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Microbiome vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826359/modeling-human-enteric-dysbiosis-and-rotavirus-immunity-in-gnotobiotic-pigs
#1
Erica L Twitchell, Christine Tin, Ke Wen, Husen Zhang, Sylvia Becker-Dreps, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Samuel Vilchez, Guohua Li, Ashwin Ramesh, Mariah Weiss, Shaohua Lei, Tammy Bui, Xingdong Yang, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Lijuan Yuan
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccines have poor efficacy in infants from low- and middle-income countries. Gut microbiota is thought to influence the immune response to oral vaccines. Thus, we developed a gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of enteric dysbiosis to study the effects of human gut microbiota (HGM) on immune responses to rotavirus vaccination, and the effects of rotavirus challenge on the HGM by colonizing Gn pigs with healthy HGM (HHGM) or unhealthy HGM (UHGM). The UHGM was from a Nicaraguan infant with a high enteropathy score (ES) and no seroconversion following administration of oral rotavirus vaccine, while the converse was characteristic of the HHGM...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803175/the-infant-gut-microbiome-correlates-significantly-with-rotavirus-vaccine-response-in-rural-ghana
#2
Vanessa C Harris, George Armah, Susana Fuentes, Katri E Korpela, Umesh Parashar, John C Victor, Jacqueline Tate, Carolina de Weerth, Carlo Giaquinto, W Joost Wiersinga, Kristen D C Lewis, Willem M de Vos
BACKGROUND:  Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and ninety-five percent of RV deaths occur in Africa and Asia where rotavirus vaccines (RVV) have lower efficacy. We hypothesize that differences in intestinal microbiome composition correlate with the decreased RVV efficacy observed in poor settings. METHODS:  We conducted a nested, case-control study comparing pre-vaccination, fecal microbiome compositions between 6-week old, matched RVV-responders and non-responders in rural Ghana...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803170/could-the-gut-microbiome-be-key-to-understanding-and-improving-rotavirus-vaccine-performance-in-high-disease-burden-settings
#3
EDITORIAL
Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Nigel A Cunliffe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802388/identification-of-mhc-bound-peptides-from-dendritic-cells-infected-with-salmonella-enterica-strain-sl1344-implications-for-a-non-typhoidal-salmonella-vaccine
#4
Karuna P Karunakaran, Hong Yu, Xiaozhou Jiang, Queenie Chan, Michael F Goldberg, Marc K Jenkins, Leonard J Foster, Robert C Brunham
Worldwide Salmonella enterica infections result in substantial morbidity and mortality and is the major cause of infant bacteremia in sub Saharan Africa. Diseases caused by Salmonella are treatable with antibiotics but successful antibiotic treatment has become difficult due to antimicrobial resistance and collateral effects on the microbiome. An effective vaccine together with public health efforts may be a better strategy to control these infections. Protective immunity against Salmonella depends primarily on CD4 T cell-mediated immune responses and therefore identifying relevant T cell antigens is necessary for Salmonella vaccine development...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761936/epigenetic-treatment-of-persistent-viral-infections
#5
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755184/no-when-the-immunologist-becomes-a-virologist-norovirus-an-emerging-infection-in-immune-deficiency-diseases
#6
Stella Hartono, Amrita Bhagia, Avni Y Joshi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Norovirus infection is an emerging chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of Norovirus infection and explore mechanistic models for chronic infection/shedder state, especially in patients with immune deficiency diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic Norovirus infection is increasingly associated with enteropathy associated with both primary and secondary immune deficiency diseases. There is an ongoing debate in the immune deficiency community whether it is truly a causative agent for the enteropathy or it is an innocent bystander...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751936/national-institutes-of-health-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-late-effects-initiative-the-immune-dysregulation-and-pathobiology-working-group-report
#7
REVIEW
Juan Gea-Banacloche, Krishna Komanduri, Paul Carpenter, Sophie Paczesny, Stefanie Sarantopoulos, Jo-Anne Young, Nahed El Kassar, Robert Q Le, Kirk Schultz, Linda M Griffith, Bipin Savani, John R Wingard
Immune reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) beyond 1 year is not completely understood. Many transplant recipients who are free of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and not receiving any immunosuppression more than 1 year after transplantation seem to be able to mount appropriate immune responses to common pathogens and respond adequately to immunizations. However, 2 large registry studies over the last 2 decades seem to indicate that infection is a significant cause of late mortality in some patients, even in the absence of concomitant GVHD...
