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Meth addiction

T Výtisková, D Suchá, Z Fučíková
OBJECTIVE: To describe hear-attack on crystal meth addicted pregnant woman. DESIGN: Case report. CONCLUSION: Acute heart-attack during pregnancy means unexpected obstetric complication. The consequences could be fatal for the mother and the fetus. Although good delivery management and treatment could reduce morbidity and mortality to a minimum.
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
Li Zhu, Jiaqi Li, Nan Dong, Fanglin Guan, Yufeng Liu, Dongliang Ma, Eyleen L K Goh, Teng Chen
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant that elicits aberrant changes in the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the nucleus accumbens of mice, indicating a potential role of METH in post-transcriptional regulations. To decipher the potential consequences of these post-transcriptional regulations in response to METH, we performed strand-specific RNA sequencing (ssRNA-Seq) to identify alterations in mRNA expression and their alternative splicing in the nucleus accumbens of mice following exposure to METH...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
F Betzler, A Heinz, S Köhler
Background: Synthetic drug use and abuse are on the rise. Governmental institutions report a shift in consumption from natural drugs to synthetic drugs, and show an increase in confiscation, particularly of methamphetamine and newly identified psychoactive substances. In addition, the media report an alarming increase in the rate of consumption and casualties resulting from the use of drugs such as "crystal meth" and warn against a flood of this and other designer drugs from eastern European countries. Objectives: The present article gives an overview of current popular and widely used synthetic drugs, both classical substances (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA) and new psychoactive substances ("designer drugs", "legal highs")...
November 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Masoomeh Forghani, Bahram Ali Ghanbari Hashem Abadi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of group psychotherapy with transactional analysis (TA) approach on emotional intelligence (EI), executive functions and substance dependency among drug-addicts at rehabilitation centers in Mashhad city, Iran, in 2013. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study with pretest, posttest, case- control stages, 30 patients were selected from a rehabilitation center and randomly divided into two groups...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Amy J Eshleman, Katherine M Wolfrum, John F Reed, Sunyoung O Kim, Tracy Swanson, Robert A Johnson, Aaron J Janowsky
Synthetic cathinones are components of "bath salts" and have physical and psychological side effects including hypertension, paranoia, and hallucinations. Herein we report interactions of 20 "bath salt" components with human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters (hDAT, hSERT, and hNET, respectively) heterologously expressed in HEK 293 cells. Transporter inhibitors had nanomolar to micromolar affinities (Ki values) at radioligand binding sites, with relative affinities of hDAT>hNET>hSERT for α-PPP, α-PBP, α-PHP, PV-8, 3,4-MDPPP, 3,4-MDPBP, 4-MePPP, α-PVP, 4-MeO- α-PVP, α-PVT and pentedrone, and hDAT>hSERT>hNET for pentylone...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Ali Roohbakhsh, Kobra Shirani, Gholamreza Karimi
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly potent and addictive drug with major medical, psychiatric, cognitive, socioeconomic, and legal consequences. It is well absorbed following different routes of administration and distributed throughout the body. METH is known as psychomotor stimulant with potent physiological outcomes on peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in physical and psychological disorders. Autophagy is a highly conserved and regulated catabolic pathway which is critical for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis and regulating cell growth...
October 13, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Eugene A Kiyatkin, Hari Sharma
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and often abused stimulant with potent addictive and neurotoxic properties. While it is generally believed that structural brain damage induced by METH results from oxidative stress, in this work we present data suggesting robust disruption of blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers (BBB and BSCB) during acute METH intoxication in rats. We demonstrate the relationships between METH-induced brain hyperthermia and widespread but structure-specific barrier leakage, acute glial activation, changes in brain water and ionic homeostasis, and structural damage of different types of cells in the brain and spinal cord...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Nora L Salaberry, Maria Mateo, Jorge Mendoza
Circadian rhythms are strongly affected by drugs. In rodents, chronic methamphetamine (METH) intake changes circadian activity rhythms, mainly by altering light synchronization that generates the expression of a free-running rhythm with a period longer than 24 h and a second behavioral component that is independent of the main suprachiasmatic (SCN) clock. Although a number of clock genes do not appear to be involved in the effects of METH on circadian behavior, the molecular clockwork controlling these changes is still unclear...
