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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735348/analysis-of-the-cd8-t-cell-anti-hiv-activity-in-heterologous-cell-co-cultures-reveals-the-benefit-of-multiple-hla-class-i-matches
#1
M Scott Killian, Fernando Teque, Ramu Sudhagoni
CD8(+) T lymphocytes can reduce the production of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) by CD4(+) T cells by cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic mechanisms. To investigate the involvement of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I compatibility in anti-HIV responses, we co-cultured primary CD8(+) T cells, isolated from the peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected individuals, with panels of autologous and heterologous acutely HIV-1-infected primary CD4(+) T cells. Altogether, CD8(+) T cell anti-HIV activity was evaluated in more than 200 co-cultures...
July 22, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735232/immunoglobulin-g4-related-mastitis-a-case-report
#2
Ee Syn Tan, Brendon Friesen, Seow Foong Loh, Jane Fox
INTRODUCTION: IgG4-related mastitis (IgG4-RM) is exceedingly rare with only ten cases reported in the literature to date. Organs that are affected with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) all share the same histopathological hallmarks consisting of dense lymphocytic infiltration, storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis. PRESENTATION OF CASE: This case report highlights a case of IgG4-RM found incidentally in a 52-year-old woman during a routine breast screen and it explores the current literature about IgG4-RM and IgG4-RD...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735162/tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-breast-cancer-according-to-tumor-subtype-current-state-of-the-art
#3
REVIEW
Cinzia Solinas, Luisa Carbognin, Pushpamali De Silva, Carmen Criscitiello, Matteo Lambertini
The recent success of the immune checkpoint blockade in cancer immunotherapy has modified the treatment algorithms in a variety of aggressive neoplastic diseases. Nevertheless, optimal selection of ideal candidates to these drugs remains a challenge. The presence, location and composition of a pre-existing tumor immune infiltrate seem to impact on the benefit from these treatments. The association between the presence of baseline tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and patients' outcomes has been widely investigated in breast cancer, although immunotherapeutic strategies have historically been less successful with respect to other neoplastic diseases such as melanoma and kidney cancer...
July 20, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734795/monoclonal-antibodies-in-multiple-myeloma-a-new-wave-of-the-future
#4
REVIEW
Daniel W Sherbenou, Tomer M Mark, Peter Forsberg
In 2015, 2 monoclonal antibodies were approved for the treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), elotuzumab and daratumumab. Elotuzumab is a monoclonal IgG-κ antibody directed against SLAMF7 (signaling lymphocytic activation molecule F7), a cell surface receptor involved in natural killer cell activation. Daratumumab is a monoclonal IgG-κ antibody that binds to CD38, a transmembrane protein found on the surface of myeloma cells and responsible for cellular adhesion and ectoenzymatic activity...
June 27, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734759/nivolumab-in-patients-with-metastatic-dna-mismatch-repair-deficient-or-microsatellite-instability-high-colorectal-cancer-checkmate-142-an-open-label-multicentre-phase-2-study
#5
Michael J Overman, Ray McDermott, Joseph L Leach, Sara Lonardi, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Michael A Morse, Jayesh Desai, Andrew Hill, Michael Axelson, Rebecca A Moss, Monica V Goldberg, Z Alexander Cao, Jean-Marie Ledeine, Gregory A Maglinte, Scott Kopetz, Thierry André
BACKGROUND: Metastatic DNA mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR)/microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colorectal cancer has a poor prognosis after treatment with conventional chemotherapy and exhibits high levels of tumour neoantigens, tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes, and checkpoint regulators. All of these features are associated with the response to PD-1 blockade in other tumour types. Therefore, we aimed to study nivolumab, a PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, in patients with dMMR/MSI-H metastatic colorectal cancer...
July 19, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734690/salivary-c-reactive-protein-mean-platelet-volume-and-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-as-diagnostic-markers-for-neonatal-sepsis
#6
Ahmed Omran, Abdallah Maaroof, Mai H Saleh, Amina Abdelwahab
OBJECTIVE: To assess the applicability of salivary C-reactive protein (CRP), mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. METHODS: Prospective case-control study of 70 full-term neonates, 35 with sepsis (20 with proven sepsis and 15 with clinical sepsis) and 35 healthy controls. Serum and salivary CRP concentrations were measured by ELISA while MPV, NLR, and PLR were measured by automated blood cell counter...
July 20, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734678/improvement-of-adipose-tissue-derived-cells-by-low-energy-extracorporeal-shock-wave-therapy
#7
Eleni Priglinger, Christina M A P Schuh, Carolin Steffenhagen, Christoph Wurzer, Julia Maier, Sylvia Nuernberger, Wolfgang Holnthoner, Christiane Fuchs, Susanne Suessner, Dominik Rünzler, Heinz Redl, Susanne Wolbank
BACKGROUND: Cell-based therapies with autologous adipose tissue-derived cells have shown great potential in several clinical studies in the last decades. The majority of these studies have been using the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), a heterogeneous mixture of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, pericytes and adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASC) among others. Although possible clinical applications of autologous adipose tissue-derived cells are manifold, they are limited by insufficient uniformity in cell identity and regenerative potency...
