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Rotavirus immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107346/potential-impact-and-cost-effectiveness-of-rotavirus-vaccination-in-afghanistan
#1
Palwasha Anwari, Frederic Debellut, Clint Pecenka, Sardar M Parwiz, Andrew Clark, Devin Groman, Najibullah Safi
INTRODUCTION: Despite progress made in child survival in the past 20 years, 5.9 million children under five years died in 2015, with 9% of these deaths due to diarrhea. Rotavirus is responsible for more than a third of diarrhea deaths. In 2013, rotavirus was estimated to cause 215,000 deaths among children under five years, including 89,000 in Asia. As of April 2017, 92 countries worldwide have introduced rotavirus vaccination in their national immunization program. Afghanistan has applied for Gavi support to introduce rotavirus vaccination nationally...
October 26, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017253/rapid-clearance-and-frequent-reinfection-with-enteric-pathogens-among-children-with-acute-diarrhea-in-zanzibar
#2
Maria Eva Andersson, Kristina Elfving, Deler Shakely, Staffan Nilsson, Mwinyi Msellem, Birger Trollfors, Andreas Mårtensson, Anders Björkman, Magnus Lindh
Background: Acute infectious gastroenteritis is an important cause of illness and death among children in low-income countries. In addition to rotavirus vaccination, actions to improve nutrition status, sanitation, and water quality are important to reduce enteric infections, which are frequent also among asymptomatic children. The aim of this study was to investigate if the high prevalence of these infections reflects that they often are not cleared properly by the immune response or rather is due to frequent pathogen exposure...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891751/rotavirus-vaccine-response-correlates-with-the-infant-gut-microbiota-composition-in-pakistan
#3
Vanessa Harris, Asad Ali, Susana Fuentes, Katri Korpela, Momin Kazi, Jacqueline Tate, Umesh Parashar, W Joost Wiersinga, Carlo Giaquinto, Carolina de Weerth, Willem M de Vos
Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and ninety-five percent of rotavirus deaths occur in Africa and Asia. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) can dramatically reduce RV deaths, but have low efficacy in low-income settings where they are most needed. The intestinal microbiome may contribute to this decreased RVV efficacy. This pilot study hypothesizes that infants' intestinal microbiota composition correlates with RVV immune responses and that RVV responders have different gut microbiota as compared to non-responders...
September 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874323/the-effect-of-probiotics-and-zinc-supplementation-on-the-immune-response-to-oral-rotavirus-vaccine-a-randomized-factorial-design-placebo-controlled-study-among-indian-infants
#4
Robin P Lazarus, Jacob John, E Shanmugasundaram, Anand K Rajan, S Thiagarajan, Sidhartha Giri, Sudhir Babji, Rajiv Sarkar, P Saravankumar Kaliappan, Srinivasan Venugopal, Ira Praharaj, Uma Raman, Meghana Paranjpe, Nicholas C Grassly, Edward P K Parker, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate, Jessica A Fleming, A Duncan Steele, Jayaprakash Muliyil, Asha M Abraham, Gagandeep Kang
BACKGROUND: Strategies are needed to improve oral rotavirus vaccine (RV), which provides suboptimal protection in developing countries. Probiotics and zinc supplementation could improve RV immunogenicity by altering the intestinal microbiota and immune function. METHODS: Infants 5weeks old living in urban Vellore, India were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 4-arm factorial design to assess the effects of daily zinc (5mg), probiotic (10(10)Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) or placebo on the immunogenicity of two doses of RV (Rotarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) given at 6 and 10weeks of age...
September 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851847/rotavirus-nsp1-requires-casein-kinase-ii-mediated-phosphorylation-for-hijacking-of-cullin-ring-ligases
#5
Kaitlin A Davis, Marco Morelli, John T Patton
The rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP1 repurposes cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) to antagonize innate immune responses. By functioning as substrate adaptors of hijacked CRLs, NSP1 causes ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of host proteins that are essential for expression of interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated gene products. The target of most human and porcine rotaviruses is the β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP), a regulator of NF-κB activation. β-TrCP recognizes a phosphorylated degron (DSGΦXS) present in the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB); phosphorylation of the IκB degron is mediated by IκB kinase (IKK)...