September 1, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Di Wen, Meiling An, Hongyan Gou, Xia Liu, Li Liu, Chunling Ma, Bin Cong
As a powerful addictive psychostimulant drug, coupled with its neurotoxicity, methamphetamine (METH) abuse may lead to long-lasting abnormalities in brain structure and function. We found that pretreatment of cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) inhibited METH-induced brain cellular dopaminergic (DA) damage in the striatum and substantia nigra, and related behavioural deficits and hyperthermia. However, the mechanism of CCK-8 action on METH-induced toxicity is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore whether the possible protective effect of CCK-8 on METH-induced neurotoxicity involved anti-oxidative stress mechanisms...
August 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Lu Li, Chuchu Qiao, Gang Chen, Hongyan Qian, Ying Hou, Tao Li, Xinshe Liu
Chronic discontinuous use of many psychomotor stimulants leads to behavioral sensitization and, owing to it shares common mechanisms with relapse, most researchers use its animal model to explore the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction. Recent studies have proved that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are implicated in psychomotor stimulant-induced behavioral sensitization. However, the function of GluN2B-containing NMDARs and their potential downstream cascade(s) in the acquisition and expression of behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine (METH) have not been explored...
October 29, 2016: Neuroscience
Jie Zhu, Na Zhao, Yanjiong Chen, Li Zhu, Qing Zhong, Jian Liu, Teng Chen
Previous studies demonstrated that histone acetylation modulated the transcription of associated gene expression and thus contributed to the persistence of addictive behaviors and neuroplasticity. Nonetheless, the roles of histone acetylation in distinct phases of methamphetamine (METH)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) remain unclear. The current study examines the effects of the histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB) on the acquisition, extinction, and reinstatement of METH-induced CPP in mice...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Niklas Rommel, Nils H Rohleder, Steffen Koerdt, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Roland Härtel-Petri, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Marco R Kesting
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine, a highly addictive sympathomimetic stimulant, is currently widely abused worldwide and has been associated with devastating effects on oral health, resulting in the term "meth mouth". However, "meth mouth" pathology is primarily based on case reports with a lack of systematic clinical evaluation. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic study to investigate (1) the pharmacological impact of methamphetamine on oral health with regard to saliva function, including the parameters saliva flow rate and total saliva production (ml/5 min) and the buffering capacity of saliva; (2) the contribution of the symptoms of bruxism and muscle trismus to potential oral health damage...
2016: BMC Oral Health
Reza Arezoomandan, Marzieh Moradi, Ghassem Attarzadeh-Yazdi, Carlos Tomaz, Abbas Haghparast
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant drug with significant abuse potential and neurotoxic effects. A high percentage of users relapse to use after detoxification and no effective medication has been developed for treatment of METH addiction. Developing evidences indicated the role of glial cells in drugs abused related phenomena. However, little is known about the role of these cells in the maintenance and reinstatement of METH-seeking behaviors. Therefore, the current study was conducted to clarify the role of glial cells in the maintenance and reinstatement of METH-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats...
July 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Lu Li, Xinshe Liu, Chuchu Qiao, Gang Chen, Tao Li
Addiction is a debilitating, chronic psychiatric disorder that is difficult to cure completely owing to the high rate of relapse. Behavioral sensitization is considered to may underlie behavioral changes, such as relapse, caused by chronic abuse of psychomotor stimulants. Thus, its animal models have been widely used to explore the etiology of addiction. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play an important role in addiction to psychomotor stimulants. However, the role of GluN2B-containing receptors and their downstream signaling pathway(s) in behavioral sensitization induced by methamphetamine (METH) have not been investigated yet...
