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Sound localization

Anvarsamarein Parisa, Nazeri Ahmad Reza, Sameni Seyyed Jalal, Kamali Mohammad, Zarrin Koob Homa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The ability to localize a sound source is one of the binaural hearing benefits in a horizontal plane based on interaural time difference and interaural intensity difference. Unilateral or bilateral asymmetric hearing loss will affect binaural hearing and lead to sound locating errors. In this cross sectional analytical descriptive study, the localization error was investigated when participants turned their heads to the sound source with closed eyes and after simulating unilateral hearing loss by placing earplugs inside the right ear canal...
December 2017: Journal of Audiology & Otology
C Cruz, H Amorim, G Beca, R Nunes
INTRODUCTION: Neurogenic stuttering is a disorder of neurologic origin in the rhythm of speech during which the patient knows exactly what he wants to say but is unable to because of an involuntary prolongation, cessation or repetition of a sound. AIM: To assemble new insights regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of neurogenic stuttering. DEVELOPMENT: A review of all PubMed and Scopus published articles between January 2000 and September 2016 was performed...
January 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Reiji Suzuki, Shiho Matsubayashi, Fumiyuki Saito, Tatsuyoshi Murate, Tomohisa Masuda, Koichi Yamamoto, Ryosuke Kojima, Kazuhiro Nakadai, Hiroshi G Okuno
Acoustic interactions are important for understanding intra- and interspecific communication in songbird communities from the viewpoint of soundscape ecology. It has been suggested that birds may divide up sound space to increase communication efficiency in such a manner that they tend to avoid overlap with other birds when they sing. We are interested in clarifying the dynamics underlying the process as an example of complex systems based on short-term behavioral plasticity. However, it is very problematic to manually collect spatiotemporal patterns of acoustic events in natural habitats using data derived from a standard single-channel recording of several species singing simultaneously...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
John P Bartkowski, Janelle Kohler, Craig L Escude, Xiaohe Xu, Stephen Bartkowski
In recent years, people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have moved from institutionalized settings to local community residences. While deinstitutionalization has yielded quality of life improvements for people with IDD, this transition presents significant health-related challenges. Community clinicians have typically not been trained to provide sound medical care to people with IDD, a subpopulation that exhibits unique medical needs and significant health disparities. This study reports the results of a comprehensive evaluation of an IDD-focused clinician improvement program implemented throughout Mississippi...
January 10, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Meng Wang, Ruijie Li, Jingcheng Li, Jianxiong Zhang, Xiaowei Chen, Shaoqun Zeng, Xiang Liao
In the primary auditory cortex (A1), neuronal ensembles are activated relative to anticipated sound events following rhythmic stimulation, but whether the echo responses of the neurons are related to their frequency selectivity remains unknown. Therefore, we used in vivo two-photon Ca2+ imaging to record the neuronal activities in the mouse A1 to elucidate the relationship between their echo responses and frequency selectivity. We confirmed the presence of echo responses in a subgroup of mouse Layer 2/3 A1 neurons following a train of rhythmic pure tone stimulation...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Isabella Dutra, Darcy A Waller, Jan R Wessel
Motor inhibition is a cognitive control ability that allows humans to rapidly stop actions even after initiation. Understanding and improving motor inhibition could benefit adaptive behavior in both health and disease. We recently found that presenting surprising, task-unrelated sounds when stopping is necessary improves the likelihood of successful stopping. In the current study, we investigated the neural underpinnings of this effect. Specifically, we tested whether surprise-related stopping improvements are due to a genuine increase in motor inhibition...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yanni Zhang, Jie Pan
An underwater structure is proposed for simultaneous detection and stealth purposes by embedding periodic signal conditioning plates (SCPs) at the interface of two elastic coatings attached to an elastic plate. Results show that the embedded SCPs can enhance sound absorption at frequencies below the coincidence frequency of the plate (fc). Significantly enhanced absorption occurs at five peaks, of which the peak due to excited localized bending resonance in the outer coating between SCPs is the most significant...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
John Lekner
Pulse solutions of the wave equation can be expressed as superpositions of scalar monochromatic beam wavefunctions (solutions of the Helmholtz equation). This formulation leads to causal (unidirectional) propagation, in contrast to all currently known closed-form solutions of the wave equation. Application is made to the evaluation of the energy, momentum, and angular momentum of acoustic pulses, as integrals over the beam and pulse weight functions. Equivalence is established between integration over space of the energy, momentum, and angular momentum densities, and integration over the wavevector weight function...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Lina R Kubli, Douglas Brungart, Jerry Northern
OBJECTIVES: Among the many advantages of binaural hearing are the abilities to localize sounds in space and to attend to one sound in the presence of many sounds. Binaural hearing provides benefits for all listeners, but it may be especially critical for military personnel who must maintain situational awareness in complex tactical environments with multiple speech and noise sources. There is concern that Military Service Members who have been exposed to one or more high-intensity blasts during their tour of duty may have difficulty with binaural and spatial ability due to degradation in auditory and cognitive processes...
December 27, 2017: Ear and Hearing
Go Ashida, Daniel J Tollin, Jutta Kretzberg
In computational biology, modeling is a fundamental tool for formulating, analyzing and predicting complex phenomena. Most neuron models, however, are designed to reproduce certain small sets of empirical data. Hence their outcome is usually not compatible or comparable with other models or datasets, making it unclear how widely applicable such models are. In this study, we investigate these aspects of modeling, namely credibility and generalizability, with a specific focus on auditory neurons involved in the localization of sound sources...
