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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782815/reprint-of-initial-uncertainty-impacts-statistical-learning-in-sound-sequence-processing
#1
Juanita Todd, Alexander Provost, Lisa Whitson, Daniel Mullens
This paper features two studies confirming a lasting impact of first learning on how subsequent experience is weighted in early relevance-filtering processes. In both studies participants were exposed to sequences of sound that contained a regular pattern on two different timescales. Regular patterning in sound is readily detected by the auditory system and used to form "prediction models" that define the most likely properties of sound to be encountered in a given context. The presence and strength of these prediction models is inferred from changes in automatically elicited components of auditory evoked potentials...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781701/intervention-for-bilingual-speech-sound-disorders-a-case-study-of-an-isixhosa-english-speaking-child
#2
Kate Rossouw, Michelle Pascoe
 Bilingualism is common in South Africa, with many children acquiring isiXhosa as a home language and learning English from a young age in nursery or crèche. IsiXhosa is a local language, part of the Bantu language family, widely spoken in the country. Aims: To describe changes in a bilingual child's speech following intervention based on a theoretically motivated and tailored intervention plan. Methods and procedures: This study describes a female isiXhosa-English bilingual child, named Gcobisa (pseudonym) (chronological age 4 years and 2 months) with a speech sound disorder...
March 19, 2018: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778290/spatial-hearing-ability-of-the-pigmented-guinea-pig-cavia-porcellus-minimum-audible-angle-and-spatial-release-from-masking-in-azimuth
#3
Nathaniel T Greene, Kelsey L Anbuhl, Alexander T Ferber, Marisa DeGuzman, Paul D Allen, Daniel J Tollin
Despite the common use of guinea pigs in investigations of the neural mechanisms of binaural and spatial hearing, their behavioral capabilities in spatial hearing tasks have surprisingly not been thoroughly investigated. To begin to fill this void, we tested the spatial hearing of adult male guinea pigs in several experiments using a paradigm based on the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. In the first experiment, we presented continuous broadband noise from one speaker location and switched to a second speaker location (the "prepulse") along the azimuth prior to presenting a brief, ∼110 dB SPL startle-eliciting stimulus...
April 27, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772873/prevalence-of-hypertension-in-thailand-hotspot-clustering-detected-by-spatial-analysis
#4
Wongsa Laohasiriwong, Nattapong Puttanapong, Atthawit Singsalasang
Spatial pattern detection can be a useful tool for understanding the geographical distribution of hypertension (HT). The aim of this study was to apply the technique of local indicators of spatial association statistics to examine the spatial patterns of HT in the 76 provinces of Thailand. Previous studies have demonstrated that socioeconomic status (SES), economic growth, population density and urbanization have effects on the occurrence of disease. Research has suggested that night-time light (NTL) can be used as a proxy for a number of variables, including urbanization, density, economic growth and SES...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771111/the-chemical-history-of-a-bubble
#5
Kenneth S Suslick, Nathan C Eddingsaas, David J Flannigan, Stephen D Hopkins, Hangxun Xu
Acoustic cavitation (the growth, oscillation, and rapid collapse of bubbles in a liquid) occurs in all liquids irradiated with sufficient intensity of sound or ultrasound. The collapse of such bubbles creates local heating and provides a unique source of energy for driving chemical reactions. In addition to sonochemical bond scission and formation, cavitation also induces light emission in many liquids. This phenomenon of sonoluminescence (SL) has captured the imagination of many researchers since it was first observed 85 years ago...
May 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769117/a-protocol-for-a-network-meta-analysis-of-interventions-to-treat-patients-with-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#6
Nadera Ahmadzai, Shaun Kilty, Dianna Wolfe, Jamie Bonaparte, David Schramm, Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, Vincent Lin, Wei Cheng, Becky Skidmore, David Moher, Brian Hutton
BACKGROUND: Hearing loss is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide, with greater than 20% of Canadian adults having measurable hearing loss in at least one ear. Patients with hearing loss experience impaired quality of life, and emotional and financial consequences that affect themselves and their families. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a common but difficult to treat form of hearing loss that has a sudden onset of ≤ 72 h associated with various etiologies, with the majority of cases being idiopathic...
May 16, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761638/ultra-sound-guided-neurolysis-of-six-genicular-nerves-of-knee-for-intractable-pain-from-knee-osteoarthritis-a-case-series
#7
Arif Ahmed, Divesh Arora
INTRODUCTION: Among the elderly populations, the chronic osteoarthritis of knee joint is one of the leading cause of disability and causes considerable pain, joint stiffness and functional limitations. Although knee replacement is a good option for the grade IV osteoarthritis, but many patients failed to undergo surgery due to co-morbidities or other reasons. METHODS: Four patient with severe pain from grade III and IV osteoarthritis of knee joint had underwent ultrasound guided alcohol neurolysis of the six genicular nerves of knee joint after a positive genicular nerve block with local anesthetics...
