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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143124/the-effect-of-inhibition-on-stimulus-specific-adaptation-in-the-inferior-colliculus
#1
Yaneri A Ayala, Manuel S Malmierca
The inferior colliculus is a center of convergence for inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs that may be activated simultaneously by sound stimulation. Stimulus repetition may generate response habituation by changing the efficacy of neuron's synaptic inputs. Specialized IC neurons reduce their response to repetitive tones, but restore their firing when a different and infrequent tone occurs, a phenomenon known as stimulus specific adaptation. Here, using the microiontophoresis technique, we determined the role of GABAA-, GABAB-, and glycinergic receptors in stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA)...
November 15, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142816/unilateral-pulmonary-edema-in-a-patient-with-worsening-tricuspid-valve-regurgitation-a-secret-inside-pulmonary-veins
#2
Elvira Resciniti, Ilaria Caso, Iside Scarfò, Giuseppe Di Pasquale, Giovanni La Canna
We present the case of a 69-year-old patient who was referred to the Department of Echocardiography for surgical treatment of severe tricuspid valve regurgitation (TVR) with advanced congestive heart failure. In 2013 the patient underwent unsuccessful percutaneous ablation for permanent atrial fibrillation. In 2015, following numerous episodes of atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure with left pleural effusion, the patient was admitted to another center. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed severe TVR and moderate precapillary pulmonary hypertension, confirmed at right cardiac catheterization...
October 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Echography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138699/for-better-or-worse-the-effect-of-prismatic-adaptation-on-auditory-neglect
#3
Isabel Tissieres, Mona Elamly, Stephanie Clarke, Sonia Crottaz-Herbette
Patients with auditory neglect attend less to auditory stimuli on their left and/or make systematic directional errors when indicating sound positions. Rightward prismatic adaptation (R-PA) was repeatedly shown to alleviate symptoms of visuospatial neglect and once to restore partially spatial bias in dichotic listening. It is currently unknown whether R-PA affects only this ear-related symptom or also other aspects of auditory neglect. We have investigated the effect of R-PA on left ear extinction in dichotic listening, space-related inattention assessed by diotic listening, and directional errors in auditory localization in patients with auditory neglect...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136122/local-and-global-spatial-organization-of-interaural-level-difference-and-frequency-preferences-in-auditory-cortex
#4
Mariangela Panniello, Andrew J King, Johannes C Dahmen, Kerry M M Walker
Despite decades of microelectrode recordings, fundamental questions remain about how auditory cortex represents sound-source location. Here, we used in vivo 2-photon calcium imaging to measure the sensitivity of layer II/III neurons in mouse primary auditory cortex (A1) to interaural level differences (ILDs), the principal spatial cue in this species. Although most ILD-sensitive neurons preferred ILDs favoring the contralateral ear, neurons with either midline or ipsilateral preferences were also present. An opponent-channel decoder accurately classified ILDs using the difference in responses between populations of neurons that preferred contralateral-ear-greater and ipsilateral-ear-greater stimuli...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135878/single-sided-deafness-impact-of-cochlear-implantation-on-speech-perception-in-complex-noise-and-on-auditory-localization-accuracy
#5
Julia Döge, Uwe Baumann, Tobias Weissgerber, Tobias Rader
OBJECTIVE: To assess auditory localization accuracy and speech reception threshold (SRT) in complex noise conditions in adult patients with acquired single-sided deafness, after intervention with a cochlear implant (CI) in the deaf ear. STUDY DESIGN: Nonrandomized, open, prospective patient series. SETTING: Tertiary referral university hospital. PATIENTS: Eleven patients with late-onset single-sided deafness (SSD) and normal hearing in the unaffected ear, who received a CI...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130968/immunohistochemical-localization-of-calbindin-d28k-parvalbumin-and-calretinin-in-the-superior-olivary-complex-of-circling-mice
#6
Jin-Koo Lee, Dhiraj Maskey, Myeung Ju Kim
The circling mouse serves as a hearing loss model. It has spontaneous tmie gene mutations that cause hair cell and cochlear degeneration. However, little is known about the role of the tmie gene in superior olivary complex (SOC) regions, in which sound information from the two ears is integrated and primarily relayed to the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and inferior colliculus. Several studies have reported that abnormal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis is associated with the pathology of hearing loss. This study investigated the distribution of Ca2+-binding proteins (CaBPs), such as calbindin D28k, parvalbumin, and calretinin, in the SOC of the circling mouse on postnatal day 16...