June 23, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Robert Malcolm, Hugh Myrick, Xingbao Li, Scott Henderson, Kathleen T Brady, Mark S George, Ronald E See
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging of drug-associated cue presentations has aided in understanding the neurobiological substrates of craving and relapse for cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. However, imaging of cue-reactivity in methamphetamine addiction has been much less studied. METHOD: Nine caucasian male methamphetamine-dependent subjects and nine healthy controls were scanned in a Phillips 3.0T MRI scan when they viewed a randomized presentation of visual cues of methamphetamine, neutral objects, and rest conditions...
2016: Journal of Drug Abuse
Laura Hoffmann, Nadine Schumann, Thomas Fankhaenel, Carolin Thiel, Andreas Klement, Matthias Richter
INTRODUCTION: The synthetic drug methamphetamine with its high addiction potential is associated with substantial adverse health effects. In Germany, especially Central Germany, the increase in the consumption of methamphetamine has exceeded that of other illegal drugs. The treatment system and service providers are facing new challenges due to this rise in consumption. This qualitative study will explore the demand created by the increasing healthcare needs of methamphetamine-addicted persons in Central Germany, and the difficulty of rehabilitating addicted people...
2016: BMJ Open
Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Zuzana Babinska, Petra Amchova, Tibor Stark, Filippo Drago, Alexandra Sulcova, Vincenzo Micale
OBJECTIVES: Patients with schizophrenia suffer comorbid substance abuse regardless of gender. However, the vast majority of studies are only conducted in male subjects. Therefore, the aim of these experiments is to assess addictive behaviors of both sexes in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia induced by prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) exposure. METHODS: MAM was administered intraperitoneally (22 mg/kg on gestational day 17). Two studies were performed in the offspring: (1) alcohol drinking procedure to assess daily intake of 20% alcohol and relapse-like behavior after a period of forced abstinence...
May 25, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Yue Pei, Aman Asif-Malik, Marius Hoener, Juan J Canales
Recent evidence suggests that the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of dopamine (DA) transmission and psychostimulant action. Several selective TAAR1 agonists have previously shown efficacy in models of cocaine addiction. However, the effects of TAAR1 activation on methamphetamine (METH)-induced behaviours are less well understood, as indeed are the underlying neurochemical mechanisms mediating potential interactions between TAAR1 and METH. Here, in a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement the partial TAAR1 agonist, RO5263397, reduced the break-point for METH self-administration, while significantly increasing responding maintained by food reward...
May 19, 2016: Addiction Biology
Li Xue, Yan Geng, Ming Li, Yao-Feng Jin, Hui-Xun Ren, Xia Li, Feng Wu, Biao Wang, Wei-Ying Cheng, Teng Chen, Yan-Jiong Chen
Accumulating studies have revealed that the dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) plays an important role in methamphetamine (METH) addiction. However, the action of D3R on METH-mediated immune response and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Mast cells (MCs) are currently identified as effector cells in many processes of immune responses, and MC activation is induced by various stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, CD117 and FcεRI are known as MC markers due to their specific expression in MCs. To investigate the effects of D3R on METH-mediated alteration of LPS-induced MCs activation and the underlying mechanism, in this study, we examined the expression of CD117 and FcεRI in the intestines of wild-type (D3R(+/+)) and D3R-deficient (D3R(-/-)) mice...
May 5, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Sucharita S Somkuwar, McKenzie J Fannon, Brian P Head, Chitra D Mandyam
Role of striatal dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) in methamphetamine (Meth) taking and seeking is recognized from contingent Meth self-administration studies. For example, Meth increases levels of D1Rs in the dorsal striatum in animal models of Meth addiction, and blockade of striatal D1Rs decreased responding for Meth and reduced Meth priming-induced drug seeking. However, the mechanism underlying enhanced expression of striatal D1Rs in animals self-administering Meth is unknown and is hypothesized to involve maladaptive intracellular signal transduction mechanism via hyperphosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)...
July 22, 2016: Neuroscience
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