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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726592/effect-of-extreme-adaptive-frequency-compression-in-bimodal-listeners-on-sound-localization-and-speech-perception
#1
Lidwien C E Veugen, Josef Chalupper, Lucas H M Mens, Ad F M Snik, A John van Opstal
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to improve access to high-frequency interaural level differences (ILD), by applying extreme frequency compression (FC) in the hearing aid (HA) of 13 bimodal listeners, using a cochlear implant (CI) and conventional HA in opposite ears. DESIGN: An experimental signal-adaptive frequency-lowering algorithm was tested, compressing frequencies above 160 Hz into the individual audible range of residual hearing, but only for consonants (adaptive FC), thus protecting vowel formants, with the aim to preserve speech perception...
July 20, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725022/action-video-games-improve-reading-abilities-and-visual-to-auditory-attentional-shifting-in-english-speaking-children-with-dyslexia
#2
Sandro Franceschini, Piergiorgio Trevisan, Luca Ronconi, Sara Bertoni, Susan Colmar, Kit Double, Andrea Facoetti, Simone Gori
Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in learning to read and there is some evidence that action video games (AVG), without any direct phonological or orthographic stimulation, improve reading efficiency in Italian children with dyslexia. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying this improvement and the extent to which the benefits of AVG training would generalize to deep English orthography, remain two critical questions. During reading acquisition, children have to integrate written letters with speech sounds, rapidly shifting their attention from visual to auditory modality...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723889/distinct-timescales-of-population-coding-across-cortex
#3
Caroline A Runyan, Eugenio Piasini, Stefano Panzeri, Christopher D Harvey
The cortex represents information across widely varying timescales. For instance, sensory cortex encodes stimuli that fluctuate over few tens of milliseconds, whereas in association cortex behavioural choices can require the maintenance of information over seconds. However, it remains poorly understood whether diverse timescales result mostly from features intrinsic to individual neurons or from neuronal population activity. This question remains unanswered, because the timescales of coding in populations of neurons have not been studied extensively, and population codes have not been compared systematically across cortical regions...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717292/conservative-management-of-unicystic-ameloblastoma-in-young-patients-a-prospective-single-center-trial-and-review-of-literature
#4
Mitsu Meshram, Lalit Sagarka, Jigar Dhuvad, Sonal Anchlia, Siddharth Vyas, Harsh Shah
AIMS: The study intends to evaluate the clinical outcome of treating young patients of unicystic ameloblastoma, by various conservative treatment modalities such as marsupialization, enucleation with bone curettage and aid in establishing sound treatment guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case series of fifteen patients is presented of unicystic ameloblastoma, who presented to our Department over the past 6 years (2010-2015) and conservative method of treatment elected in all the patients...
September 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715600/ultrastructural-study-of-the-neural-microcircuits-in-the-sensory-epithelium-of-the-paratympanic-organ-of-the-chicken
#5
F Giannessi, L Ryskalin, R Ruffoli
The paratympanic organ (PTO) is a sensory organ located in the medial wall of the tympanic cavity of birds. The organ looks like a small tapering vesicle, and is equipped with a sensory epithelium formed by supporting cells (SCs) and Type II hair cells (Type II-HCs). The function of the PTO has not yet been precisely defined. The prevailing current hypothesis is that the PTO assesses the air pressure exerted on the external surface of the tympanic membrane. The PTO could may thus function as a barometer and, in flying birds, also as an altimeter...
July 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711622/prolonged-low-level-noise-induced-plasticity-in-the-peripheral-and-central-auditory-system-of-rats
#6
Adam M Sheppard, Guang-Di Chen, Senthilvelan Manohar, Dalian Ding, Bo-Hua Hu, Wei Sun, Jiwie Zhao, Richard Salvi
Prolonged low-level noise exposure alters loudness perception in humans, presumably by decreasing the gain of the central auditory system. Here we test the central gain hypothesis by measuring the acute and chronic physiologic changes at the level of the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) after a 75-dB SPL, 10-20-kHz noise exposure for 5weeks. The compound action potential (CAP) and summating potential (SP) were used to assess the functional status of the cochlea and 16 channel electrodes were used to measure the local field potentials (LFP) and multi-unit spike discharge rates (SDR) from the IC immediately after and one-week post-exposure...
July 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710823/the-african-swine-fever-epidemic-in-west-africa-1996-2002
#7
REVIEW
A-A Brown, M L Penrith, F O Fasina, D Beltran-Alcrudo
African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious, highly fatal, haemorrhagic viral disease that only affects members of the Suidae family. Currently, no vaccine or treatment exists, so the disease has potentially devastating consequences for the pig industries, availability of affordable protein livelihoods and trade. This study aimed to consolidate historical information generated by working towards the control and eradication of ASF in previously unaffected countries in West Africa during 1996-2002. This descriptive analysis entailed the evaluation and review of archived records and reports of outbreaks, data from veterinary services, veterinary consultants and peer-reviewed publications...
