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Microbiome vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143101/candidate-biomarkers-in-the-cervical-vaginal-fluid-for-the-self-diagnosis-of-cervical-precancer
#1
REVIEW
Xaveer Van Ostade, Martin Dom, Wiebren Tjalma, Geert Van Raemdonck
PURPOSE: Despite improvement in vaccines against human papilloma virus (HPV), the causative agent of cervical cancer, screening women for cervical precancer will remain indispensable in the coming 30-40 years. A simple test that could be performed at home or at a doctor's practice and that informs the woman whether she is at risk would significantly help make a broader group of patients who aware that they need medical treatment. Cervical vaginal fluid (CVF) is a body fluid that is very well suited for such a test...
November 15, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135490/the-microbiome-and-hiv-persistence-implications-for-viral-remission-and-cure
#2
Wei Li A Koay, Lilly V Siems, Deborah Persaud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the interaction between HIV infection, the gut microbiome, inflammation and immune activation, and HIV reservoirs, along with interventions to target the microbiome and their implications for HIV remission and cure. RECENT FINDINGS: Most studies show that HIV-infected adults have a gut microbiome associated with decreased bacterial richness and diversity, and associated systemic inflammation and immune activation. A unique set of individuals, elite controllers, who spontaneously control HIV replication, have a similar microbiome to HIV-uninfected individuals...
November 10, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124129/subtle-microbiome-manipulation-using-probiotics-reduces-antibiotic-associated-mortality-in-fish
#3
Victor Schmidt, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Chelsea Roy, Katherine Smith, Linda Amaral-Zettler
Prophylactic antibiotics in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry are intended to prevent the negative impacts of disease outbreaks. Research in mice and humans suggests that antibiotics may disturb microbiome communities and decrease microbiome-mediated disease resistance, also known as "colonization resistance." If antibiotics impact fish as they do mice and humans, prophylactic administrations on aquaculture farms may increase downstream disease susceptibility in target hosts, despite short-term pathogen control benefits...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116523/orfeome-phage-display
#4
Jonas Zantow, Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia Moreira, Stefan Dübel, Michael Hust
ORFeome phage display allows the efficient functional screening of entire proteomes or even metaproteomes to identify immunogenic proteins. For this purpose, randomly fragmented, whole genomes or metagenomes are cloned into a phage-display vector allowing positive selection for open reading frames (ORF) to improve the library quality. These libraries display all possible proteins encoded by a pathogen or a microbiome on the phage surface. Consequently, immunogenic proteins can be selected from these libraries using disease-related immunoglobulins from patient serum...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106820/development-and-function-of-the-mucosal-immune-system-in-the-upper-respiratory-tract-of-neonatal-calves
#5
Rahwa Osman, Nilusha Malmuthuge, Patricia Gonzalez-Cano, Philip Griebel
Respiratory infections remain the second most common cause of clinical disease and mortality in newborn calves, which has led to increased interest in using vaccines early in life to mitigate this risk. Intranasal vaccination of neonatal calves can be an effective strategy to circumvent vaccine interference by maternal antibody, but this raises questions regarding onset of immune competence in the upper respiratory tract (URT) following birth. Little is known, however, about the development and function of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the URT of newborn calves and what factors, including the commensal microbiome, contribute to this early development...