October 14, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643883/taxa-of-the-nasal-microbiome-are-associated-with-influenza-specific-iga-response-to-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine
#8
Hannah M Salk, Whitney L Simon, Nathaniel D Lambert, Richard B Kennedy, Diane E Grill, Brian F Kabat, Gregory A Poland
Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has demonstrated varying levels of efficacy against seasonal influenza; however, LAIV may be used as a tool to measure interactions between the human microbiome and a live, replicating virus. To increase our knowledge of this interaction, we measured changes to the nasal microbiome in subjects who received LAIV to determine if associations between influenza-specific IgA production and the nasal microbiome exist after immunization with a live virus vaccine. The anterior nares of 47 healthy subjects were swabbed pre- (Day 0) and post- (Days 7 and 28) LAIV administration, and nasal washes were conducted on Days 0 and 28...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546235/sex-differences-in-immune-responses
#9
Sabra L Klein, Katie L Flanagan
Males and females differ in their immunological responses to foreign and self-antigens and show distinctions in innate and adaptive immune responses. Certain immunological sex differences are present throughout life, whereas others are only apparent after puberty and before reproductive senescence, suggesting that both genes and hormones are involved. Furthermore, early environmental exposures influence the microbiome and have sex-dependent effects on immune function. Importantly, these sex-based immunological differences contribute to variations in the incidence of autoimmune diseases and malignancies, susceptibility to infectious diseases and responses to vaccines in males and females...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514618/vaccinating-with-conserved-escherichia-coli-antigens-does-not-alter-the-mouse-intestinal-microbiome
#10
Michael P Hays, Aaron C Ericsson, Yang Yang, Philip R Hardwidge
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes diarrheal disease. Antigenic and structural heterogeneity among ETEC colonization factors has complicated vaccine development efforts. Identifying and characterizing conserved ETEC antigens that induce protective immunity is therefore of interest. We previously characterized three proteins (MipA, Skp, and ETEC_2479) that protected mice in an intranasal ETEC challenge model after vaccination. However, these proteins are conserved not only in multiple ETEC isolates, but also in commensal bacteria...
2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471316/does-the-cervicovaginal-microbiome-facilitate-transmission-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-from-women-to-men-implications-for-understanding-transmission-of-gonorrhea-and-advancing-vaccine-development
#11
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27221144/engineering-the-campylobacter-jejuni-n-glycan-to-create-an-effective-chicken-vaccine
#12
Harald Nothaft, Brandi Davis, Yee Ying Lock, Maria Elisa Perez-Munoz, Evgeny Vinogradov, Jens Walter, Colin Coros, Christine M Szymanski
Campylobacter jejuni is a predominant cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Source-attribution studies indicate that chickens are the main reservoir for infection, thus elimination of C. jejuni from poultry would significantly reduce the burden of human disease. We constructed glycoconjugate vaccines combining the conserved C. jejuni N-glycan with a protein carrier, GlycoTag, or fused to the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-core. Vaccination of chickens with the protein-based or E. coli-displayed glycoconjugate showed up to 10-log reduction in C...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27076127/systems-vaccinology-applications-trends-and-perspectives
#13
Johannes Sollner
The strategies employed in vaccinology have improved since the seminal work of Edward Jenner in the eighteenth century. Stimulated by failure to develop vaccines for cancers and chronic infectious diseases as well as an emergence of a multitude of new technologies not available earlier, vaccinology has moved from a largely experimental art to a new phase of innovation. Currently, immune reactions can be predicted and modeled before they occur and formulations can be optimized in advance for genetic background, age, sex, lifestyle, environmental factors, and microbiome...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27046733/revision-of-the-ich-guideline-on-detection-of-toxicity-to-reproduction-for-medicinal-products-swot-analysis
#14
Paul Barrow
SWOT analysis was used to gain insights and perspectives into the revision of the ICH S5(R2) guideline on detection of toxicity to reproduction for medicinal products. The current ICH guideline was rapidly adopted worldwide and has an excellent safety record for more than 20 years. The revised guideline should aim to further improve reproductive and developmental (DART) safety testing for new drugs. Alternative methods to animal experiments should be used whenever possible. Modern technology should be used to obtain high quality data from fewer animals...
