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Rotavirus immune response

Alasdair Bamford, Emma C Manno, Maria Jose Mellado, Vana Spoulou, Laura Marques, Henriette J Scherpbier, Tim Niehues, Agnieszka Oldakowska, Paolo Rossi, Paolo Palma
BACKGROUND: Current national immunisation schedules differ between countries in terms of vaccine formulation, timing of vaccinations and immunisation programme funding and co-ordination. As a result, some HIV infected paediatric population may be left susceptible to vaccine preventable infections. Vaccines used in healthy population should be subjected to high quality ethical research and be explicitly validated for use in children with special vaccination needs such as those infected with HIV...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
Theano Georgakopoulou, Damianos Menegas, Antonis Katsioulis, Maria Theodoridou, Jenny Kremastinou, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
Vaccination coverage studies are important in determining a population vaccination status and strategically adjusting national immunization programs. This study assessed full and timely vaccination coverage of preschool children aged 2-3 years attending nurseries-kindergartens (N-K) nationwide at the socioeconomic crisis onset. Geographically stratified cluster sampling was implemented considering prefectures as strata and N-K as clusters. The N-K were selected by simple random sampling from the sampling frame while their number was proportional to the stratum size...
September 26, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Aurora Bautista-Marquez, Daniel E Velasquez, Marcelino Esparza-Aguilar, Maria Luna-Cruz, Tatiana Ruiz-Moran, Ken Sugata, Baoming Jiang, Umesh Parashar, Manish Patel, Vesta Richardson
We examined potential risk factors on vaccine virus shedding and antibody seroresponse to human rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) in Mexican infants. Two doses of Rotarix were administered to infants during the first two visits for their routine childhood immunization (∼8 and 15weeks of age) in Mexico City. Infant's characteristics and socioeconomic indicators were obtained, including history of long-term feeding practices (exclusively/predominantly breastfed and exclusively/predominantly non-breastfed). Two serum specimens were collected, one during the second rotavirus vaccine visit and one 7weeks later...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
Myron J Levin, Jane C Lindsey, Susan S Kaplan, Werner Schimana, Jody Lawrence, Monica M McNeal, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Anthony Ogwu, Evans M Mpabalwani, Paul Sato, George Siberry, Margaret Nelson, Darcy Hille, Geoffrey A Weinberg, Adriana Weinberg
OBJECTIVE: Although many HIV-infected (HIV+) and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants have received live rotavirus vaccines since the World Health Organization recommended universal administration of these vaccines to infants, there has been limited prospective information on their safety and immunogenicity in either group of infants. DESIGN/METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of the safety and immunogenicity of oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) administered to HIV+ and HEU infants in 4 African countries...
September 20, 2016: AIDS
Celine S Lages, Julia Simmons, Avery Maddox, Keaton Jones, Rebekah Karns, Rachel Sheridan, Shiva Kumar Shanmukhappa, Sujit Mohanty, Matthew Kofron, Pierre Russo, Yui-Hsi Wang, Claire Chougnet, Alexander G Miethke
: Biliary atresia is a fibroinflammatory obstruction of the extrahepatic biliary tree in neonates. While intrahepatic bile duct proliferation is universal at diagnosis, bile duct paucity develops later. We hypothesized that polarized T helper lymphocyte responses orchestrate progression of intrahepatic biliary injury in this disease. IL-17A-GFP, CD11c/DTR and IL17RA-/- mice were used to examine T-lymphocyte polarization, inflammatory leukocyte recruitment and biliary injury in rhesus-rotavirus induced biliary atresia...
September 19, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Lucía Maffey, Celina G Vega, Samuel Miño, Lorena Garaicoechea, Viviana Parreño
Species A Rotaviruses (RVA) remain a leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age. Current treatment options are limited. We assessed the efficacy of two VP6-specific llama-derived heavy chain antibody fragments (VHH) -2KD1 and 3B2- as an oral prophylactic and therapeutic treatment against RVA-induced diarrhea in a neonatal mouse model inoculated with virulent murine RVA (ECw, G16P[16]I7). Joint therapeutic administration of 2KD1+3B2 (200 μg/dose) successfully reduced diarrhea duration, RVA infection severity and virus shedding in feces...