August 29, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851763/the-innate-immune-receptor-mda5-limits-rotavirus-infection-but-promotes-cell-death-and-pancreatic%C3%A2-inflammation
#6
Yu Dou, Howard Ch Yim, Carl D Kirkwood, Bryan Rg Williams, Anthony J Sadler
Melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) mediates the innate immune response to viral infection. Polymorphisms in IFIH1, the gene coding for MDA5, correlate with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here, we demonstrate that MDA5 is crucial for the immune response to enteric rotavirus infection, a proposed etiological agent for T1D. MDA5 variants encoded by minor IFIH1 alleles associated with lower T1D risk exhibit reduced activity against rotavirus infection. We find that MDA5 activity limits rotavirus infection not only through the induction of antiviral interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but also by promoting cell death...
September 15, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844408/genotype-distribution-of-group-a-rotavirus-from-southern-india-2005-2016
#7
Sudhir Babji, Rajesh Arumugam, R Priyahemavathy, Archana Sriraman, Anuradha Sarvanabhavan, Punithavathy Manickavasagam, Anna Simon, Indira Aggarwal, Prabhakar D Moses, Rashmi Arora, Gagandeep Kang
Diarrheal disease due to Group A rotaviruses remain a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the less developed parts of the world. India has started a phased roll out of rotavirus vaccine in the national immunization program. This analysis summarizes the rotavirus genotype strain distribution pre-vaccine introduction in Vellore, India from December 2005 to June 2016. Rotavirus was responsible for 32% of all diarrheal admission to the hospital. G2P[4] was the predominant strain in the initial years and was gradually replaced by G1P[8]...
August 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836489/postdose-3-g1-serum-neutralizing-antibody-as-correlate-of-protection-for-pentavalent-rotavirus-vaccine
#8
G Frank Liu, Darcy Hille, Susan S Kaplan, Michelle G Goveia
Although clinical trials of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq®, RV5) have demonstrated efficacy against RV gastroenteritis (RGE) in low and high-income settings, a clear correlate of protection or a measure of immune response that could predict efficacy has yet to be identified. This is the first time that immunogenicity data with both serum neutralized antibody (SNA) titers and anti-RV IgA titers from several clinical efficacy trials were pooled to provide a unique context for evaluating the correlation between immunogenicity and RGE risk or efficacy of RV5...
October 3, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719500/a-randomized-controlled-study-of-a-fully-liquid-dtap-ipv-hb-prp-t-hexavalent-vaccine-for-primary-and-booster-vaccinations-of-healthy-infants-and-toddlers-in-latin-america
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Pío López, Adriano Arguedas Mohs, Arturo Abdelnour Vásquez, Maria Consuelo-Miranda, Emmanuel Feroldi, Fernando Noriega, Emilia Jordanov, Siham B Chir, Betzana Zambrano
BACKGROUND: Hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. METHODS: Infants (N = 1375) received hepatitis B vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of 3 batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4 to 6 months of age, coadministered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months)...
November 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713375/interferon-lambda-a-potent-regulator-of-intestinal-viral-infections
#10
REVIEW
Sanghyun Lee, Megan T Baldridge
Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) is a recently described cytokine found to be of critical importance in innate immune regulation of intestinal viruses. Endogenous IFN-λ has potent antiviral effects and has been shown to control multiple intestinal viruses and may represent a factor that contributes to human variability in response to infection. Importantly, recombinant IFN-λ has therapeutic potential against enteric viral infections, many of which lack other effective treatments. In this mini-review, we describe recent advances regarding IFN-λ-mediated regulation of enteric viruses with important clinical relevance including rotavirus, reovirus, and norovirus...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710013/murine-bone-marrow-derived-dcs-activated-by-porcine-rotavirus-stimulate-the-th1-subtype-response-in%C3%A2-vitro
#11
Liping Ye, Yanlong Jiang, Guilian Yang, Wentao Yang, Jingtao Hu, Yulin Cui, Chunwei Shi, Jing Liu, Chunfeng Wang
Rotavirus (RV) infection causes acute, watery dehydrating diarrhea and even death in infants and other young animals, resulting in a severe economic burden; however, little is known about the innate immune mechanisms associated with RV infection. Dendritic cells (DCs), which are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), serve as a bridge connecting the innate and adaptive immune system. In this study, the interaction between murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) and porcine rotavirus (PRV) was investigated in vitro...
