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Microbiome vaccines

A von Braun, C Lübbert
The incidence of clostridium difficile infections (CDI) remains on a high level globally. In Germany, the number of severe or even lethal cases continues to increase. The main risk factor for the development of CDI is exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics, which disturb the physiological microbiome and therefore enable colonization with C. difficile. According to the updated US and European guidelines, orally administered vancomycin is the treatment of choice. Fidaxomicin is as effective as vancomycin but has the advantage of a lower rate of recurrence...
March 13, 2018: Der Internist
Breno C B Beirão, Max Ingberman, Celso Fávaro, Dany Mesa, Letícia C Bittencourt, Vitor B Fascina, Luiz Felipe Caron
Probiotics and immunization are being widely adopted by the poultry industry with the goal of controlling Salmonella enterica. However, the interaction between these two management protocols has been sparsely studied. The present study aimed to understand the role of an Enterococcus faecium probiotic in the production of salmonella-specific IgA in layers immunized with a live vaccine. Four groups were used: 'Control' (no vaccine or probiotic); 'Probiotic' (which received an E. faecium product); 'Vaccine' (immunized with two doses of a live attenuated S...
March 14, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Kathryn A Patras, Victor Nizet
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonizes the gastrointestinal and vaginal epithelium of a significant percentage of healthy women, with potential for ascending intrauterine infection or transmission during parturition, creating a risk of serious disease in the vulnerable newborn. This review highlights new insights on the bacterial virulence determinants, host immune responses, and microbiome interactions that underpin GBS vaginal colonization, the proximal step in newborn infectious disease pathogenesis. From the pathogen perspective, the function GBS adhesins and biofilms, β-hemolysin/cytolysin toxin, immune resistance factors, sialic acid mimicry, and two-component transcriptional regulatory systems are reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Fernando L L Leite, Randall S Singer, Tonya Ward, Connie J Gebhart, Richard E Isaacson
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium continues to be a major cause of foodborne illness worldwide and pork can serve as a source of infection. Co-infection of S. enterica with Lawsonia intracellularis, a common intestinal pathogen of swine, has been found as risk factor for increased S. enterica shedding. The objective of this study was to investigate if vaccination against L. intracellularis could lead to decreased S. Typhimurium shedding. To test this hypothesis, pigs were challenged with either S. Typhimurium or S...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jeffrey Pernica, Stuart Harman, April Kam, Jacob Bailey, Redjana Carciumaru, Sarah Khan, Martha Fulford, Lehana Thabane, Robert Slinger, Cheryl Main, Marek Smieja, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is commonly diagnosed in children. The Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines recommend 10 days of high-dose amoxicillin for the treatment of non-severe CAP but 5-day "short course" therapy may be just as effective. Randomized trials in adults have already demonstrated non-inferiority of 5-day short-course treatment for adults hospitalized with severe CAP and for adults with mild CAP treated as outpatients. Minimizing exposure to antimicrobials is desirable to avoid harms including diarrhoea, rashes, severe allergic reactions, increased circulating antimicrobial resistance, and microbiome disruption...
February 1, 2018: Trials
D Rose Ewald, Susan C J Sumner
Far from being just "bugs in our guts," the microbiota interacts with the body in previously unimagined ways. Research into the genome and the microbiome has revealed that the human body and the microbiota have a long-established but only recently recognized symbiotic relationship; homeostatic balance between them regulates body function. That balance is fragile, easily disturbed, and plays a fundamental role in human health-our very survival depends on the healthy functioning of these microorganisms. Increasing rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases, as well as epidemics in obesity and diabetes in recent decades are believed to be explained, in part, by unintended effects on the microbiota from vaccinations, poor diets, environmental chemicals, indiscriminate antibiotic use, and "germophobia...
January 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Pedro Vieira-Baptista, Svitrigaile Grinceviciene, Gert Bellen, Carlos Sousa, Conceição Saldanha, Davy Vanden Broeck, John-Paul Bogers, Gilbert Donders
Objective: To characterize the vaginal microbiome and the rate of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the women of Príncipe (São Tomé and Príncipe). Methods: Cross-sectional study of 100 consecutive women, invited for a free appointment and cervical cancer screening. A vaginal slide (wet mount microscopy) and a cervical sample (ThinPrep®) (Pap test, high risk human papillomavirus [HR-HPV], N. gonorrhea [NG], T. vaginalis [TV], and C. trachomatis [CT]) were obtained...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
T Dimova, A Terzieva, L Djerov, V Dimitrova, A Nikolov, P Grozdanov, N Markova
The ability of bacteria to exist as a population of self-replicating forms with defective or entirely missing cell wall (L-forms) is an adaptive mechanism for their survival and reproduction under unfavorable conditions. Bacterial mother-to-fetus transfer is a universal phenomenon in the animal kingdom. However, data about vertical transfer of L bacterial forms are extremely scarce. Bacille Calmette-Guérin is an attenuated strain of M. bovis and the only licensed vaccine used for tuberculosis prevention. We already have shown that filterable L-forms of BCG exist freely in the vaccine and are able to reproduce and to form colonies...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Michael Thomsen, Tessa Nikov, Sean Hall
Immune defence against pathogenic agents comprises the basic premise for the administration of vaccines. Vaccinations have hence prevented millions of infectious illnesses, hospitalizations and mortality. Acquired immunity comprises antibody and cell mediated responses and is characterized by its specificity and memory. Along a similar congruent yet diverse mode of disease prevention, the human host has negotiated from in utero and at birth with the intestinal commensal bacterial cohort to maintain local homeostasis in order to achieve immunological tolerance in the new born...