November 4, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122721/a-common-periodic-representation-of-interaural-time-differences-in-mammalian-cortex
#7
Nelli H Salminen, Simon J Jones, Gestur B Christianson, Torsten Marquardt, David McAlpine
Binaural hearing, the ability to detect small differences in the timing and level of sounds at the two ears, underpins the ability to localize sound sources along the horizontal plane, and is important for decoding complex spatial listening environments into separate objects - a critical factor in 'cocktail-party listening'. For human listeners, the most important spatial cue is the interaural time difference (ITD). Despite many decades of neurophysiological investigations of ITD sensitivity in small mammals, and computational models aimed at accounting for human perception, a lack of concordance between these studies has hampered our understanding of how the human brain represents and processes ITDs...
November 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119311/cortical-processing-of-level-cues-for-spatial-hearing-is-impaired-in-children-with-prelingual-deafness-despite-early-bilateral-access-to-sound
#8
Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Michael Deighton, Blake Papsin, Karen Gordon
Bilateral cochlear implantation aims to restore binaural hearing, important for spatial hearing, to children who are deaf. Improvements over unilateral implant use are attributed largely to the detection of interaural level differences (ILDs) but emerging evidence of impaired sound localization and binaural fusion suggest that these binaural cues are abnormally coded by the auditory system. We used multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) to assess cortical responses to ILDs in two groups: 13 children who received early bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) simultaneously, known to protect the developing auditory cortices from unilaterally driven reorganization, and 15 age matched peers with normal hearing...
November 8, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112532/speech-in-noise-perception-as-a-marker-of-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-infection
#9
Yi Zhan, Abigail M Fellows, Tangkai Qi, Odile H Clavier, Sigfrid D Soli, Xiudong Shi, Jiang Gui, Yuxin Shi, Jay C Buckey
OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) individuals report hearing difficulties, but standard audiological tests show no, or small, changes in peripheral hearing ability. The hearing complaints may reflect central nervous system (CNS) auditory processing deficits, rather than middle or inner ear problems, and may result from CNS damage due to HIV infection or treatment. If central auditory task performance and cognitive deficits in HIV+ individuals are shown to be related, then central auditory tests might serve as a "window" into CNS function in these patients...
November 4, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112147/measuring-the-effect-of-housing-quality-interventions-the-case-of-the-new-zealand-rental-warrant-of-fitness
#10
Lucy Telfar-Barnard, Julie Bennett, Philippa Howden-Chapman, David E Jacobs, David Ormandy, Matthew Cutler-Welsh, Nicholas Preval, Michael G Baker, Michael Keall
In New Zealand, as in many other countries, housing in the private-rental sector is in worse condition than in the owner-occupier housing sector. New Zealand residential buildings have no inspection regime after original construction signoff. Laws and regulations mandating standards for existing residential housing are outdated and spread over a range of instruments. Policies to improve standards in existing housing have been notoriously difficult to implement. In this methods paper, we describe the development and implementation of a rental Warrant of Fitness (WoF) intended to address these problems...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107820/audiovisual-integration-increases-the-intentional-step-synchronization-of-side-by-side-walkers
#11
Dominic Noy, Sandra Mouta, Joao Lamas, Daniel Basso, Carlos Silva, Jorge A Santos
When people walk side-by-side, they often synchronize their steps. To achieve this, individuals might cross-modally match audiovisual signals from the movements of the partner and kinesthetic, cutaneous, visual and auditory signals from their own movements. Because signals from different sensory systems are processed with noise and asynchronously, the challenge of the CNS is to derive the best estimate based on this conflicting information. This is currently thought to be done by a mechanism operating as a Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE)...
November 3, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101995/acr-appropriateness-criteria-%C3%A2-tinnitus
#12
Marcus M Kessler, Marwan Moussa, Julie Bykowski, Claudia F E Kirsch, Joseph M Aulino, Kevin L Berger, