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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633959/characterization-of-the-superior-olivary-complex-of-canis-lupus-domesticus
#1
Tatiana Fech, Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Randy J Kulesza
The superior olivary complex (SOC) is a collection of brainstem auditory nuclei which play essential roles in the localization of sound sources, temporal coding of vocalizations and descending modulation of the cochlea. Notwithstanding, the SOC nuclei vary considerably between species in accordance with the auditory needs of the animal. The canine SOC was subjected to anatomical and physiological examination nearly 50 years ago and was then virtually forgotten. Herein, we aimed to characterize the nuclei of the canine SOC using quantitative morphometrics, estimation of neuronal number, histochemistry for perineuronal nets and immunofluorescence for the calcium binding proteins calbindin and calretinin...
June 15, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621001/early-vocabulary-development-in-children-with-bilateral-cochlear-implants
#2
Taina Välimaa, Sari Kunnari, Päivi Laukkanen-Nevala, Eila Lonka
BACKGROUND: Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618825/spectral-equalization-in-binaural-signals-represented-by-order-truncated-spherical-harmonics
#3
Zamir Ben-Hur, Fabian Brinkmann, Jonathan Sheaffer, Stefan Weinzierl, Boaz Rafaely
The synthesis of binaural signals from spherical microphone array recordings has been recently proposed. The limited spatial resolution of the reproduced signal due to order-limited reproduction has been previously investigated perceptually, showing spatial perception ramifications, such as poor source localization and limited externalization. Furthermore, this spatial order limitation also has a detrimental effect on the frequency content of the signal and its perceived timbre, due to the rapid roll-off at high frequencies...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617977/psychometric-assessment-of-the-cultural-capacity-scale-spanish-version-in-chilean-nursing-students
#4
J P Cruz, F A Machuca Contreras, J E Ortiz López, C A Zapata Aqueveque, L M Vitorino
AIM: To assess the psychometric properties of the Cultural Capacity Scale Spanish version in Chilean nursing students. BACKGROUND: The increased diversity in healthcare facilities and the current shortage of local nursing workforce in Chile present a significant challenge to the nursing education to train future competent local nurses. To facilitate cultural competence development among Chilean nursing students, it is necessary to regularly assess their cultural competence, which necessitates a culturally adapted valid and reliable tool...
June 15, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617796/egocentric-and-allocentric-representations-in-auditory-cortex
#5
Stephen M Town, W Owen Brimijoin, Jennifer K Bizley
A key function of the brain is to provide a stable representation of an object's location in the world. In hearing, sound azimuth and elevation are encoded by neurons throughout the auditory system, and auditory cortex is necessary for sound localization. However, the coordinate frame in which neurons represent sound space remains undefined: classical spatial receptive fields in head-fixed subjects can be explained either by sensitivity to sound source location relative to the head (egocentric) or relative to the world (allocentric encoding)...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617421/a-targeted-noise-reduction-observational-study-for-reducing-noise-in-a-neonatal-intensive-unit
#6
S Chawla, P Barach, M Dwaihy, D Kamat, S Shankaran, B Panaitescu, B Wang, G Natarajan
BACKGROUND: Excessive noise in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) can interfere with infants' growth, development and healing.Local problem:Sound levels in our NICUs exceeded the recommended levels by the World Health Organization. METHODS: We implemented a noise reduction strategy in an urban, tertiary academic medical center NICU that included baseline noise measurements. We conducted a survey involving staff and visitors regarding their opinions and perceptions of noise levels in the NICU...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615985/treatment-of-movement-disorders-with-focused-ultrasound
#7
REVIEW
Paul S Fishman, Victor Frenkel
Although the use of ultrasound as a potential therapeutic modality in the brain has been under study for several decades, relatively few neuroscientists or neurologists are familiar with this technology. Stereotactic brain lesioning had been widely used as a treatment for medically refractory patients with essential tremor (ET), Parkinson disease (PD), and dystonia but has been largely replaced by deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery, with advantages both in safety and efficacy. However, DBS is associated with complications including intracerebral hemorrhage, infection, and hardware malfunction...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615502/empirical-links-between-natural-mortality-and-recovery-in-marine-fishes