December 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Yang Li, Ying Sheng, Jian-Min Liang, Juan Hu, Xiao-Yong Ren, Yan Cheng
After intense sound exposure, the lack of obvious degeneration in type III fibrocytes suggests that they might protect themselves against acoustic trauma. However, it is unknown whether and how type III fibrocytes play this role in other cochlear damage models. In this study, we investigated the self-protection of type III fibrocytes against severe cochlear energy failure induced by local administration of 3-nitropropionic acid to the inner ear. We detected that the type III fibrocytes did not degenerate significantly after 500 mM 3-nitropropionic acid application, and showed increased expression of proliferation marker Ki67...
December 26, 2017: Neuroreport
Markus Krings, Laura Rosskamp, Hermann Wagner
Owls are known for their nocturnal hunting capability. Many owl species are able to localize prey in complete darkness just by hearing. Sound localization of strictly nocturnal owls is improved by asymmetrically arranged outer ears. According to Norberg (1977), who worked with adult owls, asymmetrical ears evolved at least four times independently among owls. What is unknown so far is how the ear asymmetry develops in the embryo. Here we examine the embryonic development of ear asymmetry in the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola) in the frame of the 42 stages suggested by Köppl et al...
December 2, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Jennifer Harte, Pauline Frizelle, Fiona Gibbon
There is substantial evidence that a speaker's accent, specifically an unfamiliar accent, can affect the listener's comprehension. In general, this effect holds true for both adults and children as well as those with typical and impaired language. Previous studies have investigated the effect of different accents on individuals with language disorders, but children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) have received little attention. The current study aims to learn more about the ability of children with SSD to process different speaker accents...
December 26, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Hui Nam, John J Guinan
Recent cochlear mechanical measurements show that active processes increase the motion response of the reticular lamina (RL) at frequencies more than an octave below the local characteristic frequency (CF) for CFs above 5 kHz. A possible correlate is that in high-CF (>5 kHz) auditory-nerve (AN) fibers, responses to frequencies 1-3 octaves below CF ("tail" frequencies) can be inhibited by medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents. These results indicate that active processes enhance the sensitivity of tail-frequency RL and AN responses...
December 14, 2017: Hearing Research
Elena Aggius-Vella, Claudio Campus, Sara Finocchietti, Monica Gori
Studies have found that portions of space around our body are differently coded by our brain. Numerous works have investigated visual and auditory spatial representation, focusing mostly on the spatial representation of stimuli presented at head level, especially in the frontal space. Only few studies have investigated spatial representation around the entire body and its relationship with motor activity. Moreover, it is still not clear whether the space surrounding us is represented as a unitary dimension or whether it is split up into different portions, differently shaped by our senses and motor activity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Ilkser Erdem Kiper, Paulette Bloomer, Philippe Borsa, Thierry Bernard Hoareau
Rabbitfishes are reef-associated fishes that support local fisheries throughout the Indo-West Pacific region. Sound management of the resource requires the development of molecular tools for appropriate stock delimitation of the different species in the family. Microsatellite markers were developed for the cordonnier, Siganus sutor, and their potential for cross-amplification was investigated in 12 congeneric species. A library of 792 repeat-containing sequences was built. Nineteen sets of newly developed primers, and 14 universal finfish microsatellites were tested in S...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
Hisayuki Osanai, Shunsuke Minusa, Takashi Tateno
Magnetic stimulation is widely used in neuroscience research and clinical treatment. Despite recent progress in understanding the neural modulation mechanism of conventional magnetic stimulation methods, the physiological mechanism at the cortical microcircuit level is not well understood due to the poor stimulation focality and large electric artifact in the recording. To overcome these issues, we used a sub-millimeter-sized coil (micro-coil) to stimulate the mouse auditory cortex in vivo. To determine the mechanism, we conducted the first direct electrophysiological recording of micro-coil-driven neural responses at multiple sites on the horizontal surface and laminar areas of the auditory cortex...
December 12, 2017: Neuroscience
Michael Roumeliotis, Sarah Quirk, Matthew Skarsgard, Tiana Trumpour, Elizabeth Watt, Tyler Meyer
PURPOSE: To develop an anthropomorphic breast phantom for use in credentialing of permanent breast seed implant brachytherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A representative external contour and target volume was used as the basis of mold manufacturing for anthropomorphic breast phantom development. Both target and normal tissue were composed of gel-like materials that provide suitable computed tomography and ultrasound contrast for brachytherapy delivery. The phantoms were evaluated for consistency in construction (target location) and Hounsfield unit (computed tomography contrast)...
December 11, 2017: Brachytherapy
Adham M Karim, Kavelin Rumalla, Laurie A King, Timothy E Hullar
The maintenance of balance and posture is a result of the collaborative efforts of vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual sensory inputs, but a fourth neural input, audition, may also improve balance. Here, we tested the hypothesis that auditory inputs function as environmental spatial landmarks whose effectiveness depends on sound localization ability during ambulation. Eight blindfolded normal young subjects performed the Fukuda-Unterberger test in three auditory conditions: silence, white noise played through headphones (head-referenced condition), and white noise played through a loudspeaker placed directly in front at 135 centimeters away from the ear at ear height (earth-referenced condition)...
December 5, 2017: Gait & Posture
Tae Hyun Kim, Hyojong Yoo, Jae-Hyeon Ko
The amorphous state of pharmaceuticals has attracted much attention due to its high bioavailability and other advantages. The stability of the amorphous state in relation with the local molecular mobility is important from both fundamental and practical points of view. The acoustic properties of amorphous progesterone, one of the representative steroid hormones, were investigated by using a Brillouin inelastic light scattering technique. The Brillouin spectrum of the longitudinal acoustic mode exhibited distinct changes at the glass transition and the cold-crystallization temperatures...
December 14, 2017: Materials
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