December 11, 2017: Vaccines
Marieke L A de Hoog, Timo Vesikari, Carlo Giaquinto, Hans-Iko Huppertz, Federico Martinon-Torres, Patricia Bruijning-Verhagen
The Fifth European Expert Meeting on Rotavirus Vaccination was convened in Utrecht, The Netherlands, in March 2017. The 2-day meeting included invited lectures as well as original oral and poster presentations and brought together experts from 21 countries. Summary findings of the meeting include: Rotavirus vaccination programmes in Europe have resulted in reductions of 60-90% in rotavirus outpatient visits and hospitalizations. Long term trends indicate this impact is sustained over the years. Herd effects, protecting unvaccinated children and neonates too young to be vaccinated have been observed in many European countries...
December 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Irene de Bruijn, Yiying Liu, Geert F Wiegertjes, Jos M Raaijmakers
Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food sector worldwide and expected to further increase to feed the growing human population. However, existing and (re-)emerging diseases are hampering fish and shellfish cultivation and yield. For many diseases, vaccination protocols are not in place and the excessive use of antibiotics and other chemicals is of substantial concern. A more sustainable disease control strategy to protect fish and shellfish from (re-)emerging diseases could be achieved by introduction or augmentation of beneficial microbes...
January 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Thaidra Gaufin, Nicole H Tobin, Grace M Aldrovandi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Emerging research on the pediatric microbiome implicates the importance of the microbiome on the development of the immune system, nervous system, and growth. Changes to the microbiome during infancy are associated with the development of chronic illnesses such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, the microbiome provides protection against certain pathogens, affects vaccine responses, and alters drug metabolism. This review highlights what is known about the microbiome, the establishment of a healthy microbiome and the significance that changes to the microbiome composition have on growth and health of children and adolescents...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Diego E Gomez, J Scott Weese
A complex community of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, and other microorganisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of calves and play important roles in gut health and disease. The viral component of the microbiome (the virome) is receiving increasing attention for its role in neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD). Rotavirus and coronavirus have for a long time been associated with NCD and commercial vaccines have been produced against these agents. Recently, several other viruses which may play a role in diarrhea have been discovered in calf fecal samples, mostly by sequence-based methods...
December 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Yhojan Rodríguez, Manuel Rojas, M Eric Gershwin, Juan-Manuel Anaya
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are emerging and reemerging diseases transmitted by ticks, which portray wide heterogeneity and global distribution. TBDs may present acute clinical pictures that resemble those of autoimmune diseases (i.e., musculoskeletal symptoms, cutaneous involvement, neurologic impairment, renal failure, etc.), and in some cases infection is considered a triggering factor for autoimmunity (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune thyroid disease, vasculitides). The clinician should consider TBDs among the differential diagnoses when approaching autoimmune-like signs in areas of tick infestation...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
Rebecca-Ayme Hughes, Riawana A Ali, Mary A Mendoza, Hosni M Hassan, Matthew D Koci
Preventing Salmonella colonization in young birds is key to reducing contamination of poultry products for human consumption (eggs and meat). While several Salmonella vaccines have been developed that are capable of yielding high systemic antibodies, it is not clear how effective these approaches are at controlling or preventing Salmonella colonization of the intestinal tract. Effective alternative control strategies are needed to help supplement the bird's ability to prevent Salmonella colonization, specifically by making the cecum less hospitable to Salmonella ...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jacob A Cram, Kevin W Hager, James G Kublin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gnotobiotic models have the potential to provide substantial insight into how the microbiome shapes its host's response to vaccines. This review aims to summarize literature about the role of the microbiome in shaping the immune system and vaccine response heterogeneity, summarize gnotobiotic and other murine models that help us understand the immune system and vaccine response, and suggest novel ways that these models could be used to further understand vaccine response heterogeneity...
January 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Xaveer Van Ostade, Martin Dom, Wiebren Tjalma, Geert Van Raemdonck
PURPOSE: Despite improvement in vaccines against human papilloma virus (HPV), the causative agent of cervical cancer, screening women for cervical precancer will remain indispensable in the coming 30-40 years. A simple test that could be performed at home or at a doctor's practice and that informs the woman whether she is at risk would significantly help make a broader group of patients who aware that they need medical treatment. Cervical vaginal fluid (CVF) is a body fluid that is very well suited for such a test...
November 15, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Wei Li A Koay, Lilly V Siems, Deborah Persaud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the interaction between HIV infection, the gut microbiome, inflammation and immune activation, and HIV reservoirs, along with interventions to target the microbiome and their implications for HIV remission and cure. RECENT FINDINGS: Most studies show that HIV-infected adults have a gut microbiome associated with decreased bacterial richness and diversity, and associated systemic inflammation and immune activation. A unique set of individuals, elite controllers, who spontaneously control HIV replication, have a similar microbiome to HIV-uninfected individuals...
January 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Victor Schmidt, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Chelsea Roy, Katherine Smith, Linda Amaral-Zettler
Prophylactic antibiotics in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry are intended to prevent the negative impacts of disease outbreaks. Research in mice and humans suggests that antibiotics may disturb microbiome communities and decrease microbiome-mediated disease resistance, also known as "colonization resistance." If antibiotics impact fish as they do mice and humans, prophylactic administrations on aquaculture farms may increase downstream disease susceptibility in target hosts, despite short-term pathogen control benefits...
November 2017: MSystems
Jonas Zantow, Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia Moreira, Stefan Dübel, Michael Hust
ORFeome phage display allows the efficient functional screening of entire proteomes or even metaproteomes to identify immunogenic proteins. For this purpose, randomly fragmented, whole genomes or metagenomes are cloned into a phage-display vector allowing positive selection for open reading frames (ORF) to improve the library quality. These libraries display all possible proteins encoded by a pathogen or a microbiome on the phage surface. Consequently, immunogenic proteins can be selected from these libraries using disease-related immunoglobulins from patient serum...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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