#8
Jeffrey A Hutchings, Anna Kuparinen
Probability of species recovery is thought to be correlated with specific aspects of organismal life history, such as age at maturity and longevity, and how these affect rates of natural mortality (M) and maximum per capita population growth (rmax). Despite strong theoretical underpinnings, these correlates have been based on predicted rather than realized population trajectories following threat mitigation. Here, we examine the level of empirical support for postulated links between a suite of life-history traits (related to maturity, age, size and growth) and recovery in marine fishes...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605690/potential-implications-of-luria-s-work-for-the-neuropsychology-of-epilepsy-and-epilepsy-surgery-a-perspective-for-re-examination
#9
REVIEW
Panayiotis Patrikelis, Giuliana Lucci, Anna Siatouni, Anastasia Verentzioti, Athanasia Alexoudi, Stylianos Gatzonis
The pioneeristic work of Alexander Romanovic Luria into the field of human neuropsychology offered eminent contributions to clinical praxis by providing theory guided methods and instruments for the study of higher cortical functions. However, lots of this knowledge corpus either remains untranslated and thus inaccessible, or in some cases selectively overlooked by academic authorities and consequently not passed to the future generations of experts. Although Luria was not exclusively devoted to the study of epilepsy, his theories and clinical approaches actually penetrate the whole neuropathology spectrum...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603671/spatial-variation-in-coral-reef-fish-and-benthic-communities-in-the-central-saudi-arabian-red-sea
#10
Maha T Khalil, Jessica Bouwmeester, Michael L Berumen
Local-scale ecological information is critical as a sound basis for spatial management and conservation and as support for ongoing research in relatively unstudied areas. We conducted visual surveys of fish and benthic communities on nine reefs (3-24 km from shore) in the Thuwal area of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Fish biomass increased with increasing distance from shore, but was generally low compared to reefs experiencing minimal human influence around the world. All reefs had a herbivore-dominated trophic structure and few top predators, such as sharks, jacks, or large groupers...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599573/a-two-stage-noise-source-identification-technique-based-on-a-farfield-random-parametric-array
#11
Mingsian R Bai, You Siang Chen, Yi-Yang Lo
A farfield random array is implemented for noise source identification. Microphone positions are optimized, with the aid of the simulated annealing method. A two-stage localization and separation algorithm is devised on the basis of the equivalent source method (ESM). In the localization stage, the active source regions are located by using the delay-and-sum method, followed by a parametric localization procedure, stochastic maximum likelihood algorithm. Multidimensional nonlinear optimization is exploited in the bearing estimation process...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598907/treating-pain-on-skin-graft-donor-sites-review-and-clinical-recommendations
#12
Sarthak Sinha, Amanda J Schreiner, Jeff Biernaskie, Duncan Nickerson, Vincent A Gabriel
Split-thickness skin grafting (STSG) is the most common reconstructive procedure in managing burn injuries. Harvesting split-thickness skin creates a new partial thickness wound referred to as the donor site. Pain at the donor site is reported to be one of the most distressing symptoms during the early post-operative period. Here, we a) identify strategies for managing donor site pain, b) assess the quality of individual studies and c) formulate evidence-based recommendations based on the amount and consistency of evidence...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593132/activation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-by-lithium-chloride-attenuates-d-galactose-induced-neurodegeneration-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-a-rat-model-of-aging
#13
Ming-Yu Xia, Xue-Yan Zhao, Qi-Lin Huang, Hai-Ying Sun, Chen Sun, Jie Yuan, Chang He, Yu Sun, Xiang Huang, Wen Kong, Wei-Jia Kong
Degeneration of the central auditory system, which is characterized by reduced understanding of speech and source localization of sounds, is an important cause of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an essential role in the development of the auditory system but its potential role in presbycusis remains unclear. In this study, we used a rat model of aging, created by chronic systemic exposure to d-galactose (d-gal), and explored changes in Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the auditory cortex...