November 6, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038117/will-systems-biology-deliver-its-promise-and-contribute-to-the-development-of-new-or-improved-vaccines-systems-biology-views-of-vaccine-innate-and-adaptive-immunity
#6
Rino Rappuoli, Emilio Siena, Oretta Finco
During the last decade, several high-throughput technologies have been applied to gather deeper understanding on the biological events elicited by vaccination. The main goal of systems biology is to integrate different sources of data and extract biologically meaningful information. This holistic approach has provided new insights on the impact that the innate immune status has on vaccine responsiveness. Other factors like chronic infections, age, microbiome, and metabolism can influence the outcome of vaccination, and systems biology offers unique opportunities to expand our understanding of their role on the immune response...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035947/cross-reactivity-of-hiv-vaccine-responses-and-the-microbiome
#7
Wilton B Williams, Qifeng Han, Barton F Haynes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A successful HIV-type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine will require immunogens that induce protective immune responses. However, recent studies suggest that the response to HIV-1 and perhaps other viruses may be altered by immune system exposure to intestinal microbiota-antigens. This review will discuss select aspects of these studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Naïve CD4 T and B cell repertoires can be imprinted by intestinal microbiota-antigens to respond to virus epitopes prior to virus infection...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979265/impact-of-age-caloric-restriction-and-influenza-infection-on-mouse-gut-microbiome-an-exploratory-study-of-the-role-of-age-related-microbiome-changes-on-influenza-responses
#8
Jenna M Bartley, Xin Zhou, George A Kuchel, George M Weinstock, Laura Haynes
Immunosenescence refers to age-related declines in the capacity to respond to infections such as influenza (flu). Caloric restriction represents a known strategy to slow many aging processes, including those involving the immune system. More recently, some changes in the microbiome have been described with aging, while the gut microbiome appears to influence responses to flu vaccination and infection. With these considerations in mind, we used a well-established mouse model of flu infection to explore the impact of flu infection, aging, and caloric restriction on the gut microbiome...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972547/human-immunodeficiency-virus-proteins-mimic-human-t-cell-receptors-inducing-cross-reactive-antibodies
#9
Robert Root-Bernstein
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hides from the immune system in part by mimicking host antigens, including human leukocyte antigens. It is demonstrated here that HIV also mimics the V-β-D-J-β of approximately seventy percent of about 600 randomly selected human T cell receptors (TCR). This degree of mimicry is greater than any other human pathogen, commensal or symbiotic organism studied. These data suggest that HIV may be evolving into a commensal organism just as simian immunodeficiency virus has done in some types of monkeys...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932211/strain-level-streptococcus-colonization-patterns-during-the-first-year-of-life
#10
Meredith S Wright, Jamison McCorrison, Andres M Gomez, Erin Beck, Derek Harkins, Jyoti Shankar, Stephanie Mounaud, Edelwisa Segubre-Mercado, Aileen May R Mojica, Brian Bacay, Susan A Nzenze, Sheila Z M Kimaro, Peter Adrian, Keith P Klugman, Marilla G Lucero, Karen E Nelson, Shabir Madhi, Granger G Sutton, William C Nierman, Liliana Losada
Pneumococcal pneumonia has decreased significantly since the implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), nevertheless, in many developing countries pneumonia mortality in infants remains high. We have undertaken a study of the nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiome during the first year of life in infants from The Philippines and South Africa. The study entailed the determination of the Streptococcus sp. carriage using a lytA qPCR assay, whole metagenomic sequencing, and in silico serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as 16S rRNA amplicon based community profiling...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927906/il-17a-contributes-to-reducing-ifn-%C3%AE-il-4-ratio-and-persistence-of-entamoeba-histolytica-during-intestinal-amebiasis
#11
Sharmina Deloer, Risa Nakamura, Mihoko Kikuchi, Taeko Moriyasu, Yombo Dan Justin Kalenda, Eman Sayed Mohammed, Masachika Senba, Yoichiro Iwakura, Hiroki Yoshida, Shinjiro Hamano
Amebiasis is an infectious disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica, an anaerobic protozoan parasite, and is a major public health problem worldwide, particularly in areas with inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene. Th1 responses, represented by interferon gamma (IFN-γ), play a protective role by clearing the amebae from the gut, whereas Th2 responses are responsible for chronic infection. Th17 responses preconditioned by vaccination or by modulating the intestinal microbiome protect mice from the settlement of E...
December 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891751/rotavirus-vaccine-response-correlates-with-the-infant-gut-microbiota-composition-in-pakistan
#12
Vanessa Harris, Asad Ali, Susana Fuentes, Katri Korpela, Momin Kazi, Jacqueline Tate, Umesh Parashar, W Joost Wiersinga, Carlo Giaquinto, Carolina de Weerth, Willem M de Vos
Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and ninety-five percent of rotavirus deaths occur in Africa and Asia. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) can dramatically reduce RV deaths, but have low efficacy in low-income settings where they are most needed. The intestinal microbiome may contribute to this decreased RVV efficacy. This pilot study hypothesizes that infants' intestinal microbiota composition correlates with RVV immune responses and that RVV responders have different gut microbiota as compared to non-responders...
September 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864446/the-potential-of-the-microbiota-to-influence-vaccine-responses
#13
REVIEW
David J Lynn, Bali Pulendran
After clean water, vaccines are the primary public health intervention providing protection against serious infectious diseases. Antigen-specific antibody-mediated responses play a critical role in the protection conferred by vaccination; however these responses are highly variable among individuals. In addition, vaccine immunogenicity is frequently impaired in developing world populations, for reasons that are poorly understood. Although the factors that are associated with interindividual variation in vaccine responses are likely manifold, emerging evidence from mouse models and studies in human populations now suggests that the gut microbiome plays a key role in shaping systemic immune responses to both orally and parenterally administered vaccines...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844414/childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-review-of-etiology-and-antimicrobial-treatment-studies
#14
REVIEW
Gerdien A Tramper-Stranders
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity worldwide. Because of the rising antimicrobial resistance rates and adverse effects of childhood antibiotic use on the developing microbiome, rational prescribing of antibiotics for CAP is important. This review summarizes and critically reflects on the available evidence for the epidemiology, etiology and antimicrobial management of childhood CAP. Larger prospective studies on antimicrobial management derive mostly from low- or middle-income countries as they have the highest burden of CAP...
