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Microbiome vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616365/streptococcus-pneumoniae-otitis-media-pathogenesis-and-how-it-informs-our-understanding-of-vaccine-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Caroline Bergenfelz, Anders P Hakansson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to review the literature regarding the mechanisms of transition from asymptomatic colonization to induction of otitis media and how the insight into the pathogenesis of otitis media has the potential to help design future otitis media-directed vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: Respiratory viruses have long been shown to predispose individuals to bacterial respiratory infections, such as otitis media. Recent information suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae, which colonize the nasopharynx asymptomatically, can sense potentially "threatening" changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by virus infection by upregulating specific sets of genes involved in biofilm release, dissemination from the nasopharynx to other sites, and protection against the host immune system...
2017: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479173/microbial-compositional-changes-in-broiler-chicken-cecal-contents-from-birds-challenged-with-different-salmonella-vaccine-candidate-strains
#3
Si Hong Park, Sun Ae Kim, Peter M Rubinelli, Stephanie M Roto, Steven C Ricke
Previously, we constructed and characterized the vaccine efficacy of Salmonella Typhimurium mutant strains in poultry with either inducible mviN expression (PBAD-mviN) or methionine auxotrophy (ΔΔmetRmetD). The aim of the present study was to assess potential impact of these Salmonella vaccine strains on the cecal microbiota using a next generation sequencing (NGS). The cecal microbial community obtained from unvaccinated (group 1) and vaccinated chickens (group 2, vaccinated with PBAD-mviN; group 3, vaccinated with wild type; group 4, vaccinated with ΔΔmetRmetD) were subjected to microbiome sequencing analysis with an Illumina MiSeq platform...
May 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360258/impact-of-maternal-antibodies-and-infant-gut-microbiota-on-the-immunogenicity-of-rotavirus-vaccines-in-african-indian-and-european-infants-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Kuladaipalayam Natarajan C Sindhu, Nigel Cunliffe, Matthew Peak, Mark Turner, Alistair Darby, Nicholas Grassly, Melita Gordon, Queen Dube, Sudhir Babji, Ira Praharaj, Valsan Verghese, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Gagandeep Kang
INTRODUCTION: Gastroenteritis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young children living in resource-poor settings, majority of which is attributed to rotavirus. Rotavirus vaccination can therefore have a significant impact on infant mortality. However, rotavirus vaccine efficacy in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia is significantly lower than in high-income countries. Maternally derived antibodies, infant gut microbiota and concomitant oral polio vaccination have been proposed as potential reasons for poor vaccine performance in low-income settings...
March 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194314/evolutionary-and-functional-implications-of-hypervariable-loci-within-the-skin-virome
#5
Geoffrey D Hannigan, Qi Zheng, Jacquelyn S Meisel, Samuel S Minot, Frederick D Bushman, Elizabeth A Grice
Localized genomic variability is crucial for the ongoing conflicts between infectious microbes and their hosts. An understanding of evolutionary and adaptive patterns associated with genomic variability will help guide development of vaccines and antimicrobial agents. While most analyses of the human microbiome have focused on taxonomic classification and gene annotation, we investigated genomic variation of skin-associated viral communities. We evaluated patterns of viral genomic variation across 16 healthy human volunteers...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184287/of-the-phrensy-an-update-on-the-epidemiology-and-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-the-pediatric-population
#6
REVIEW
Andrew Janowski, Jason Newland
In the past century, advances in antibiotics and vaccination have dramatically altered the incidence and clinical outcomes of bacterial meningitis. We review the shifting epidemiology of meningitis in children, including after the implementation of vaccines that target common meningitic pathogens and the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis offered to mothers colonized with Streptococcus agalactiae. We also discuss what is currently known about the pathogenesis of meningitis. Recent studies of the human microbiome have illustrated dynamic relationships of bacterial and viral populations with the host, which may potentiate the risk of bacterial meningitis...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163914/recent-advances-in-understanding-noroviruses
#7
REVIEW
Eric Bartnicki, Juliana Bragazzi Cunha, Abimbola O Kolawole, Christiane E Wobus
Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis around the world. An individual living in the United States is estimated to develop norovirus infection five times in his or her lifetime. Despite this, there is currently no antiviral or vaccine to combat the infection, in large part because of the historical lack of cell culture and small animal models. However, the last few years of norovirus research were marked by a number of ground-breaking advances that have overcome technical barriers and uncovered novel aspects of norovirus biology...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157786/campylobacter-jejuni-and-associated-immune-mechanisms-short-term-effects-and-long-term-implications-for-infants-in-low-income-countries
#8