September 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042137/recent-insights-into-the-molecular-pathogenesis-of-crohn-s-disease-a-review-of-emerging-therapeutic-targets
#15
REVIEW
Teodora-Ecaterina M Manuc, Mircea M Manuc, Mircea M Diculescu
Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a subject of great interest in gastroenterology, due to a pathological mechanism that is difficult to explain and an optimal therapeutic approach still undiscovered. Crohn's disease (CD) is one of the main entities in IBD, characterized by clinical polymorphism and great variability in the treatment response. Modern theories on the pathogenesis of CD have proven that gut microbiome and environmental factors lead to an abnormal immune response in a genetically predisposed patient...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27028990/acute-exacerbation-of-copd
#16
REVIEW
Fanny W Ko, Ka Pang Chan, David S Hui, John R Goddard, Janet G Shaw, David W Reid, Ian A Yang
The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations...
October 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962943/siv-infection-mediated-changes-in-gastrointestinal-bacterial-microbiome-and-virome-are-associated-with-immunodeficiency-and-prevented-by-vaccination
#17
Scott A Handley, Chandni Desai, Guoyan Zhao, Lindsay Droit, Cynthia L Monaco, Andrew C Schroeder, Joseph P Nkolola, Megan E Norman, Andrew D Miller, David Wang, Dan H Barouch, Herbert W Virgin
AIDS caused by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with gastrointestinal disease, systemic immune activation, and, in cross-sectional studies, changes in the enteric virome. Here we performed a longitudinal study of a vaccine cohort to define the natural history of changes in the fecal metagenome in SIV-infected monkeys. Matched rhesus macaques were either uninfected or intrarectally challenged with SIV, with a subset receiving the Ad26 vaccine, an adenovirus vector expressing the viral Env/Gag/Pol antigens...
March 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934513/therapies-on-the-horizon-for-clostridium-difficile-infections
#18
Lynne V McFarland
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infections are a leading cause of healthcare facility outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness that may have serious complications and a high rate of recurrent disease. Despite the availability of standard antibiotic treatments, data from national surveillance programs indicate that the incidence of this disease continues to increase, placing a heavy burden on healthcare systems. New emerging strategies are being tested to replace or augment these standard antibiotics...
2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26923880/immunoprophylaxis-in-intensive-farming-systems-the-way-forward
#19
Massimo Amadori, Cinzia Zanotti
High levels of production in intensive farming systems are associated with increased replacement rates as a result of multifactorial diseases. The so-called "production diseases" may include low-grade infection reducing profitability without increased morbidity. Such infections are sustained by low pathogenic viral and bacterial agents which give rise to full-blown disease in association with poor environmental conditions. In these farms, the results of vaccination may be disappointing. Therefore, fundamental issues should be dealt with toward successful immunoprophylaxis...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26893311/inhaled-corticosteroids-and-the-increased-risk-of-pneumonia-what-s-new-a-2015-updated-review
#20
REVIEW
Hernan Iannella, Carlos Luna, Grant Waterer
There is a considerable amount of evidence that supports the possibility of an increased risk of pneumonia associated with prolonged use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, as yet, no statistically significant increase in pneumonia-related 30-day mortality in patients on ICS has been demonstrated. The lack of objective pneumonia definitions and radiological confirmations have been a major source of bias, because of the similarities in clinical presentation between pneumonia and acute exacerbations of COPD...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
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