July 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707631/-in-our-own-words-defining-medical-professionalism-from-a-latin-american-perspective
#8
Klaus Puschel, Paula Repetto, Margarita Bernales, Jorge Barros, Ivan Perez, Linda Snell
BACKGROUND: Latin America has experienced a tremendous growth in a number of medical schools, and there are concerns about their quality of training in critical areas such as professionalism. Medical professionalism is a cultural construct. The aim of the study was to compare published definitions of medical professionalism from Latin American and non-Latin American regions and to design an original and culturally sound definition. METHODS: A mixed methods approach was used with three phases...
January 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700447/impact-of-hearing-aid-technology-on-outcomes-in-daily-life-iii-localization
#9
Jani A Johnson, Jingjing Xu, Robyn M Cox
OBJECTIVE: Compared to basic-feature hearing aids, premium-feature hearing aids have more advanced technologies and sophisticated features. The objective of this study was to explore the difference between premium-feature and basic-feature hearing aids in horizontal sound localization in both laboratory and daily life environments. We hypothesized that premium-feature hearing aids would yield better localization performance than basic-feature hearing aids. DESIGN: Exemplars of premium-feature and basic-feature hearing aids from two major manufacturers were evaluated...
July 11, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696404/effect-of-wind-farm-noise-on-local-residents-decision-to-adopt-mitigation-measures
#10
Anabela Botelho, Pedro Arezes, Carlos Bernardo, Hernâni Dias, Lígia M Costa Pinto
Wind turbines' noise is frequently pointed out as the reason for local communities' objection to the installation of wind farms. The literature suggests that local residents feel annoyed by such noise and that, in many instances, this is significant enough to make them adopt noise-abatement interventions on their homes. Aiming at characterizing the relationship between wind turbine noise, annoyance, and mitigating actions, we propose a novel conceptual framework. The proposed framework posits that actual sound pressure levels of wind turbines determine individual homes' noise-abatement decisions; in addition, the framework analyzes the role that self-reported annoyance, and perception of noise levels, plays on the relationship between actual noise pressure levels and those decisions...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696301/otoferlin-is-a-multivalent-calcium-sensitive-scaffold-linking-snares-and-calcium-channels
#11
Nicole Hams, Murugesh Padmanarayana, Weihong Qiu, Colin P Johnson
Sensory hair cells rely on otoferlin as the calcium sensor for exocytosis and encoding of sound preferentially over the neuronal calcium sensor synaptotagmin. Although it is established that synaptotagmin cannot rescue the otoferlin KO phenotype, the large size and low solubility of otoferlin have prohibited direct biochemical comparisons that could establish functional differences between these two proteins. To address this challenge, we have developed a single-molecule colocalization binding titration assay (smCoBRA) that can quantitatively characterize full-length otoferlin from mammalian cell lysate...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691340/intra-and-intersexual-swim-bladder-dimorphisms-in-the-plainfin-midshipman-fish-porichthys-notatus-implications-of-swim-bladder-proximity-to-the-inner-ear-for-sound-pressure-detection
#12
Robert A Mohr, Elizabeth A Whitchurch, Ryan D Anderson, Paul M Forlano, Richard R Fay, Darlene R Ketten, Timothy C Cox, Joseph A Sisneros
The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a nocturnal marine teleost that uses social acoustic signals for communication during the breeding season. Nesting type I males produce multiharmonic advertisement calls by contracting their swim bladder sonic muscles to attract females for courtship and spawning while subsequently attracting cuckholding type II males. Here, we report intra- and intersexual dimorphisms of the swim bladder in a vocal teleost fish and detail the swim bladder dimorphisms in the three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) of plainfin midshipman fish...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691145/the-effect-of-saliva-on-the-fate-of-nanoparticles
#13
Birgit J Teubl, Biljana Stojkovic, Dominic Docter, Elisabeth Pritz, Gerd Leitinger, Igor Poberaj, Ruth Prassl, Roland H Stauber, Eleonore Fröhlich, Johannes G Khinast, Eva Roblegg
OBJECTIVES: The design of nanocarriers for local drug administration to the lining mucosa requires a sound knowledge of how nanoparticles (NPs) interact with saliva. This contact determines whether NPs agglomerate and become immobile due to size- and interaction-filtering effects or adsorb on the cell surface and are internalized by epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to examine the behavior of NPs in saliva considering physicochemical NP properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The salivary pore-size distribution was determined, and the viscosity of the fluid inside of the pores was studied with optical tweezers...