June 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592832/high-precision-spatial-localization-of-mouse-vocalizations-during-social-interaction
#14
Jesse J Heckman, Rémi Proville, Gert J Heckman, Alireza Azarfar, Tansu Celikel, Bernhard Englitz
Mice display a wide repertoire of vocalizations that varies with age, sex, and context. Especially during courtship, mice emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of high complexity, whose detailed structure is poorly understood. As animals of both sexes vocalize, the study of social vocalizations requires attributing single USVs to individuals. The state-of-the-art in sound localization for USVs allows spatial localization at centimeter resolution, however, animals interact at closer ranges, involving tactile, snout-snout exploration...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583912/noise-trauma-induced-behavioral-gap-detection-deficits-correlate-with-reorganization-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-local-circuits-in-the-inferior-colliculus-and-are-prevented-by-acoustic-enrichment
#15
Joshua J Sturm, Ying-Xin Zhang-Hooks, Hannah Roos, Tuan Nguyen, Karl Kandler
Hearing loss leads to a host of cellular and synaptic changes in auditory brain areas, which are thought to give rise to auditory perception deficits such as temporal processing impairments, hyperacusis, or tinnitus. However, little is known about possible changes in synaptic circuit connectivity that may underlie these hearing deficits. Here, we show that mild hearing loss as a result of brief noise exposure leads to a pronounced reorganization of local excitatory and inhibitory circuits in the mouse inferior colliculus...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582478/model-based-branching-point-detection-in-single-cell-data-by-k-branches-clustering
#16
Nikolaos K Chlis, F Alexander Wolf, Fabian J Theis
Motivation: The identification of heterogeneities in cell populations by utilizing single-cell technologies such as single-cell RNA-Seq, enables inference of cellular development and lineage trees. Several methods have been proposed for such inference from high-dimensional single-cell data. They typically assign each cell to a branch in a differentiation trajectory. However, they commonly assume specific geometries such as tree-like developmental hierarchies and lack statistically sound methods to decide on the number of branching events...
June 5, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577768/the-role-of-endoscopic-ultrasound-in-the-management-of-patients-with-barrett-s-esophagus-and-superficial-neoplasia
#17
REVIEW
Bashar J Qumseya, Herbert C Wolfsen
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a minimally invasive advanced imaging procedure using high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the esophageal wall with fine-needle aspiration to biopsy adjacent lymph nodes. The role of EUS is well established in patients with locally advanced Barrett esophagus neoplasia. The utility of EUS in the evaluation of Barrett esophagus patients is controversial. This is a review of the evidence using EUS in BE patients. The assessment is that EUS may be a powerful tool in managing patients with BE neoplasia...
July 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571510/panacea-or-diagnosis-imaginaries-of-innovation-and-the-mit-model-in-three-political-cultures
#18
Sebastian Pfotenhauer, Sheila Jasanoff
Innovation studies continue to struggle with an apparent disconnect between innovation's supposedly universal dynamics and a sense that policy frameworks and associated instruments of innovation are often ineffectual or even harmful when transported across regions or countries. Using a cross-country comparative analysis of three implementations of the 'MIT model' of innovation in the UK, Portugal and Singapore, we show how key features in the design, implementation and performance of the model cannot be explained as mere variations on an identical solution to the same underlying problem...
May 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559383/spatial-processing-is-frequency-specific-in-auditory-cortex-but-not-in-the-midbrain
#19
Joseph Sollini, Robert Mill, Christian Sumner
The cochlea behaves like a bank of band-pass filters, segregating information into different frequency channels. Some aspects of perception reflect processing within individual channels, but others involve the integration of information across them. One instance of this is sound localization, which improves with increasing bandwidth. The processing of binaural cues for sound location has been extensively studied. However, while the advantage conferred by bandwidth is clear we currently know little about how this additional information is combined to form our percept of space...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559325/input-timing-for-spatial-processing-is-precisely-tuned-via-constant-synaptic-delays-and-myelination-patterns-in-the-auditory-brainstem
#20
Annette Stange-Marten, Alisha L Nabel, James L Sinclair, Matthew Fischl, Olga Alexandrova, Hilde Wohlfrom, Conny Kopp-Scheinpflug, Michael Pecka, Benedikt Grothe
Precise timing of synaptic inputs is a fundamental principle of neural circuit processing. The temporal precision of postsynaptic input integration is known to vary with the computational requirements of a circuit, yet how the timing of action potentials is tuned presynaptically to match these processing demands is not well understood. In particular, action potential timing is shaped by the axonal conduction velocity and the duration of synaptic transmission delays within a pathway. However, it is not known to what extent these factors are adapted to the functional constraints of the respective circuit...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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