2016: PloS One
Ji-Yuan Yin, Chao-Qun Guo, Zi Wang, Mei-Ling Yu, Shuai Gao, Syed M Bukhari, Li-Jie Tang, Yi-Gang Xu, Yi-Jing Li
Using two-step plasmid integration in the presence of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), we developed a stable and markerless Lactobacillus casei strain for vaccine antigen expression. The upp of L. casei, which encodes uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase), was used as a counterselection marker. We employed the Δupp isogenic mutant, which is resistant to 5-FU, as host and a temperature-sensitive suicide plasmid bearing upp expression cassette as counterselectable integration vector. Extrachromosomal expression of UPRTase complemented the mutated chromosomal upp allele and restored sensitivity to 5-FU...
August 24, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
D Rosales-Martinez, L Gutierrez-Xicotencatl, O Badillo-Godinez, D Lopez-Guerrero, A Santana-Calderon, R Cortez-Gomez, O Ramirez-Pliego, F Esquivel-Guadarrama
Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute infectious diarrhea in human neonates and infants. However, the studies aimed at dissecting the anti-virus immune response have been mainly performed in adults. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in innate and acquired immune responses. Therefore, it is very important to determine the response of neonatal and infant DCs to rotavirus and to compare it to the response of adult DCs. Thus, we determined the response of monocyte-derived DCs from umbilical cord blood (UCB) and adult peripheral blood (PB) to rotavirus in vitro...
October 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Fabiana Ziberna, Giuditta De Lorenzo, Valentina Schiavon, Francesca Arnoldi, Sara Quaglia, Luigina De Leo, Serena Vatta, Stefano Martelossi, Oscar R Burrone, Alessandro Ventura, Tarcisio Not
New data suggest the involvement of Rotavirus (RV) in triggering autoimmunity in celiac disease (CD) by molecular mimicry between the human-transglutaminase protein and the dodecapeptide (260-271 aa) of the RV protein VP7 (pVP7). To assess the role of RV in the onset of CD, we measured the anti-pVP7 antibodies in the sera of children with CD and of control groups. We analysed serum samples of 118 biopsy proven CD patients and 46 patients with potential-CD; 32 children with other gastrointestinal diseases; 107 no-CD children and 107 blood donors...
August 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Ryan M Close, Catherine Pearson, Jennifer Cohn
Complex humanitarian emergencies affect 40-60 million people annually and are a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite efforts to provide medical and public health services to populations affected by complex emergencies, significant morbidity and mortality persist. Measles is a major communicable disease threat, but through vaccination of broader target age groups beyond the traditional immunization schedule, measles-related mortality has been significantly reduced during crises. Yet, a limited number of vaccine-preventable diseases continue to contribute disproportionately to morbidity and mortality in complex emergencies...
September 7, 2016: Vaccine
Anu Paul, Sudhir Babji, Rajiv Sarkar, Robin Penugula Lazarus, Gagandeep Kang
OBJECTIVE: To compare serum, salivary and fecal IgA responses in infants and adults following rotavirus vaccination. STUDY DESIGN: Laboratory testing of samples from clinical trials. SETTING: Medical College Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 13 healthy adult volunteers not given vaccine, 20 healthy adult volunteers given one dose of bovine rotavirus tetravalent vaccine (Shantha Biotechnics), and 88 infants given 3 or 5 doses of Rotarix...
July 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Etsuro Nanishi, Takayuki Hoshina, Hidetoshi Takada, Masataka Ishimura, Hisanori Nishio, Takahiro Uehara, Yumi Mizuno, Shunji Hasegawa, Shouichi Ohga, Masayoshi Nagao, Maiko Igarashi, Shuhei Yajima, Yoshio Kusumoto, Noriko Onishi, Yoji Sasahara, Takahiro Yasumi, Toshio Heike, Toshiro Hara
OBJECTIVES: Patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) are highly susceptible to various microorganisms. However, no population-based studies have been performed among common viral pathogens, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rotavirus (RV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and influenza virus (IV). The objective of this study was to reveal the clinical burden of these four infections among PID patients in Japan. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide survey by sending questionnaires to 898 hospitals with pediatric departments throughout Japan...
