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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091930/non-equilibrium-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-the-transient-ludwig-soret-effect-in-a-binary-lennard-jones-spline-mixture
#1
Bjørn Hafskjold
A binary isotope mixture of Lennard-Jones/spline particles at equilibrium was perturbed by a sudden change in the system's boundary temperatures. The system's response was determined by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). Three transient processes were studied: 1) The propagation of a pressure (shock) wave, 2) heat diffusivity and conduction, and 3) thermal diffusion (the Ludwig-Soret effect). These three processes occur at different time scales, which makes it possible to separate them in one single NEMD run...
January 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088499/initial-uncertainty-impacts-statistical-learning-in-sound-sequence-processing
#2
Juanita Todd, Alexander Provost, Lisa Whitson, Daniel Mullens
This paper features two studies confirming a lasting impact of first learning on how subsequent experience is weighted in early relevance-filtering processes. In both studies participants were exposed to sequences of sound that contained a regular pattern on two different timescales. Regular patterning in sound is readily detected by the auditory system and used to form "prediction models" that define the most likely properties of sound to be encountered in a given context. The presence and strength of these prediction models is inferred from changes in automatically elicited components of auditory evoked potentials...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079678/sound-localization-in-patients-with-congential-unilateral-conductive-hearing-loss-with-a-transcutaneous-bone-conduction-implant
#3
Erich Vyskocil, Rudolfs Liepins, Alexandra Kaider, Michaela Blineder, Sasan Hamzavi
OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus regarding the benefit of implantable hearing aids in congenital unilateral conductive hearing loss (UCHL). This study aimed to measure sound source localization performance in patients with congenital UCHL and contralateral normal hearing who received a new bone conduction implant. STUDY DESIGN: Evaluation of within-subject performance differences for sound source localization in a horizontal plane. SETTING: Tertiary referral center...
January 10, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077712/changes-in-properties-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-following-conductive-hearing-loss
#4
Xiaowen Zhuang, Wei Sun, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher-order areas for further processing and localization...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077288/micro-endoscopic-system-for-functional-assessment-of-neural-circuits-in-deep-brain-regions-simultaneous-optical-and-electrical-recordings-of-auditory-responses-in-mouse-s-inferior-colliculus
#5
Hidetaka Yashiro, Ichiro Nakahara, Kazuo Funabiki, Hiroshi Riquimaroux
In vivo Ca(2+) imaging is a powerful method for the functional assessment of neural circuits. Although multi-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy has been widely used, observation of circuits in deep brain regions remains challenging. Recently, observing these deep regions has become possible via an endoscope consisting of an optical fiber bundle or gradient-index lens. We have designed a micro-endoscope system that enables simultaneous optical recording of fluorescence and electrical recording of neural activity...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073564/education-and-notification-approaches-for-harmful-algal-blooms-habs-washington-state-usa
#6
F Joan Hardy, Debra Bouchard, Marisa Burghdoff, Ray Hanowell, Beth LeDoux, Ellen Preece, Lindsay Tuttle, Gene Williams
While numerous strategies have been used to educate and notify the public about potential hazards from exposure to Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), at present there are no national guidelines or suggested outreach approaches. To raise public awareness and determine effective HAB outreach methods, two Washington State agencies and three counties in the Puget Sound region implemented several education and notification strategies. These approaches were rated for effectiveness by state and county public health and water quality professionals...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067750/unilateral-hearing-loss-understanding-speech-recognition-and-localization-variability-implications-for-cochlear-implant-candidacy
#7
Jill B Firszt, Ruth M Reeder, Laura K Holden
OBJECTIVES: At a minimum, unilateral hearing loss (UHL) impairs sound localization ability and understanding speech in noisy environments, particularly if the loss is severe to profound. Accompanying the numerous negative consequences of UHL is considerable unexplained individual variability in the magnitude of its effects. Identification of covariables that affect outcome and contribute to variability in UHLs could augment counseling, treatment options, and rehabilitation. Cochlear implantation as a treatment for UHL is on the rise yet little is known about factors that could impact performance or whether there is a group at risk for poor cochlear implant outcomes when hearing is near-normal in one ear...