May 14, 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755320/mechanically-gated-ion-channels-in-mammalian-hair-cells
#8
REVIEW
Xufeng Qiu, Ulrich Müller
Hair cells in the inner ear convert mechanical stimuli provided by sound waves and head movements into electrical signal. Several mechanically evoked ionic currents with different properties have been recorded in hair cells. The search for the proteins that form the underlying ion channels is still in progress. The mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) channel near the tips of stereociliary in hair cells, which is responsible for sensory transduction, has been studied most extensively. Several components of the sensory mechanotransduction machinery in stereocilia have been identified, including the multi-transmembrane proteins tetraspan membrane protein in hair cell stereocilia (TMHS)/LHFPL5, transmembrane inner ear (TMIE) and transmembrane channel-like proteins 1 and 2 (TMC1/2)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753562/cortical-processing-of-location-changes-in-a-cocktail-party-situation-spatial-oddball-effects-on-electrophysiological-correlates-of-auditory-selective-attention
#9
Jörg Lewald, Michael-Christian Schlüter, Stephan Getzmann
Neural mechanisms of selectively attending to a sound source of interest in a simulated "cocktail-party" situation, composed of multiple competing sources, were investigated using event-related potentials in combination with a spatial oddball design. Subjects either detected rare spatial deviants in a series of standard sounds or passively listened. Targets either appeared in isolation or in the presence of two distractor sound sources at different locations ("cocktail-party" condition)...
April 27, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751331/lidar-mapping-of-atmospheric-atomic-mercury-in-the-wanshan-area-china
#10
Ming Lian, Lihai Shang, Zheng Duan, Yiyun Li, Guangyu Zhao, Shiming Zhu, Guangle Qiu, Bo Meng, Jonas Sommar, Xinbin Feng, Sune Svanberg
A novel mobile laser radar system was used for mapping gaseous atomic mercury (Hg0 ) atmospheric pollution in the Wanshan district, south of Tongren City, Guizhou Province, China. This area is heavily impacted by legacy mercury from now abandoned mining activities. Differential absorption lidar measurements were supplemented by localized point monitoring using a Lumex RA-915M Zeeman modulation mercury analyzer. Range-resolved concentration measurements in different directions were performed. Concentrations in the lower atmospheric layers often exceeded levels of 100 ng/m3 for March conditions with temperature ranging from 5 °C to 20 °C...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751184/usefulness-of-ultrasound-guided-microsurgery-in-cavernous-angiomas-removal
#11
Lina Raffaella Barzaghi, Jody Filippo Capitanio, Lodoviga Giudice, Pietro Panni, Stefania Acerno, Pietro Mortini
OBJECT: Primary steps in the cavernous angiomas (CAs) surgery are a precise lesion identification and an optimal trajectory definition. Doing so, navigation techniques allow better results compared to microsurgery alone. In this paper we define the benefits of Intra-Operative Ultra-Sound (IOUS) use in addition to standard localization systems. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 59 CAs comparing two groups: 34 cases of frame-based and frameless navigation-assisted microsurgery (no-IOUS group) versus 25 cases of IOUS-guided microsurgery associated with these techniques (IOUS group)...
May 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749977/a-unified-analysis-of-structured-sonar-terrain-data-using-bayesian-functional-mixed-models
#12
Hongxiao Zhu, Philip Caspers, Jeffrey S Morris, Xiaowei Wu, Rolf Müller
Sonar emits pulses of sound and uses the reflected echoes to gain information about target objects. It offers a low cost, complementary sensing modality for small robotic platforms. While existing analytical approaches often assume independence across echoes, real sonar data can have more complicated structures due to device setup or experimental design. In this paper, we consider sonar echo data collected from multiple terrain substrates with a dual-channel sonar head. Our goals are to identify the differential sonar responses to terrains and study the effectiveness of this dual-channel design in discriminating targets...
2018: Technometrics: a Journal of Statistics for the Physical, Chemical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746705/a-new-method-for-ct-dose-estimation-by-determining-patient-water-equivalent-diameter-from-localizer-radiographs-geometric-transformation-and-calibration-methods-using-readily-available-phantoms
#13
Da Zhang, Georgeta Mihai, Larry G Barbaras, Olga R Brook, Matthew R Palmer
PURPOSE: Water equivalent diameter (Dw) reflects patient's attenuation and is a sound descriptor of patient size, and is used to determine size specific dose estimator from a CT exam. Calculating Dw from CT localizer radiographs makes it possible to utilize Dw before actual scans, and minimizes truncation errors due to limited to utilize Dw before actual scans, and minimizes truncation errors due to limited reconstructed fields of view. One obstacle preventing the user community from implementing this useful tool is the necessity to calibrate localizer pixel values so as to represent water equivalent attenuation...