July 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637924/vp4-and-vp7-specific-antibodies-mediate-heterotypic-immunity-to-rotavirus-in-humans
#12
Nitya Nair, Ningguo Feng, Lisa K Blum, Mrinmoy Sanyal, Siyuan Ding, Baoming Jiang, Adrish Sen, John M Morton, Xiao-Song He, William H Robinson, Harry B Greenberg
Human rotaviruses (RVs) are the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid induction of heterotypic protective immunity to RV, which provides the basis for the efficacy of licensed monovalent RV vaccines, have remained unknown for more than 30 years. We used RV-specific single cell-sorted intestinal B cells from human adults, barcode-based deep sequencing of antibody repertoires, monoclonal antibody expression, and serologic and functional characterization to demonstrate that infection-induced heterotypic immunoglobulins (Igs) primarily directed to VP5*, the stalk region of the RV attachment protein, VP4, are able to mediate heterotypic protective immunity...
June 21, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637803/protein-malnutrition-alters-tryptophan-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-homeostasis-and-adaptive-immune-responses-in-human-rotavirus-infected-gnotobiotic-pigs-with-human-infant-fecal-microbiota-transplant
#13
David D Fischer, Sukumar Kandasamy, Francine C Paim, Stephanie N Langel, Moyasar A Alhamo, Lulu Shao, Juliet Chepngeno, Ayako Miyazaki, Huang-Chi Huang, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif, Anastasia N Vlasova
Malnutrition leads to increased morbidity and is evident in almost half of all deaths in children under the age of 5 years. Mortality due to rotavirus diarrhea is common in developing countries where malnutrition is prevalent; however, the relationship between malnutrition and rotavirus infection remains unclear. In this study, gnotobiotic pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant were fed protein-sufficient or -deficient diets and infected with virulent human rotavirus (HRV)...
August 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636595/nlrp9b-inflammasome-restricts-rotavirus-infection-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#14
Shu Zhu, Siyuan Ding, Penghua Wang, Zheng Wei, Wen Pan, Noah W Palm, Yi Yang, Hua Yu, Hua-Bing Li, Geng Wang, Xuqiu Lei, Marcel R de Zoete, Jun Zhao, Yunjiang Zheng, Haiwei Chen, Yujiao Zhao, Kellie A Jurado, Ningguo Feng, Liang Shan, Yuval Kluger, Jun Lu, Clara Abraham, Erol Fikrig, Harry B Greenberg, Richard A Flavell
Rotavirus, a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhoea in young children, accounts for around 215,000 deaths annually worldwide. Rotavirus specifically infects the intestinal epithelial cells in the host small intestine and has evolved strategies to antagonize interferon and NF-κB signalling, raising the question as to whether other host factors participate in antiviral responses in intestinal mucosa. The mechanism by which enteric viruses are sensed and restricted in vivo, especially by NOD-like receptor (NLR) inflammasomes, is largely unknown...
June 29, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634691/modulation-of-rotavirus-severe-gastroenteritis-by-the-combination-of-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#15
REVIEW
Guadalupe Gonzalez-Ochoa, Lilian K Flores-Mendoza, Ramona Icedo-Garcia, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Patricia Tamez-Guerra
Annual mortality rates due to infectious diarrhea are about 2.2 million; children are the most vulnerable age group to severe gastroenteritis, representing group A rotaviruses as the main cause of disease. One of the main factors of rotavirus pathogenesis is the NSP4 protein, which has been characterized as a viral toxin involved in triggering several cellular responses leading to diarrhea. Furthermore, the rotavirus protein NSP1 has been associated with interferon production inhibition by inducing the degradation of interferon regulatory factors IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623028/impact-and-cost-effectiveness-of-rotavirus-vaccination-in-bangladesh
#16
Clint Pecenka, Umesh Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate, Jahangir A M Khan, Devin Groman, Stephen Chacko, Md Shamsuzzaman, Andrew Clark, Deborah Atherly
INTRODUCTION: Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of child mortality globally, and rotavirus is responsible for more than a third of those deaths. Despite substantial decreases, the number of rotavirus deaths in children under five was 215,000 per year in 2013. Of these deaths, approximately 41% occurred in Asia and 3% of those in Bangladesh. While Bangladesh has yet to introduce rotavirus vaccination, the country applied for Gavi support and plans to introduce it in 2018. This analysis evaluates the impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Bangladesh and provides estimates of the costs of the vaccination program to help inform decision-makers and international partners...
