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Rotavirus immune response

Raches Ella, Radhika Bobba, Sanjay Muralidhar, Sudhir Babji, Krishna Mohan Vadrevu, Maharaj Kishan Bhan
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends that rotavirus vaccines should be included in all national immunization programs. Some currently licensed oral rotavirus vaccines contain a buffering agent (either as part of a ready-to-use liquid formulation or added during reconstitution) to reduce possible degradation of the vaccine virus in the infant gut, which poses several programmatic challenges (the large dose volume or the reconstitution requirement) during vaccine administration...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Rosana P Rota, Carlos A Palacios, C Facundo Temprana, Marcelo H Argüelles, Marcelo G Mandile, Nora Mattion, Andrea S Laimbacher, Cornell Fraefel, Alejandro A Castello, Graciela Glikmann
Group C Rotavirus (RVC) has been associated globally with sporadic outbreaks of gastroenteritis in children and adults. RVC also infects animals, and interspecies transmission has been reported as well as its zoonotic potential. Considering its genetic diversity and the absence of effective vaccines, it is important and necessary to develop new generation vaccines against RVC for both humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize an HSV-1-based amplicon vector expressing a human RVC-VP6 protein and evaluate the humoral immune response induced after immunizing BALB/c mice...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Pamela Holzlöhner, Monique Butze, Natalia Maier, Nicole Hebel, Erik Schliebs, Burkhard Micheel, Jonas Füner, Gabriele Heidicke, Katja Hanack
Camelids possess antibodies with a conventional four-chain structure consisting of two heavy and two light chains (of subclass IgG1) but further they also generate heavy-chain only antibodies (of subclass IgG2 and 3) which are fully functional in antigen binding. In this study subclass-specific murine monoclonal antibodies specific to conventional camelid IgG1 and heavy-chain only IgG2/3 were generated and validated for the use as potent secondary detection reagents. The monoclonal antibodies are able to differentiate between all camelid IgGs, conventional four-chain camelid antibodies (of subclass IgG1) and exclusively heavy chain-only antibodies (of subclasses IgG2 and IgG3)...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Qiankun Cui, Qiuting Fu, Xinghong Zhao, Xu Song, Jiankang Yu, Yi Yang, Kai Sun, Lu Bai, Ye Tian, Shufan Chen, Renyong Jia, Yuanfeng Zou, Lixia Li, Xiaoxia Liang, Changliang He, Lizi Yin, Gang Ye, Cheng Lv, Guizhou Yue, Zhongqiong Yin
Rotavirus (RV), belonging to Reoviridae family, is the leading cause of acute severe viral diarrhea in children (under 5 years old) and infant animals worldwide. Although vaccines are commonly used to prevent infection, episodes of diarrhea caused by RV frequently occur. Thus, this study was conducted to determine whether resveratrol had protective effects against RV infection in piglets. Following pretreatment with resveratrol dry suspension through adding into the basal diet for 3 weeks, the piglets were orally challenged with RV...
2018: PloS One
Julie E Bines, Jarir At Thobari, Cahya Dewi Satria, Amanda Handley, Emma Watts, Daniel Cowley, Hera Nirwati, James Ackland, Jane Standish, Frances Justice, Gabrielle Byars, Katherine J Lee, Graeme L Barnes, Novilia S Bachtiar, Ajeng Viska Icanervilia, Karen Boniface, Nada Bogdanovic-Sakran, Daniel Pavlic, Ruth F Bishop, Carl D Kirkwood, Jim P Buttery, Yati Soenarto
BACKGROUND: A strategy of administering a neonatal rotavirus vaccine at birth to target early prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis may address some of the barriers to global implementation of a rotavirus vaccine. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Indonesia to evaluate the efficacy of an oral human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy newborns received three doses of RV3-BB, administered according to a neonatal schedule (0 to 5 days, 8 weeks, and 14 weeks of age) or an infant schedule (8 weeks, 14 weeks, and 18 weeks of age), or placebo...
February 22, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Hannah A DeBerg, Mussaret B Zaidi, Matthew C Altman, Prasong Khaenam, Vivian H Gersuk, Freddy D Campos, Iza Perez-Martinez, Mario Meza-Segura, Damien Chaussabel, Jacques Banchereau, Teresa Estrada-Garcia, Peter S Linsley
Globally, diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of death in children under five and disproportionately affect children in developing countries. Children who contract diarrheal diseases are rarely screened to identify the etiologic agent due to time and cost considerations associated with pathogen-specific screening and hence pathogen-directed therapy is uncommon. The development of biomarkers to rapidly identify underlying pathogens could improve treatment options and clinical outcomes in childhood diarrheal diseases...