October 2016: Journal of Infection
K Nasiri, M R Nassiri, M Tahmoorespur, A Haghparast, S Zibaee
Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. VP8 subunit of rotavirus is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response. Studies showed that immunoglobulin of egg yolk (IgY) from immunized hens has been identified to be a convenient source for specific antibodies for using in immunotherapy and immunodiagnostic to limit the infections...
2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Merryn Voysey, Andrew J Pollard, Rafael Perera, Thomas R Fanshawe
INTRODUCTION: Disease incidence differs between males and females for some infectious or inflammatory diseases. Sex-differences in immune responses to some vaccines have also been observed, mostly to viral vaccines in adults. Little evidence is available on whether sex-differences occur in response to immunisation in infancy even though this is the age group in which most vaccines are administered. Factors other than sex, such as timing or coadministration of other vaccines, can also influence the immune response to vaccination...
2016: BMJ Open
Anastasia N Vlasova, Lulu Shao, Sukumar Kandasamy, David D Fischer, Abdul Rauf, Stephanie N Langel, Kuldeep S Chattha, Anand Kumar, Huang-Chi Huang, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a gram-positive lactic acid bacterium, is one of the most widely used probiotics; while fewer gram-negative probiotics including Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are characterized. A mechanistic understanding of their individual and interactive effects on human rotavirus (HRV) and immunity is lacking. In this study, noncolonized, EcN-, LGG-, and EcN + LGG-colonized neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were challenged with HRV. EcN colonization is associated with a greater protection against HRV, and induces the highest frequencies of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), significantly increased NK-cell function and decreased frequencies of apoptotic and TLR4(+) mononuclear cells (MNCs)...
October 2016: European Journal of Immunology
U Ryan, A Zahedi, A Paparini
Cryptosporidium is a major cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea in humans worldwide, second only to rotavirus. Due to the wide host range and environmental persistence of this parasite, cryptosporidiosis can be zoonotic and associated with foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Currently, 31 species are recognized as valid, and of these, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are responsible for the majority of infections in humans. The immune status of the host, both innate and adaptive immunity, has a major impact on the severity of the disease and its prognosis...
September 2016: Parasite Immunology
Miaoge Xue, Linqi Yu, Lianzhi Jia, Yijian Li, Yuanjun Zeng, Tingdong Li, Shengxiang Ge, Ningshao Xia
In attempts to develop recombinant subunit vaccines against rotavirus disease, it was previously shown that the N-terminal truncated VP8* protein, VP8-1 (aa26-231), is a good vaccine candidate when used for immunization in combination with Freund's adjuvant. However, this protein stimulated only weak immune response when aluminum hydroxide was used as an adjuvant. In this study, the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) was employed as intra-molecular adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of VP8-1. Both, the N-terminal and C-terminal fusion proteins, were purified to homogeneity, at which stage they formed pentamers, and showed significantly higher immunogenicity and protective efficacy than a VP8-1 /aluminum hydroxide mixture in a mouse model...
July 19, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Suvi Lappalainen, Vesna Blazevic, Maria Malm, Timo Vesikari
Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE) in young children, but RVGE has drastically been reduced with the introduction of live oral RV vaccines into childhood immunization program in many countries. Serum IgA antibody is a marker of clinical protection against severe RVGE after RV infection and vaccination. This study investigated VP6-specificity of anti-RV IgA antibody levels in Finnish children aged 6-23 months before and after introduction of RotaTeq® into national immunization program...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Jessica A Pane, Fiona E Fleming, Kate L Graham, Helen E Thomas, Thomas W H Kay, Barbara S Coulson
Rotavirus infection is associated with childhood progression to type 1 diabetes. Infection by monkey rotavirus RRV accelerates diabetes onset in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, which relates to regional lymph node infection and a T helper 1-specific immune response. When stimulated ex vivo with RRV, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) from naïve NOD mice secrete type I interferon, which induces the activation of bystander lymphocytes, including islet-autoreactive T cells. This is our proposed mechanism for diabetes acceleration by rotaviruses...
2016: Scientific Reports
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