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Marcos M Siliézar, Catuxa Celerio Muñoz, Jon Danel Solano-Iturri, Laura Ortega-Comunian, Manuela Mollejo, Santiago Montes-Moreno, Miguel A Piris
Objectives: Spontaneous rupture of the spleen is occasionally seen as the presenting event in infectious mononucleosis (IM). Diagnosis of these cases can be very challenging. Methods: We describe the morphologic and immunohistochemical findings in a series of seven splenectomy specimens removed after spontaneous rupture in patients with IM. Most cases were submitted for a second opinion since the histology of the cases suggested malignant lymphoma. Results: All the cases showed similar findings, with red pulp expansion occupied by activated T and B cells, including scattered large lymphocytes with both T- and B-cell markers, together with a polymorphic background rich in cytotoxic T cells...
July 10, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Achilleas Attilakos, Argirios Dinopoulos, Maria Paschalidou, Maria Tsirouda, Maria Karalexi, Alexia Prasouli, Anastasia Garoufi
Studies evaluating the effect of Levetiracetam (LEV) on haematological parameters in patients with epilepsy are very limited. Short-term effects on haematological parameters in children with epilepsy, at 2 and 6 months of LEV treatment, have been previously reported in the literature. Purpose of the current study was to further investigate the long-term changes on haematological parameters in children with epilepsy during LEV monotherapy. White blood cell, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and platelets were measured in 20 children (11 females, mean age 6,5 ± 4,4 years, range 2-15 years) with epilepsy, before and after 12 months of LEV monotherapy...
July 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Silvia Darb-Esfahani, Ivonne Kolaschinski, Fabian Trillsch, Sven Mahner, Nicole Concin, Ignace Vergote, Els Van Nieuwenhuysen, Patriciu Achimas-Cadariu, Joanna Glajzer, Hannah Woopen, Stephan Wienert, Eliane Tabea Taube, Mandy Stanske, Hagen Kulbe, Carsten Denkert, Jalid Sehouli, Elena Ioana Braicu
OBJECTIVE: Advanced-stage ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is a poor-prognosis cancer, however a small and poorly characterized subset of patients shows long-term survival. We aimed to establish a cohort of HGSC long-term survivors for histopathological and molecular analysis. METHODS: Paraffin blocks from 151 patients with primary FIGO III/IV HGSC and progression-free survival (PFS) >5 years were collected within the Tumorbank Ovarian Cancer (TOC) Network...
July 14, 2018: Histopathology
Susanne Hofmann, Michael Schmitt, Marlies Götz, Hartmut Döhner, Markus Wiesneth, Donald Bunjes, Jochen Greiner
T cell responses against malignant cells play a major role in maintaining remission and prolonging overall survival in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) due to graft-versus-leukemia effect. For better characterization of the T cell responses, we assessed frequency and diversity of leukemia-associated antigen (LAA)-specific cytotoxic T cells using ELISpot and pMHC multimer assays and analyzed the frequency of regulatory T cells (Treg) as well as cytokine profiles before/after DLI...
July 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Peter Valent, Emir Hadzijusufovic, Thomas Grunt, Heidrun Karlic, Barbara Peter, Harald Herrmann, Gregor Eisenwort, Gregor Hoermann, Axel Schulenburg, Michael Willmann, Rainer Hubmann, Medhat Shehata, Edgar Selzer, Karoline V Gleixner, Thomas Rülicke, Wolfgang R Sperr, Brigitte Marian, Michael Pfeilstöcker, Hubert Pehamberger, Felix Keil, Ulrich Jäger, Christoph Zielinski
In 2008 the Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster Oncology (LBC ONC) was established on the basis of two previous Ludwig Boltzmann Institutes working in the field of hematology and cancer research. The general aim of the LBC ONC is to improve treatment of hematopoietic neoplasms by eradicating cancer-initiating and disease-propagating cells, also known as leukemic stem cells (LSC) in the context of leukemia. In a first phase, the LBC ONC characterized the phenotype and molecular aberration profiles of LSC in various malignancies...