2018: PloS One
Felix Omeñaca, Liliana Vázquez, Pilar Garcia-Corbeira, Narcisa Mesaros, Linda Hanssens, Jan Dolhain, Ivonne Puente Gómez, Johannes Liese, Markus Knuf
BACKGROUND: Infants with history of prematurity (<37 weeks gestation) and low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) are at high risk of infection due to functional immaturity of normal physical and immunological defense mechanisms. Despite current recommendations that infants with history of prematurity/LBW should receive routine immunization according to the same schedule and chronological age as full-term infants, immunization is often delayed. METHODS: Here we summarize 10 clinical studies and 15 years of post-marketing safety surveillance of GSK's hexavalent vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-B-inactivated-poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae-type-b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, when administered alone, or co-administered with pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, and meningococcal vaccines and respiratory syncytial virus IgG to infants with history of prematurity/LBW in clinical trials...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
Theresa K Resch, Yuhuan Wang, Sung-Sil Moon, Jessica Joyce, Song Li, Mark Prausnitz, Baoming Jiang
To improve the safety and efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines, we developed an inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV) for parenteral administration. Since it remains unknown whether parenteral vaccination can induce mucosal immunity, we performed a comprehensive assessment of immune responses to IRV in mice with an adjuvant-free dissolving polymer MN patch or by alum-adjuvanted IM injection. We demonstrated that IRV induced the expression of the gut homing receptor LPAM-1 on T and B cells in spleen and mLN of vaccinated mice...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daisuke Tokuhara
Infectious diarrhea in children can be life-threatening and imposes a large economic burden on healthcare systems, therefore more effective prophylactic and therapeutic drugs are needed urgently. Because most of the pathogens responsible for childhood diarrhea infect the gastrointestinal mucosa, providing protective immunity at the mucosal surface is an ideal way to control pathogen invasion and toxic activity. Mucosal (e.g., oral, nasal) vaccines are superior to systemic (subcutaneous or intramuscular) vaccination for conferring both mucosal and systemic pathogen-specific immune responses...
December 31, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Innocent Mwape, Samuel Bosomprah, John Mwaba, Katayi Mwila-Kazimbaya, Natasha Makabilo Laban, Caroline Cleopatra Chisenga, Gibson Sijumbila, Michelo Simuyandi, Roma Chilengi
INTRODUCTION: Deployment of rotavirus vaccines has contributed to significant declines in diarrheal morbidity and mortality globally. Unfortunately, vaccine performance in low-middle income countries (LMICs) is generally lower than in developed countries. The cause for this has been associated with several host and maternal factors including poor water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) status, which are predominant in LMICs. More recently, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) has specifically been hypothesized to contribute to poor vaccine uptake and response...
2017: PloS One
Justice Nonvignon, Deborah Atherly, Clint Pecenka, Moses Aikins, Lauren Gazley, Devin Groman, Clement T Narh, George Armah
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea causes about 10% of all deaths in children under five years globally, with rotavirus causing about 40% of all diarrhea deaths. Ghana introduced rotavirus vaccination as part of routine immunization in 2012 and it has been shown to be effective in reducing disease burden in children under five years. Ghana's transition from low to lower-middle income status in 2010 implies fewer resources from Gavi as well as other major global financing mechanisms. Ghana will soon bear the full cost of vaccines...
December 6, 2017: Vaccine
Atefeh Afchangi, Arash Arashkia, Zahra Shahosseini, Somayeh Jalilvand, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Farzin Roohvand, Nasir Mohajel, Zabihollah Shoja
Due to the limitations and safety issues of the two currently approved live attenuated rotavirus (RV) vaccines "RotaTeq and Rotarix," studies on nonreplicating sources of RV vaccines and search for proper RV antigens are actively carried out. The adjuvant activity of NSP4 and highly immunogenic properties of RV VP6 protein prompted us to consider the construction of a NSP4112-175 -VP6 fusion protein and to assess the anti-VP6 IgG, IgA, and IgG subclass responses induced by Escherichia coli-derived NSP4-VP6 fusion protein compared to that of VP6 protein with/without formulation in Montanide ISA 50V2 (M50) in BALB/c mice...
November 29, 2017: Viral Immunology
Jacob A Cram, Kevin W Hager, James G Kublin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gnotobiotic models have the potential to provide substantial insight into how the microbiome shapes its host's response to vaccines. This review aims to summarize literature about the role of the microbiome in shaping the immune system and vaccine response heterogeneity, summarize gnotobiotic and other murine models that help us understand the immune system and vaccine response, and suggest novel ways that these models could be used to further understand vaccine response heterogeneity...