July 15, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811633/rapid-replacement-by-non-vaccine-pneumococcal-serotypes-may-mitigate-the-impact-of-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-nasopharyngeal-bacterial-ecology
#15
Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Blake Hanson, Archibald Worwui, Schadrac Agbla, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Fatima Ceesay, Chinelo Ebruke, Uzochukwu Egere, Yanjiao Zhou, Maze Ndukum, Erica Sodergren, Michael Barer, Richard Adegbola, George Weinstock, Martin Antonio
There is growing concern that interventions that alter microbial ecology can adversely affect health. We characterised the impact of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal carriage and the bacterial component of the nasopharyngeal microbiome during infancy. Newborns were recruited into three groups as follows: Group1 (n = 33) was the control group and comprised infants who received PCV7 after 6 months and came from unvaccinated communities. Group 2 (n = 30) came from unvaccinated communities and Group 3 (n = 39) came from vaccinated communities...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807841/racial-disparity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-risk
#16
REVIEW
Hassan Ashktorab, Sonia S Kupfer, Hassan Brim, John M Carethers
Cancer from the gastrointestinal tract and its associated excretory organs will occur in more than 300,000 Americans in 2017, with colorectal cancer responsible for >40% of that burden; there will be more than 150,000 deaths from this group of cancers in the same time period. Disparities among subgroups related to the incidence and mortality of these cancers exist. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with each cancer bear out differences for racial groups in the United States. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more frequent in non-Hispanic whites, whereas esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with risk factors of tobacco and alcohol is more frequent among blacks...
October 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783896/liver-fluke-associated-biliary-tract-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Piyapan Prueksapanich, Panida Piyachaturawat, Prapimphan Aumpansub, Wiriyaporn Ridtitid, Roongruedee Chaiteerakij, Rungsun Rerknimitr
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive cancer arising from epithelial cells of the bile duct. Most patients with CCA have an unresectable tumor at the time of diagnosis. In Western countries, the risk of CCA increases in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, whereas liver fluke infection appears to be the major risk factor for CCA in Asian countries. A diagnosis of liver fluke infection often relies on stool samples, including microscopic examination, polymerase chain reaction-based assays, and fluke antigen detection...
August 9, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742161/abundance-and-co-occurrence-of-extracellular-capsules-increase-environmental-breadth-implications-for-the-emergence-of-pathogens
#18
Olaya Rendueles, Marc Garcia-Garcerà, Bertrand Néron, Marie Touchon, Eduardo P C Rocha
Extracellular capsules constitute the outermost layer of many bacteria, are major virulence factors, and affect antimicrobial therapies. They have been used as epidemiological markers and recently became vaccination targets. Despite the efforts to biochemically serotype capsules in a few model pathogens, little is known of their taxonomic and environmental distribution. We developed, validated, and made available a computational tool, CapsuleFinder, to identify capsules in genomes. The analysis of over 2500 prokaryotic genomes, accessible in a database, revealed that ca...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722709/regulation-of-inflammation-by-microbiota-interactions-with-the-host
#19
REVIEW
J Magarian Blander, Randy S Longman, Iliyan D Iliev, Gregory F Sonnenberg, David Artis
The study of the intestinal microbiota has begun to shift from cataloging individual members of the commensal community to understanding their contributions to the physiology of the host organism in health and disease. Here, we review the effects of the microbiome on innate and adaptive immunological players from epithelial cells and antigen-presenting cells to innate lymphoid cells and regulatory T cells. We discuss recent studies that have identified diverse microbiota-derived bioactive molecules and their effects on inflammation within the intestine and distally at sites as anatomically remote as the brain...
July 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646957/whither-vaccines
#20
Charlene M C Rodrigues, Marta V Pinto, Manish Sadarangani, Stanley A Plotkin
Currently used vaccines have had major effects on eliminating common infections, largely by duplicating the immune responses induced by natural infections. Now vaccinology faces more complex problems, such as waning antibody, immunosenescence, evasion of immunity by the pathogen, deviation of immunity by the microbiome, induction of inhibitory responses, and complexity of the antigens required for protection. Fortunately, vaccine development is now incorporating knowledge from immunology, structural biology, systems biology and synthetic chemistry to meet these challenges...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
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