July 19, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734601/influence-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-fermentation-products-smartcare-in-milk-replacer-and-original-xpc-in-calf-starter-on-the-performance-and-health-of-preweaned-holstein-calves-challenged-with-salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhimurium
#8
T L Harris, Y Liang, K P Sharon, M D Sellers, I Yoon, M F Scott, J A Carroll, M A Ballou
This study was designed to investigate the effects of supplementing SmartCare (SC; Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) in milk replacer and Original XPC (XPC; Diamond V) in calf starter on performance and health of preweaned calves following an oral challenge with Salmonella enterica. The study was performed in two 35-d periods with 30 Holstein bull calves (2 ± 1 d of age) per period. In each period, calves were blocked by location in the barn and randomly assigned to treatments that included control, base milk replacer and calf starter with no added Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products; SC, milk replacer with 1 g of SC/calf per day and base calf starter; and SC+XPC, milk replacer with 1 g of SC/calf per day and calf starter with 0...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734574/early-reduction-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-8-serum-levels-is-associated-with-leptin-drop-and-predicts-diabetes-remission-after-bariatric-surgery
#9
Luca Liberale, Aldo Bonaventura, Federico Carbone, Maria Bertolotto, Paola Contini, Nicola Scopinaro, Giovanni Bruno Camerini, Francesco Saverio Papadia, Renzo Cordera, Giovanni Guido Camici, Franco Dallegri, Gian Franco Adami, Fabrizio Montecucco
BACKGROUND: We aimed at investigating whether the acute abrogation of leptin after bariatric surgery is able to reduce neutrophil activation and potentially affect type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remission. METHODS: Metabolic and inflammatory parameters (i.e. leptin, IL-6 and neutrophil products) were compared at baseline (before bariatric surgery), one month, one and three years after surgery in morbid obese (MOB) T2DM patients (n=12) and non-MOB controls (n=32)...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734440/use-of-mechanical-circulatory-support-in-isolated-right-heart-failure-a-bridge-to-transplantation
#10
Daniel J Beissel, Brian F Birnbaum, Aliessa P Barnes, James E O'Brien, Elizabeth M Turk, James D St Louis
Acute myocarditis may lead to left ventricular dysfunction and subsequent need for cardiac transplantation. We describe a 15-month-old child who presented with right heart failure of unclear cause. Echocardiography showed normal left ventricular function; however, right ventricular function was markedly reduced. The patient required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation followed by placement of a right-sided Berlin EXCOR ventricular assist device. There was little recovery, and the child underwent cardiac transplantation...
August 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734176/cancer-immunotherapy-moving-forward-with-peptide-t-cell-vaccines
#11
REVIEW
Takumi Kumai, Aaron Fan, Yasuaki Harabuchi, Esteban Celis
Recent advances in cancer immunology, such as the discovery of immune checkpoint inhibitors, have validated immune cells as potential key players for effective cancer treatment. The efficacy of these therapies seems to be codependent on a tumor-reactive T lymphocyte response. For many years, numerous attempts and strategies in developing vaccines to generate tumor-reactive T cells have yielded poor results in the clinic due to suboptimal immunogenicity and the inability to overcome an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733940/pituitary-tuberculoma-a-rare-cause-of-sellar-mass
#12
REVIEW
H M Zia-Ul-Hussnain, M Farrell, S Looby, W Tormey, M Javadpour, S Mcconkey, C J Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Pituitary tuberculosis is an uncommon cause of sellar mass [1]; the estimated prevalence worldwide is not known, and there have been no reports of the condition occurring in Ireland. Tuberculosis of the pituitary gland may present as a sellar mass or with symptoms of hypopituitarism. CASE PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old woman, with a short prodromal history without endocrine symptoms, was found to have pituitary tuberculosis after the demonstration of a sellar mass on MRI, and lumbar puncture findings consistent with lymphocytic meningitis...
July 21, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733709/il-4-blockade-alters-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-augments-the-response-to-cancer-immunotherapy-in-a-mouse-model
#13
Shuku-Ei Ito, Hidekazu Shirota, Yuki Kasahara, Ken Saijo, Chikashi Ishioka
Recent findings show that immune cells constitute a large fraction of the tumor microenvironment and that they modulate tumor progression. Clinical data indicate that chronic inflammation is present at tumor sites and that IL-4, in particular, is upregulated. Thus, we tested whether IL-4 neutralization would affect tumor immunity. Current results demonstrate that the administration of a neutralizing antibody against IL-4 enhances anti-tumor immunity and delays tumor progression. IL-4 blockade also alters inflammation in the tumor microenvironment, reducing the generation of both immunosuppressive M2 macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and enhancing tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes...