July 13, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Xiang Zhao, Shvetha Sankaran, Jiawei Yap, Chien Tei Too, Zi Zong Ho, Garry Dolton, Mateusz Legut, Ee Chee Ren, Andrew K Sewell, Antonio Bertoletti, Paul A MacAry, Joanna Brzostek, Nicholas R J Gascoigne
Foreign antigens are presented by antigen-presenting cells in the presence of abundant endogenous peptides that are nonstimulatory to the T cell. In mouse T cells, endogenous, nonstimulatory peptides have been shown to enhance responses to specific peptide antigens, a phenomenon termed coagonism. However, whether coagonism also occurs in human T cells is unclear, and the molecular mechanism of coagonism is still under debate since CD4 and CD8 coagonism requires different interactions. Here we show that the nonstimulatory, HIV-derived peptide GAG enhances a specific human cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to HBV-derived epitopes presented by HLA-A*02:01...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Miok Kim, Seon-Jin Lee, Sangsu Shin, Kang-Seo Park, Sang Yoon Park, Chang Hoon Lee
Despite advances in the clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), this form of cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Currently, there are few treatment options for advanced HCC. Therefore, novel treatment strategies for HCC are required. Here, we described the promising antitumour effects of anisomycin, which exerts both direct killing effects and natural killer cell (NK)-mediated immunotherapeutic effects in HCC. To better elucidate the mechanisms through which anisomycin mediates its antitumour effects, we performed a genome-scale transcriptional analysis...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mahasweta Gooptu, Haesook T Kim, Yi-Bin Chen, Witold Rybka, Andrew Artz, Michael Boyer, Laura Johnston, Jim McGuirk, Thomas C Shea, Madan Jagasia, Paul J Shaughnessy, Carol G Reynolds, Marie Fields, Edwin P Alyea, Vincent T Ho, Frank Glavin, John F Dipersio, Peter Westervelt, Jerome Ritz, Robert J Soiffer
INTRODUCTION: We recently conducted a randomized double-blind study in which we demonstrated that moderate/severe cGVHD, but not cGVHD free survival, was reduced in patients receiving ATLG (Neovii) versus placebo. In a companion study, we performed immunophenotypic analysis, to determine the impact of ATLG on immune reconstitution (IR) and to correlate IR with clinical outcomes. METHODS: The randomized study (n=254) included patients (18-65 years) who underwent myeloablative transplants for AML/MDS/ALL from HLA-matched unrelated donors...
July 10, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Sara Thulin Hedberg, Lorraine Eriksson, Maria A Demontis, Paula Mölling, Martin Sundqvist, Graham Taylor, Kerstin Malm, Sören Andersson
BACKGROUND: Human T-lymphotrophic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 cause lifelong infection whereby most infected individuals are asymptomatic whilst a minority develop infection-related disease. These latter patients invariably have been found to have high proviral load (PVL). Therefore, infected patients are monitored by determining the proportion of lymphocytes that are infected with HTLV-1/2. An increase in PVL has been shown to represent an increasing risk of developing HTLV-associated diseases...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Andreia C Lino, Van Duc Dang, Vicky Lampropoulou, Anna Welle, Jara Joedicke, Jelka Pohar, Quentin Simon, Jessie Thalmensi, Aurelia Baures, Vinciane Flühler, Imme Sakwa, Ulrik Stervbo, Stefanie Ries, Luc Jouneau, Pierre Boudinot, Takeshi Tsubata, Takahiro Adachi, Andreas Hutloff, Thomas Dörner, Ursula Zimber-Strobl, Alex F de Vos, Katja Dahlke, Gunnar Loh, Sarantis Korniotis, Christian Goosmann, Jean-Claude Weill, Claude-Agnès Reynaud, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Jörn Walter, Simon Fillatreau
B lymphocytes can suppress immunity through interleukin (IL)-10 production in infectious, autoimmune, and malignant diseases. Here, we have identified a natural plasma cell subset that distinctively expresses the inhibitory receptor LAG-3 and mediates this function in vivo. These plasma cells also express the inhibitory receptors CD200, PD-L1, and PD-L2. They develop from various B cell subsets in a B cell receptor (BCR)-dependent manner independently of microbiota in naive mice. After challenge they upregulate IL-10 expression via a Toll-like receptor-driven mechanism within hours and without proliferating...
July 2, 2018: Immunity
Domenico Acanfora, Pietro Scicchitano, Mauro Carone, Chiara Acanfora, Giuseppe Piscosquito, Roberto Maestri, Annapaola Zito, Ilaria Dentamaro, Marialaura Longobardi, Gerardo Casucci, Raffaele Antonelli-Incalzi, Marco Matteo Ciccone
BACKGROUND: Prognostic stratification of elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is difficult due to the wide inter-individual variability in the course of the disease. No marker can exactly stratify the evolution and natural history of COPD patients. Studies have shown that leukocyte count is associated with increased risk of mortality in COPD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of relative lymphocyte count as a risk marker for mortality in elderly patients with COPD...
July 13, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Cameron K Postnikoff, Carrie Huisingh, Gerald McGwin, Kelly K Nichols
PURPOSE: Leukocytes accumulate in the eye with sleep, but little is known about the presence or absence of leukocytes in awake, open eye tears. This study sought to compare normal and dry eye subjects for daily variation in open eye leukocyte composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten normal subjects and nine dry eye subjects were enrolled. Subjects were trained for self-collection of tear samples using an ocular surface wash with 5 mL of phosphate buffered saline per eye...
July 13, 2018: Current Eye Research
Yusuke Takahashi, Hitoshi Seki, Yasushi Sekino
INTRODUCTION: Pseudolymphoma of the liver is a very rare disease. It is usually resected and pathologically diagnosed because of the difficulty of discrimination from the malignant neoplasm. For this reason, few cases which were observed for several years have been reported. We present a case of this disease observed and slightly enlarged for two years. PRESENTATION OF CASES: The patient was a 46-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for right renal cell carcinoma two years ago...