July 9, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688483/imaging-of-heart-acoustic-based-on-the-sub-space-methods-using-a-microphone-array
#14
Hanie Moghaddasi, Farshad Almasganj, Arezoo Zoroufian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death around the world. Phonocardiogram (PCG) is an important bio-signal which represents the acoustic activity of heart, typically without any spatiotemporal information of the involved acoustic sources. The aim of this study is to analyze the PCG by employing a microphone array by which the heart internal sound sources could be localized, too. METHOD: In this paper, it is intended to propose a modality by which the locations of the active sources in the heart could also be investigated, during a cardiac cycle...
July 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679844/envelope-contributions-to-the-representation-of-interaural-time-difference-in-the-forebrain-of-barn-owls
#15
Philipp Tellers, Jessica Lehmann, Hartmut Führ, Hermann Wagner
Birds and mammals use the interaural time difference (ITD) for azimuthal sound localization. While barn owls can use the ITD of the stimulus carrier frequency over nearly their entire hearing range, mammals have to utilize the ITD of the stimulus envelope to extend the upper frequency limit of ITD-based sound localization. ITD is computed and processed in a dedicated neural circuit that consists of two pathways. In the barn owl, ITD representation is more complex in the forebrain than in the midbrain pathway due to the combination of two inputs that represent different ITDs...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677252/impairment-in-predictive-processes-during-auditory-mismatch-negativity-in-scz-evidence-from-event-related-fields
#16
Andreas Sauer, Maor Zeev-Wolf, Tineke Grent-'t-Jong, Marc Recasens, Catherine Wacongne, Michael Wibral, Saskia Helbling, Abraham Peled, Alexander Grinshpoon, Wolf Singer, Abraham Goldstein, Peter J Uhlhaas
Patients with schizophrenia (ScZ) show pronounced dysfunctions in auditory perception but the underlying mechanisms as well as the localization of the deficit remain unclear. To examine these questions, the current study examined whether alterations in the neuromagnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) in ScZ-patients could involve an impairment in sensory predictions in local sensory and higher auditory areas. Using a whole-head MEG-approach, we investigated the MMNm as well as P300m and N100m amplitudes during a hierarchical auditory novelty paradigm in 16 medicated ScZ-patients and 16 controls...
July 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674698/distinct-correlation-structure-supporting-a-rate-code-for-sound-localization-in-the-owl-s-auditory-forebrain
#17
Michael V Beckert, Rodrigo Pavão, José L Peña
While a topographic map of auditory space exists in the vertebrate midbrain, it is absent in the forebrain. Yet, both brain regions are implicated in sound localization. The heterogeneous spatial tuning of adjacent sites in the forebrain compared to the midbrain reflects different underlying circuitries, which is expected to affect the correlation structure, i.e., signal (similarity of tuning) and noise (trial-by-trial variability) correlations. Recent studies have drawn attention to the impact of response correlations on the information readout from a neural population...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674512/temporal-organization-of-sound-information-in-auditory-memory
#18
Kun Song, Huan Luo
Memory is a constructive and organizational process. Instead of being stored with all the fine details, external information is reorganized and structured at certain spatiotemporal scales. It is well acknowledged that time plays a central role in audition by segmenting sound inputs into temporal chunks of appropriate length. However, it remains largely unknown whether critical temporal structures exist to mediate sound representation in auditory memory. To address the issue, here we designed an auditory memory transferring study, by combining a previously developed unsupervised white noise memory paradigm with a reversed sound manipulation method...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674175/enhanced-excitatory-connectivity-and-disturbed-sound-processing-in-the-auditory-brainstem-of-fragile-x-mice
#19
Elisabet Garcia-Pino, Nikodemus Gessele, Ursula Koch
Hypersensitivity to sounds is one of the prevalent symptoms in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS). It manifests behaviorally early during development and is often used as a landmark for treatment efficacy. However, the physiological mechanisms and circuit-level alterations underlying this aberrant behavior remain poorly understood. Using the mouse model of FXS (Fmr1 KO) we demonstrate that functional maturation of auditory brainstem synapses is impaired in FXS. Fmr1 KO mice showed a greatly enhanced excitatory synaptic input strength in neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO), a prominent auditory brainstem nucleus, which integrates ipsilateral excitation and contralateral inhibition to compute interaural level differences (ILDs)...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663893/functional-imaging-of-neuronal-activity-of-auditory-cortex-by-using-cal-520-in-anesthetized-and-awake-mice
#20
Jingcheng Li, Jianxiong Zhang, Meng Wang, Junxia Pan, Xiaowei Chen, Xiang Liao
The organization in the primary auditory cortex (Au1) is critical to the basic function of auditory information processing and integration. However, recent mapping experiments using in vivo two-photon imaging with different Ca(2+) indicators have reached controversial conclusions on this topic, possibly because of the different sensitivities and properties of the indicators used. Therefore, it is essential to identify a reliable Ca(2+) indicator for use in in vivo functional imaging of the Au1, to understand its functional organization...
May 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
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