November 4, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047007/we-de-bra-03-construction-of-an-ultrasound-guidance-platform-for-image-guided-radiotherapy-with-the-intent-to-treat-transitional-cell-carcinoma
#8
J Sick, N Rancilio, C Fulkerson, P LaPetina, J Poulson, D Knapp, K Stantz
PURPOSE: Ultrasound (US) is a noninvasive, nonradiographic imaging technique with high spatial and temporal resolution that can be used for localizing soft-tissue structures and tumors in real-time during radiotherapy (inter- and intra-fraction). A detailed methodology integrating 3D-US within RT is presented. This method is easier to adopt into current treatment protocol than current US based systems and reduces user variability for image acquisition, thus eliminating transducer induced changes that limit CT planning system...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040051/geoacoustic-inversion-for-the-seabed-transition-layer-using-a-bernstein-polynomial-model
#9
Jorge E Quijano, Stan E Dosso, Jan Dettmer, Charles Holland
This paper develops an inversion method for the seabed transition layer at the water-sediment interface, often found in muddy sediments, which provides density and sound-speed profiles that were previously not resolvable. The resolution improvements are achieved by introducing a parametrization that captures general depth-dependent gradients in geoacoustic parameters with a small number of parameters. In particular, the gradients are represented by a sum of Bernstein basis functions, weighted by unknown coefficients...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040045/compressive-spherical-beamforming-for-localization-of-incipient-tip-vortex-cavitation
#10
Youngmin Choo, Woojae Seong
Noises by incipient propeller tip vortex cavitation (TVC) are generally generated at regions near the propeller tip. Localization of these sparse noises is performed using compressive sensing (CS) with measurement data from cavitation tunnel experiments. Since initial TVC sound radiates in all directions as a monopole source, a sensing matrix for CS is formulated by adopting spherical beamforming. CS localization is examined with known source acoustic measurements, where the CS estimated source position coincides with the known source position...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040016/quasilinear-reflection-as-a-possible-mechanism-for-suppressor-induced-otoacoustic-emission
#11
Yi-Wen Liu, Tzu-Chi Liu
A frequency-domain iterative approach is developed to compute the change in characteristic impedance in the cochlea due to the presence of a suppressor tone. Based on this approach, a small transient wave passing by the best place (BP) of the suppressor is predicted to be partially reflected because of the suppressor-induced impedance variation. This computational approach is tested on a nonlinear model of cochlear mechanics [Liu, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 1788-1796 (2014)]. When a 9-kHz suppressor at 60 dB sound pressure level is delivered to the model, the characteristic impedance decreases by ∼20% near its BP...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040008/underwater-sound-localization-of-pure-tones-in-the-median-plane-by-harbor-seals-phoca-vitulina
#12
Jenny Ann Byl, Lars Miersch, Sven Wieskotten, Guido Dehnhardt
In an underwater environment the physical characteristics of sound propagation differ considerably from those in air. For this reason, sound localization underwater is associated with difficulties, especially in the median plane. It was the approach of the present study to investigate whether harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) are able to determine the direction of a tonal signal form above or below in the underwater environment. Minimum audible angles (MAAs) or the angular range in which the animals could localize a pure tone stimulus in the vertical plane were obtained for frequencies from 0...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035271/sensitivity-analysis-of-repast-computational-ecology-models-with-r-repast
#13
Antonio Prestes García, Alfonso Rodríguez-Patón
Computational ecology is an emerging interdisciplinary discipline founded mainly on modeling and simulation methods for studying ecological systems. Among the existing modeling formalisms, the individual-based modeling is particularly well suited for capturing the complex temporal and spatial dynamics as well as the nonlinearities arising in ecosystems, communities, or populations due to individual variability. In addition, being a bottom-up approach, it is useful for providing new insights on the local mechanisms which are generating some observed global dynamics...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032241/improvement-of-speech-perception-in-quiet-and-in-noise-without-decreasing-localization-abilities-with-the-bone-conduction-device-bonebridge
#14
Roxanne Weiss, Martin Leinung, Uwe Baumann, Tobias Weißgerber, Tobias Rader, Timo Stöver
The aim of this study was to examine the functional hearing results regarding speech perception and auditory sound localization in a high-resolution directional hearing setup following implantation with a new bone conduction device (MED-EL Bonebridge, Innsbruck, Austria). In addition, we assessed the patient acceptance of the Bonebridge system using a questionnaire. The study design is retrospective study. The setting is University Hospital Frankfurt. 18 patients implanted with a Bonebridge device from May 2012 to January 2015 were participated in this study...