June 28, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Qianru Chi, Xin Chi, Xueyuan Hu, Shuang Wang, Hongfu Zhang, Shu Li
Excessive hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) affects poultry health. Exposure to air pollution induces inflammation, oxidative stress, energy metabolism dysfunction and adverse health effects. However, few detailed studies have been conducted on the molecular mechanisms of H2 S-induced injury in poultry. To understand how H2 S drives its adverse effects on chickens, twenty-four 14-day-old chickens were randomly divided into two groups. The chickens in the control group were raised in a separate chamber without H2 S, and the chickens in the treatment group were exposed to 30 ppm H2 S...
July 4, 2018: Environmental Research
William J Archibald, Philip J Meacham, AnnaLynn M Williams, Andrea M Baran, Adrienne I Victor, Paul M Barr, Deepak M Sahasrahbudhe, Clive S Zent
Melanoma is significantly more common and is associated with a poorer prognosis in patients with an underlying B-cell malignancy. This study reports on the management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) and a subsequent diagnosis of melanoma. In the Wilmot Cancer Institute CLL cohort, which includes 470 patients followed for 2849 person-years, 18 patients (3.8%) developed 22 melanomas. Fourteen melanomas were invasive, a significantly higher rate as compared with the age and sex matched general population (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 6...
July 6, 2018: Leukemia Research
Zhikuan Chen, Lanlan Liu, Ruijing Liang, Zhenyu Luo, Huamei He, Zhihao Wu, Hao Tian, Mingbin Zheng, Yifan Ma, Lintao Cai
An ideal cancer therapeutic strategy is expected to possess potent ability that not only can ablate primary tumor, but also can prevent the distance metastasis and relapse. In this study, human serum albumin was hybridized with hemoglobin by intermolecular disulfide bonds to develop a hybrid protein oxygen nanocarrier with chlorine e6 encapsulated (C@HPOC) for oxygen self-sufficient photodynamic therapy (PDT). C@HPOC realized the tumor-targeted co-delivery of photosensitizer and oxygen, which remarkably relieved tumor hypoxia...
July 13, 2018: ACS Nano
Jeong Uk Lim, Chang Dong Yeo, Hye Seon Kang, Chan Kwon Park, Ju Sang Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Seung Joon Kim, Sang Haak Lee
INTRODUCTION: A combination of platelet and lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) (abbreviated as COP-LMR) has been recently evaluated as systemic inflammatory marker for prognostication in lung cancer. While previous study on COP-LMR has evaluated its prognostic value in NSCLC patients who underwent curative resections, the combination of these two markers has not been evaluated in advanced NSCLC yet. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of COP-LMR in stage IV NSCLC with malignant pleural effusion under active anticancer treatment...
2018: PloS One
Paula Andrea Serna Ortega, Irma Saulle, Vincenzo Mercurio, Salomè Valentina Ibba, Elisa Maria Lori, Claudio Fenizia, Michela Masetti, Daria Trabattoni, Sergio Lo Caputo, Francesca Vichi, Francesco Mazzotta, Mario Clerici, Mara Biasin
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-21 (IL-21) modulates HIV-1 infection through the elicitation of different antiviral mechanisms, including Th17 lineage commitment and induction of microRNA (miR)-29, a miRNA endowed with anti-HIV activity. As miR-29 expression is significantly increased in HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals (HESN), we investigated the role of miR-29/IL21 axis in the natural control of HIV-1 infection. METHODS: PBMCs isolated from 15 Italian sexually-exposed HESN and 15 HIV-unexposed healthy controls (HC) were in vitro infected with an R5-tropic HIV-1Ba-L strain...
July 12, 2018: AIDS
Anastacia M Garcia, Ayed Allawzi, Philip Tatman, Laura Hernandez-Lagunas, Kalin Swain, Gary Mouradian, Russell P Bowler, Anis Karimpour-Fard, Carmen C Sucharov, Eva Nozik-Grayck
Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase (EC-SOD), one of three mammalian SOD isoforms, is the sole extracellular enzymatic defense against superoxide. A known human SNP in the matrix-binding domain of EC-SOD characterized by an arginine to glycine substitution at position 213 (R213G), redistributes EC-SOD from the matrix into extracellular fluids. We previously reported that knock-in mice harboring the human R213G SNP (R213G mice) exhibited enhanced resolution of inflammation with subsequent protection against fibrosis following bleomycin treatment compared to wild-type (WT) littermates...
July 13, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Milad Sabzevary-Ghahfarokhi, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahdi Ghatreh-Samani, Mojtaba Shohan
Secreted inflammatory cytokines are considered as critical mediators in the tumor microenvironment. Cancer cells play a significant role in the differentiation of effector T cells to exhausted T cells through mediator production. Effector T cells that undergo tumor microenvironment become terminally differentiated into exhausted T cells. These changes create an opportunity for tumorigenesis and invasion of cancer cells. Despite having some characteristics of effector T cells, the exhausted T cells lose their antitumor properties...
July 13, 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
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