Amanda E Schnee, William A Petri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as one of the most common causes of food-borne gastrointestinal illness worldwide, resulting in a self-limiting dysentery in developed countries. However, it is increasingly gaining attention due to its association with postinfectious complications such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome and recently recognized importance in early childhood diarrhea in developing countries. We hypothesize that the inflammation mediated by C. jejuni infection causes environmental enteric dysfunction, and with contribution from diet and the host, microbiome may be responsible for growth faltering in children and developmental disability...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826359/modeling-human-enteric-dysbiosis-and-rotavirus-immunity-in-gnotobiotic-pigs
#9
Erica L Twitchell, Christine Tin, Ke Wen, Husen Zhang, Sylvia Becker-Dreps, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Samuel Vilchez, Guohua Li, Ashwin Ramesh, Mariah Weiss, Shaohua Lei, Tammy Bui, Xingdong Yang, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Lijuan Yuan
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccines have poor efficacy in infants from low- and middle-income countries. Gut microbiota is thought to influence the immune response to oral vaccines. Thus, we developed a gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of enteric dysbiosis to study the effects of human gut microbiota (HGM) on immune responses to rotavirus vaccination, and the effects of rotavirus challenge on the HGM by colonizing Gn pigs with healthy HGM (HHGM) or unhealthy HGM (UHGM). The UHGM was from a Nicaraguan infant with a high enteropathy score (ES) and no seroconversion following administration of oral rotavirus vaccine, while the converse was characteristic of the HHGM...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803175/significant-correlation-between-the-infant-gut-microbiome-and-rotavirus-vaccine-response-in-rural-ghana
#10
Vanessa C Harris, George Armah, Susana Fuentes, Katri E Korpela, Umesh Parashar, John C Victor, Jacqueline Tate, Carolina de Weerth, Carlo Giaquinto, Willem Joost Wiersinga, Kristen D C Lewis, Willem M de Vos
BACKGROUND:  Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and 95% of RV-associated deaths occur in Africa and Asia where RV vaccines (RVVs) have lower efficacy. We hypothesize that differences in intestinal microbiome composition correlate with the decreased RVV efficacy observed in poor settings. METHODS:  We conducted a nested, case-control study comparing prevaccination, fecal microbiome compositions between 6-week old, matched RVV responders and nonresponders in rural Ghana...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803170/the-gut-microbiome-as-possible-key-to-understanding-and-improving-rotavirus-vaccine-performance-in-high-disease-burden-settings
#11
EDITORIAL
Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Nigel A Cunliffe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802388/identification-of-mhc-bound-peptides-from-dendritic-cells-infected-with-salmonella-enterica-strain-sl1344-implications-for-a-nontyphoidal-salmonella-vaccine
#12
Karuna P Karunakaran, Hong Yu, Xiaozhou Jiang, Queenie Chan, Michael F Goldberg, Marc K Jenkins, Leonard J Foster, Robert C Brunham
Worldwide Salmonella enterica infections result in substantial morbidity and mortality and are the major cause of infant bacteremia in Sub-Saharan Africa. Diseases caused by Salmonella are treatable with antibiotics, but successful antibiotic treatment has become difficult due to antimicrobial resistance and collateral effects on the microbiome. An effective vaccine together with public health efforts may be a better strategy to control these infections. Protective immunity against Salmonella depends primarily on CD4 T-cell-mediated immune responses; therefore, identifying relevant T-cell antigens is necessary for Salmonella vaccine development...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761936/epigenetic-treatment-of-persistent-viral-infections
#13
REVIEW
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755184/no-when-the-immunologist-becomes-a-virologist-norovirus-an-emerging-infection-in-immune-deficiency-diseases
#14
Stella Hartono, Amrita Bhagia, Avni Y Joshi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Norovirus infection is an emerging chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of Norovirus infection and explore mechanistic models for chronic infection/shedder state, especially in patients with immune deficiency diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic Norovirus infection is increasingly associated with enteropathy associated with both primary and secondary immune deficiency diseases. There is an ongoing debate in the immune deficiency community whether it is truly a causative agent for the enteropathy or it is an innocent bystander...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751936/national-institutes-of-health-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-late-effects-initiative-the-immune-dysregulation-and-pathobiology-working-group-report
#15
REVIEW
Juan Gea-Banacloche, Krishna V Komanduri, Paul Carpenter, Sophie Paczesny, Stefanie Sarantopoulos, Jo-Anne Young, Nahed El Kassar, Robert Q Le, Kirk R Schultz, Linda M Griffith, Bipin N Savani, John R Wingard
Immune reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) beyond 1 year is not completely understood. Many transplant recipients who are free of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and not receiving any immunosuppression more than 1 year after transplantation seem to be able to mount appropriate immune responses to common pathogens and respond adequately to immunizations. However, 2 large registry studies over the last 2 decades seem to indicate that infection is a significant cause of late mortality in some patients, even in the absence of concomitant GVHD...