January 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Palwasha Anwari, Frederic Debellut, Clint Pecenka, Sardar M Parwiz, Andrew Clark, Devin Groman, Najibullah Safi
INTRODUCTION: Despite progress made in child survival in the past 20 years, 5.9 million children under five years died in 2015, with 9% of these deaths due to diarrhea. Rotavirus is responsible for more than a third of diarrhea deaths. In 2013, rotavirus was estimated to cause 215,000 deaths among children under five years, including 89,000 in Asia. As of April 2017, 92 countries worldwide have introduced rotavirus vaccination in their national immunization program. Afghanistan has applied for Gavi support to introduce rotavirus vaccination nationally...
October 26, 2017: Vaccine
Maria Eva Andersson, Kristina Elfving, Deler Shakely, Staffan Nilsson, Mwinyi Msellem, Birger Trollfors, Andreas Mårtensson, Anders Björkman, Magnus Lindh
Background: Acute infectious gastroenteritis is an important cause of illness and death among children in low-income countries. In addition to rotavirus vaccination, actions to improve nutrition status, sanitation, and water quality are important to reduce enteric infections, which are frequent also among asymptomatic children. The aim of this study was to investigate if the high prevalence of these infections reflects that they often are not cleared properly by the immune response or rather is due to frequent pathogen exposure...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Vanessa Harris, Asad Ali, Susana Fuentes, Katri Korpela, Momin Kazi, Jacqueline Tate, Umesh Parashar, W Joost Wiersinga, Carlo Giaquinto, Carolina de Weerth, Willem M de Vos
Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and ninety-five percent of rotavirus deaths occur in Africa and Asia. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) can dramatically reduce RV deaths, but have low efficacy in low-income settings where they are most needed. The intestinal microbiome may contribute to this decreased RVV efficacy. This pilot study hypothesizes that infants' intestinal microbiota composition correlates with RVV immune responses and that RVV responders have different gut microbiota as compared to non-responders...
September 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
Robin P Lazarus, Jacob John, E Shanmugasundaram, Anand K Rajan, S Thiagarajan, Sidhartha Giri, Sudhir Babji, Rajiv Sarkar, P Saravankumar Kaliappan, Srinivasan Venugopal, Ira Praharaj, Uma Raman, Meghana Paranjpe, Nicholas C Grassly, Edward P K Parker, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate, Jessica A Fleming, A Duncan Steele, Jayaprakash Muliyil, Asha M Abraham, Gagandeep Kang
BACKGROUND: Strategies are needed to improve oral rotavirus vaccine (RV), which provides suboptimal protection in developing countries. Probiotics and zinc supplementation could improve RV immunogenicity by altering the intestinal microbiota and immune function. METHODS: Infants 5weeks old living in urban Vellore, India were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 4-arm factorial design to assess the effects of daily zinc (5mg), probiotic (10(10)Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) or placebo on the immunogenicity of two doses of RV (Rotarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) given at 6 and 10weeks of age...
September 2, 2017: Vaccine
Kaitlin A Davis, Marco Morelli, John T Patton
The rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP1 repurposes cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) to antagonize innate immune responses. By functioning as substrate adaptors of hijacked CRLs, NSP1 causes ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of host proteins that are essential for expression of interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated gene products. The target of most human and porcine rotaviruses is the β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP), a regulator of NF-κB activation. β-TrCP recognizes a phosphorylated degron (DSGΦXS) present in the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB); phosphorylation of the IκB degron is mediated by IκB kinase (IKK)...
August 29, 2017: MBio
Yu Dou, Howard Ch Yim, Carl D Kirkwood, Bryan Rg Williams, Anthony J Sadler
Melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) mediates the innate immune response to viral infection. Polymorphisms in IFIH1, the gene coding for MDA5, correlate with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here, we demonstrate that MDA5 is crucial for the immune response to enteric rotavirus infection, a proposed etiological agent for T1D. MDA5 variants encoded by minor IFIH1 alleles associated with lower T1D risk exhibit reduced activity against rotavirus infection. We find that MDA5 activity limits rotavirus infection not only through the induction of antiviral interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but also by promoting cell death...
September 15, 2017: EMBO Journal
Sudhir Babji, Rajesh Arumugam, R Priyahemavathy, Archana Sriraman, Anuradha Sarvanabhavan, Punithavathy Manickavasagam, Anna Simon, Indira Aggarwal, Prabhakar D Moses, Rashmi Arora, Gagandeep Kang
Diarrheal disease due to Group A rotaviruses remain a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the less developed parts of the world. India has started a phased roll out of rotavirus vaccine in the national immunization program. This analysis summarizes the rotavirus genotype strain distribution pre-vaccine introduction in Vellore, India from December 2005 to June 2016. Rotavirus was responsible for 32% of all diarrheal admission to the hospital. G2P[4] was the predominant strain in the initial years and was gradually replaced by G1P[8]...
August 22, 2017: Vaccine
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