July 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733584/therapeutic-effects-of-sphingosine-kinase-inhibitor-n-n-dimethylsphingosine-dms-in-experimental-chronic-chagas-disease-cardiomyopathy
#14
Juliana Fraga Vasconcelos, Cássio Santana Meira, Daniela Nascimento Silva, Carolina Kymie Vasques Nonaka, Pâmela Santana Daltro, Simone Garcia Macambira, Pablo Daniel Domizi, Valéria Matos Borges, Ricardo Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Bruno Solano de Freitas Souza, Milena Botelho Pereira Soares
Chagas disease cardiomyopathy is a parasite-driven inflammatory disease to which there are no effective treatments. Here we evaluated the therapeutic potential of N,N-dimethylsphingosine(DMS), which blocks the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate(S1P), a mediator of cellular events during inflammatory responses, in a model of chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy. DMS-treated, Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice had a marked reduction of cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and galectin-3 expression when compared to controls...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733541/a-validated-transitional-and-translational-porcine-model-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Kyle M Schachtschneider, Regina M Schwind, Kwame A Darfour-Oduro, Arun K De, Lauretta A Rund, Kuldeep Singh, Daniel R Principe, Grace Guzman, Charles E Ray, Howard Ozer, Ron C Gaba, Lawrence B Schook
Difficult questions are confronting clinicians attempting to improve hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) outcomes. A large animal model with genetic, anatomical, and physiological similarities to humans is required to transition from mouse models to human clinical trials to address unmet clinical needs. To validate our previously reported inducible porcine cancer model (Oncopig) as a transitional HCC model, Oncopig hepatocyte cultures were transformed using Cre recombinase. The resulting porcine HCC cells (pHCC) expressed oncogenic TP53R167H and KRASG12D, and displayed nuclear pleomorphisms with pale to granular cytoplasm arranged in expanded plates similar to human HCC histopathology...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733529/immunotherapy-of-wap-tnp-mice-with-early-stage-mammary-gland-tumors
#16
Michael Bruns, Wolfgang Deppert
The SV40 transgenic BALB/c mouse based WAP-T/WAP-TNP model for triple-negative breast cancer allows the analysis of parameters influencing immunotherapeutic approaches. Except for WAP-TNP tumors expressing the immune-dominant LCMV NP-epitope within SV40 T-antigen (T-AgNP) which is not expressed by T-Ag of WAP-T tumors, the tumors are extremely similar. Comparative anti-PD1/PD-L1 immunotherapy of WAP-T and WAP-TNP mice supported the hypothesis that the immunogenicity of tumor antigen T-cell epitopes strongly influences the success of immune checkpoint blockade therapy, with highly immunogenic T-cell epitopes favoring rapid CTL exhaustion...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733488/identification-of-optimal-strategies-for-state-transition-of-complex-biological-networks
#17
REVIEW
Meichen Yuan, Weirong Hong, Pu Li
Complex biological networks typically contain numerous parameters, and determining feasible strategies for state transition by parameter perturbation is not a trivial task. In the present study, based on dynamical and structural analyses of the biological network, we optimized strategies for controlling variables in a two-node gene regulatory network and a T-cell large granular lymphocyte signaling network associated with blood cancer by using an efficient dynamic optimization method. Optimization revealed the critical value for each decision variable to steer the system from an undesired state into a desired attractor...
July 21, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733349/constitutive-ido1-expression-in-human-tumors-is-driven-by-cyclooxygenase-2-and-mediates-intrinsic-immune-resistance
#18
Marc Hennequart, Luc Pilotte, Stefania Cane, Delia Hoffmann, Vincent Stroobant, Etienne De Plaen, Benoît J Van den Eynde
Tumors use various mechanisms to avoid immune destruction. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression may be a driver of immune suppression in melanoma, but the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here, we show that COX-2 expression drives constitutive expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) in human tumor cells. IDO1 is an immunosuppressive enzyme that degrades tryptophan. In a series of seven human tumor lines, constitutive IDO1 expression depends on COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which, upon autocrine signaling through the EP receptor, activates IDO1 via the PKC and PI3K pathways...
July 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733045/induction-of-live-cell-phagocytosis-by-a-specific-combination-of-inflammatory-stimuli
#19
Takamasa Ishidome, Takeshi Yoshida, Rikinari Hanayama
Conditions of severe hyper-inflammation can lead to uncontrolled activation of macrophages, and the ensuing phagocytosis of live cells. However, relationships between inflammatory stimuli and uncontrolled phagocytosis of live cells by macrophages are poorly understood. To identify mediators of this process, we established phagocytosis assays of live cells by stimulating macrophages with CpG DNA, interferon-γ, and anti-interleukin-10 receptor antibody. In this model, various cell surface receptors were upregulated on macrophages, and phagocytosis of live cells was induced in a Rac1-dependent manner...
July 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732440/intravenous-injection-of-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-coated-plga-microparticles-have-tolerogenic-effects-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#20
Mehrdad Gholamzad, Masoumeh Ebtekar, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani
The abnormal function of the T lymphocytes causes a range of autoimmune diseases, particularly multiple sclerosis; hence, several methods have been used to treat these disorders through the induction of antigen-specific tolerance in T cells. The present study aims to use a simple and low-cost method to produce poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles for carrying antigens and inducing antigen-specific tolerance. In this study, PLGA nanoparticles were produced using the water/oil/water (W/O/W) method...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
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