December 28, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032116/synaptic-inhibition-in-avian-interaural-level-difference-sound-localizing-neurons
#15
Rebecca J Curry, Yong Lu
Synaptic inhibition plays a fundamental role in the neural computation of the interaural level difference (ILD), an important cue for the localization of high-frequency sound. Here, we studied the inhibitory synaptic currents in the chicken posterior portion of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (LLDp), the first binaural level difference encoder of the avian auditory pathway. Using whole-cell recordings in brain slices, we provide the first evidence confirming a monosynaptic inhibition driven by direct electrical and chemical stimulation of the contralateral LLDp, establishing the reciprocal inhibitory connection between the two LLDps, a long-standing assumption in the field...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011819/evolution-of-vocal-patterns-tuning-hindbrain-circuits-during-species-divergence
#16
Charlotte L Barkan, Erik Zornik, Darcy B Kelley
The neural circuits underlying divergent courtship behaviors of closely related species provide a framework for insight into the evolution of motor patterns. In frogs, male advertisement calls serve as unique species identifiers and females prefer conspecific to heterospecific calls. Advertisement calls of three relatively recently (∼8.5mya) diverged species - Xenopus laevis, X. petersii and X. victorianus - include rapid trains of sound pulses (fast trills). We show that while fast trills are similar in pulse rate (∼60 pulses/second) across the 3 species, they differ in call duration and period (time from onset of call to the onset of the following call)...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007525/the-mammalian-cretaceous-cochlear-revolution
#17
REVIEW
Geoffrey A Manley
The hearing organs of amniote vertebrates show large differences in their size and structure between the species' groups. In spite of this, their performance in terms of hearing sensitivity and the frequency selectivity of auditory-nerve units shows unexpectedly small differences. The only substantial difference is that therian, defined as live-bearing, mammalian groups are able to hear ultrasonic frequencies (above 15-20 kHz), whereas in contrast monotreme (egg laying) mammals and all non-mammalian amniotes cannot...
December 19, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000280/modern-implant-dentistry-based-on-osseointegration-50%C3%A2-years-of-progress-current-trends-and-open-questions
#18
REVIEW
Daniel Buser, Lars Sennerby, Hugo De Bruyn
In the 1960s and 1970s, implant-supported prostheses based on subperiosteal or blade implants had a poor reputation because of questionable clinical outcomes and lack of scientific documentation. The change to a scientifically sound discipline was initiated by the two scientific pioneers of modern implant dentistry, Professor P. I. Brånemark from the University of Gothenburg in Sweden and Professor André Schroeder from the University of Bern in Switzerland. Together with their teams, and independently of each other, they laid the foundation for the most significant development and paradigm shift in dental medicine...
February 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990382/general-measures-and-quality-of-life-issues-in-psoriasis
#19
Rashmi Sarkar, Shikha Chugh, Shivani Bansal
Psoriasis generally does not affect survival but has significant detrimental effect on quality of life (QOL), which may be comparable to that of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, depression, and cancer. The foremost important thing in the management of psoriasis is counseling of the patient. The clinician needs to be empathetic and spend adequate time with the patient and educating the patient about psoriasis. Clinicians should make it clear to the patient that the primary goal of treatment is control of the disease rather than cure...
November 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989950/plastic-changes-along-auditory-pathway-during-salicylate-induced-ototoxicity-hyperactivity-and-cf-shifts
#20
Chen Jiang, Bin Luo, Senthilvelan Manohar, Guang-Di Chen, Richard Salvi
High dose of salicylate, the active ingredient in aspirin, has long been known to induce transient hearing loss, tinnitus and hyperacusis making it a powerful experimental tool. These salicylate-induced perceptual disturbances are associated with a massive reduction in the neural output of the cochlea. Paradoxically, the diminished neural output of the cochlea is accompanied by a dramatic increase in sound-evoked activity in the auditory cortex (AC) and several other parts of the central nervous system. Exactly where the increase in neural activity begins and builds up along the central auditory pathway are not fully understood...
October 27, 2016: Hearing Research
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