weeks of age) in Mexico City. Infant's characteristics and socioeconomic indicators were obtained, including history of long-term feeding practices (exclusively/predominantly breastfed and exclusively/predominantly non-breastfed). Two serum specimens were collected, one during the second rotavirus vaccine visit and one 7weeks later...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
Myron J Levin, Jane C Lindsey, Susan S Kaplan, Werner Schimana, Jody Lawrence, Monica M McNeal, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Anthony Ogwu, Evans M Mpabalwani, Paul Sato, George Siberry, Margaret Nelson, Darcy Hille, Geoffrey A Weinberg, Adriana Weinberg
OBJECTIVE: Although many HIV-infected (HIV+) and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants have received live rotavirus vaccines since the WHO recommended universal administration of these vaccines to infants, there has been limited prospective information on their safety and immunogenicity in either group of infants. DESIGN/METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of the safety and immunogenicity of oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) administered to HIV+ and HEU infants in four African countries...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
Celine S Lages, Julia Simmons, Avery Maddox, Keaton Jones, Rebekah Karns, Rachel Sheridan, Shiva Kumar Shanmukhappa, Sujit Mohanty, Matthew Kofron, Pierre Russo, Yui-Hsi Wang, Claire Chougnet, Alexander G Miethke
: Biliary atresia is a fibroinflammatory obstruction of the extrahepatic biliary tree in neonates. While intrahepatic bile duct proliferation is universal at diagnosis, bile duct paucity develops later. We hypothesized that polarized T helper lymphocyte responses orchestrate progression of intrahepatic biliary injury in this disease. IL-17A-GFP, CD11c/DTR and IL17RA-/- mice were used to examine T-lymphocyte polarization, inflammatory leukocyte recruitment and biliary injury in rhesus-rotavirus induced biliary atresia...
September 19, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Lucía Maffey, Celina G Vega, Samuel Miño, Lorena Garaicoechea, Viviana Parreño
Species A Rotaviruses (RVA) remain a leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age. Current treatment options are limited. We assessed the efficacy of two VP6-specific llama-derived heavy chain antibody fragments (VHH) -2KD1 and 3B2- as an oral prophylactic and therapeutic treatment against RVA-induced diarrhea in a neonatal mouse model inoculated with virulent murine RVA (ECw, G16P[16]I7). Joint therapeutic administration of 2KD1+3B2 (200 μg/dose) successfully reduced diarrhea duration, RVA infection severity and virus shedding in feces...
2016: PloS One
Ji-Yuan Yin, Chao-Qun Guo, Zi Wang, Mei-Ling Yu, Shuai Gao, Syed M Bukhari, Li-Jie Tang, Yi-Gang Xu, Yi-Jing Li
Using two-step plasmid integration in the presence of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), we developed a stable and markerless Lactobacillus casei strain for vaccine antigen expression. The upp of L. casei, which encodes uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase), was used as a counterselection marker. We employed the Δupp isogenic mutant, which is resistant to 5-FU, as host and a temperature-sensitive suicide plasmid bearing upp expression cassette as counterselectable integration vector. Extrachromosomal expression of UPRTase complemented the mutated chromosomal upp allele and restored sensitivity to 5-FU...
August 24, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
D Rosales-Martinez, L Gutierrez-Xicotencatl, O Badillo-Godinez, D Lopez-Guerrero, A Santana-Calderon, R Cortez-Gomez, O Ramirez-Pliego, F Esquivel-Guadarrama
Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute infectious diarrhea in human neonates and infants. However, the studies aimed at dissecting the anti-virus immune response have been mainly performed in adults. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in innate and acquired immune responses. Therefore, it is very important to determine the response of neonatal and infant DCs to rotavirus and to compare it to the response of adult DCs. Thus, we determined the response of monocyte-derived DCs from umbilical cord blood (UCB) and adult peripheral blood (PB) to rotavirus in vitro...
October 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
F Ziberna, G De Lorenzo, V Schiavon, F Arnoldi, S Quaglia, L De Leo, S Vatta, S Martelossi, O R Burrone, A Ventura, T Not
New data suggest the involvement of rotavirus (RV) in triggering autoimmunity in coeliac disease (CD) by molecular mimicry between the human-transglutaminase protein and the dodecapeptide (260-271 aa) of the RV protein VP7 (pVP7). To assess the role of RV in the onset of CD, we measured anti-pVP7 antibodies in the sera of children with CD and of control groups. We analysed serum samples of 118 biopsy-proven CD patients and 46 patients with potential CD; 32 children with other gastrointestinal diseases; 107 no-CD children and 107 blood donors...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Ryan M Close, Catherine Pearson, Jennifer Cohn
Complex humanitarian emergencies affect 40-60 million people annually and are a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite efforts to provide medical and public health services to populations affected by complex emergencies, significant morbidity and mortality persist. Measles is a major communicable disease threat, but through vaccination of broader target age groups beyond the traditional immunization schedule, measles-related mortality has been significantly reduced during crises. Yet, a limited number of vaccine-preventable diseases continue to contribute disproportionately to morbidity and mortality in complex emergencies...
September 7, 2016: Vaccine
Anu Paul, Sudhir Babji, Rajiv Sarkar, Robin Penugula Lazarus, Gagandeep Kang
OBJECTIVE: To compare serum, salivary and fecal IgA responses in infants and adults following rotavirus vaccination. STUDY DESIGN: Laboratory testing of samples from clinical trials. SETTING: Medical College Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 13 healthy adult volunteers not given vaccine, 20 healthy adult volunteers given one dose of bovine rotavirus tetravalent vaccine (Shantha Biotechnics), and 88 infants given 3 or 5 doses of Rotarix...
July 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Etsuro Nanishi, Takayuki Hoshina, Hidetoshi Takada, Masataka Ishimura, Hisanori Nishio, Takahiro Uehara, Yumi Mizuno, Shunji Hasegawa, Shouichi Ohga, Masayoshi Nagao, Maiko Igarashi, Shuhei Yajima, Yoshio Kusumoto, Noriko Onishi, Yoji Sasahara, Takahiro Yasumi, Toshio Heike, Toshiro Hara
OBJECTIVES: Patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) are highly susceptible to various microorganisms. However, no population-based studies have been performed among common viral pathogens, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rotavirus (RV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and influenza virus (IV). The objective of this study was to reveal the clinical burden of these four infections among PID patients in Japan. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide survey by sending questionnaires to 898 hospitals with pediatric departments throughout Japan...
October 2016: Journal of Infection
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