May 10, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740286/optogenetic-control-of-neural-circuits-in-the-mongolian-gerbil
#14
Stefan Keplinger, Barbara Beiderbeck, Stylianos Michalakis, Martin Biel, Benedikt Grothe, Lars Kunz
The Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus ) is widely used as a model organism for the human auditory system. Its hearing range is very similar to ours and it uses the same mechanisms for sound localization. The auditory circuits underlying these functions have been characterized. However, important mechanistic details are still under debate. To elucidate these issues, precise and reversible optogenetic manipulation of neuronal activity in this complex circuitry is required. However, genetic and genomic resources for the Mongolian gerbil are poorly developed...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735194/clinical-trial-strategies-to-compare-protons-with-photons
#15
REVIEW
Johannes A Langendijk, Liesbeth J Boersma, Coen R N Rasch, Marco van Vulpen, Johannes B Reitsma, Arjen van der Schaaf, Ewoud Schuit
The favorable beam properties of protons can be translated into clinical benefits by target dose escalation to improve local control without enhancing unacceptable radiation toxicity or to spare normal tissues to prevent radiation-induced side effects without jeopardizing local tumor control. For the clinical validation of the added value of protons to improve local control, randomized controlled trials are required. For the clinical validation of the added value of protons to prevent side effects, both model-based validation or randomized controlled trials can be used...
April 2018: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732951/effects-of-cochlear-implantation-on-binaural-hearing-in-adults-with-unilateral-hearing-loss
#16
Emily Buss, Margaret T Dillon, Meredith A Rooth, English R King, Ellen J Deres, Craig A Buchman, Harold C Pillsbury, Kevin D Brown
A FDA clinical trial was carried out to evaluate the potential benefit of cochlear implant (CI) use for adults with unilateral moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Subjects were 20 adults with moderate-to-profound unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and normal or near-normal hearing on the other side. A MED-EL standard electrode was implanted in the impaired ear. Outcome measures included: (a) sound localization on the horizontal plane (11 positions, -90° to 90°), (b) word recognition in quiet with the CI alone, and (c) masked sentence recognition with the target at 0° and the masker at -90°, 0°, or 90°...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731298/sound-source-localization
#17
M Risoud, J-N Hanson, F Gauvrit, C Renard, P-E Lemesre, N-X Bonne, C Vincent
Sound source localization is paramount for comfort of life, determining the position of a sound source in 3 dimensions: azimuth, height and distance. It is based on 3 types of cue: 2 binaural (interaural time difference and interaural level difference) and 1 monaural spectral cue (head-related transfer function). These are complementary and vary according to the acoustic characteristics of the incident sound. The objective of this report is to update the current state of knowledge on the physical basis of spatial sound localization...
May 3, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729903/restoration-of-spatial-hearing-in-adult-cochlear-implant-users-with-single-sided-deafness
#18
Ruth Y Litovsky, Keng Moua, Shelly Godar, Alan Kan, Sara M Misurelli, Daniel J Lee
In recent years, cochlear implants (CIs) have been provided in growing numbers to people with not only bilateral deafness but also to people with unilateral hearing loss, at times in order to alleviate tinnitus. This study presents audiological data from 15 adult participants (ages 48 ± 12 years) with single sided deafness. Results are presented from 9/15 adults, who received a CI (SSD-CI) in the deaf ear and were tested in Acoustic or Acoustic + CI hearing modes, and 6/15 adults who are planning to receive a CI, and were tested in the unilateral condition only...
April 14, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727924/polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-and-their-hydroxylated-and-methoxylated-derivatives-in-seafood-obtained-from-puget-sound-wa
#19
Sara E Cade, Li-Jung Kuo, Irvin R Schultz
Synthetic polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants and known to occur in most food items. Consumer fish products have been identified as having some of the highest PBDE levels found in USA food sources. Natural formation of hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) PBDEs are also known to occur in simple marine organisms, which may be bioaccumulated by seafood. In this study, we report findings of an initial survey of PBDE, OH-PBDE and MeO-PBDE content in common seafood items available to residents living in the Puget Sound region of Washington State...
July 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724435/lung-sounds-classification-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#20
Dalal Bardou, Kun Zhang, Sayed Mohammad Ahmad
Lung sounds convey relevant information related to pulmonary disorders, and to evaluate patients with pulmonary conditions, the physician or the doctor uses the traditional auscultation technique. However, this technique suffers from limitations. For example, if the physician is not well trained, this may lead to a wrong diagnosis. Moreover, lung sounds are non-stationary, complicating the tasks of analysis, recognition, and distinction. This is why developing automatic recognition systems can help to deal with these limitations...
May 1, 2018: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
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