June 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643883/taxa-of-the-nasal-microbiome-are-associated-with-influenza-specific-iga-response-to-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine
#16
Hannah M Salk, Whitney L Simon, Nathaniel D Lambert, Richard B Kennedy, Diane E Grill, Brian F Kabat, Gregory A Poland
Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has demonstrated varying levels of efficacy against seasonal influenza; however, LAIV may be used as a tool to measure interactions between the human microbiome and a live, replicating virus. To increase our knowledge of this interaction, we measured changes to the nasal microbiome in subjects who received LAIV to determine if associations between influenza-specific IgA production and the nasal microbiome exist after immunization with a live virus vaccine. The anterior nares of 47 healthy subjects were swabbed pre- (Day 0) and post- (Days 7 and 28) LAIV administration, and nasal washes were conducted on Days 0 and 28...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546235/sex-differences-in-immune-responses
#17
REVIEW
Sabra L Klein, Katie L Flanagan
Males and females differ in their immunological responses to foreign and self-antigens and show distinctions in innate and adaptive immune responses. Certain immunological sex differences are present throughout life, whereas others are only apparent after puberty and before reproductive senescence, suggesting that both genes and hormones are involved. Furthermore, early environmental exposures influence the microbiome and have sex-dependent effects on immune function. Importantly, these sex-based immunological differences contribute to variations in the incidence of autoimmune diseases and malignancies, susceptibility to infectious diseases and responses to vaccines in males and females...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514618/vaccinating-with-conserved-escherichia-coli-antigens-does-not-alter-the-mouse-intestinal-microbiome
#18
Michael P Hays, Aaron C Ericsson, Yang Yang, Philip R Hardwidge
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes diarrheal disease. Antigenic and structural heterogeneity among ETEC colonization factors has complicated vaccine development efforts. Identifying and characterizing conserved ETEC antigens that induce protective immunity is therefore of interest. We previously characterized three proteins (MipA, Skp, and ETEC_2479) that protected mice in an intranasal ETEC challenge model after vaccination. However, these proteins are conserved not only in multiple ETEC isolates, but also in commensal bacteria...
August 11, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471316/does-the-cervicovaginal-microbiome-facilitate-transmission-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-from-women-to-men-implications-for-understanding-transmission-of-gonorrhea-and-advancing-vaccine-development
#19
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27221144/engineering-the-campylobacter-jejuni-n-glycan-to-create-an-effective-chicken-vaccine
#20
Harald Nothaft, Brandi Davis, Yee Ying Lock, Maria Elisa Perez-Munoz, Evgeny Vinogradov, Jens Walter, Colin Coros, Christine M Szymanski
Campylobacter jejuni is a predominant cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Source-attribution studies indicate that chickens are the main reservoir for infection, thus elimination of C. jejuni from poultry would significantly reduce the burden of human disease. We constructed glycoconjugate vaccines combining the conserved C. jejuni N-glycan with a protein carrier, GlycoTag, or fused to the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-core. Vaccination of chickens with the protein-based or E. coli-displayed glycoconjugate showed up to 10-log reduction in C...
2016: Scientific Reports
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