July 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620404/oral-administration-of-a-seed-based-bivalent-rotavirus-vaccine-containing-vp6-and-nsp4-induces-specific-immune-responses-in-mice
#17
Hao Feng, Xin Li, Weibin Song, Mei Duan, Hong Chen, Tao Wang, Jiangli Dong
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrheal disease among newborns. Plant-based rotavirus vaccines have been developed in recent years and have been proven to be effective in animal models. In the present study, we report a bivalent vaccine candidate expressing rotavirus subunits VP6 and NSP4 fused with the adjuvant subunit B of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) in maize seeds. The RT-PCR and Western blot results showed that VP6 and LTB-NSP4 antigens were expressed and accumulated in maize seeds...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583305/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-new-hexavalent-vaccine-dtap5-ipv-hb-hib-administered-in-a-mixed-primary-series-schedule-with-a-pentavalent-vaccine-dtap5-ipv-hib
#18
Federico Martinón-Torres, Florence Boisnard, Stéphane Thomas, Christine Sadorge, Ray Borrow
DTaP5-IPV-HB-Hib vaccine is a fully-liquid, combination hexavalent vaccine. This phase III, open-label, multicentre study conducted in Spain, evaluated the immune response to all DTaP5-IPV-HB-Hib antigens when the vaccine was used in a mixed hexa/penta/hexa primary series. Infants (who had received one dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth) received a mixed schedule including DTaP5-IPV-HB-Hib (PRP-OMP conjugate) at 2 and 6months of age, DTaP5-IPV-Hib at 4months, meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccine at 2 and 4months, and routine rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccination...
June 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567192/rotavirus-antigen-cytokine-and-neutralising-antibody-profiles-in-sera-of-children-with-and-without-hiv-infection-in-blantyre-malawi
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jennifer J Hull, Nigel Cunliffe, Khuzwayo C Jere, Sung-Sil Moon, Yuhuan Wang, Umesh Parashar, Baoming Jiang
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus and HIV infection are major causes of death among children in sub-Saharan Africa. A previous study reported no association between concomitant HIV infection and rotavirus disease severity among hospitalised children in Malawi. This study examined rotavirus antigenaemia and broader immune responses among HIV-infected and uninfected children. METHODS: Stored (-80°C), paired sera from acute and convalescent phases of Malawian children less than 5 years old, hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis in the primary study, collected from July 1997 to June 1999, were utilised...
March 2017: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560356/rotavac-%C3%A2-does-not-interfere-with-the-immune-response-to-childhood-vaccines-in-indian-infants-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
Temsunaro Rongsen Chandola, Sunita Taneja, Nidhi Goyal, Kalpana Antony, Kiran Bhatia, Deepak More, Nita Bhandari, Iksung Cho, Krishna Mohan, Sai Prasad, Gvja Harshavardhan, Tataji Surender Rao, Sudhanshu Vrati, Maharaj Kishan Bhan
A phase III randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted in the urban neighborhoods of Delhi to assess whether Oral Rotavirus Vaccine ROTAVAC(®) interferes with the immune response to childhood vaccines when coadministered. Infants aged 6 weeks were randomized to receive three doses of either ROTAVAC(®) or placebo along with childhood vaccines: Oral Polio Vaccine and vaccines against Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenza type b given as Pentavalent at 6, 10, 14 weeks of age...
May 2017: Heliyon
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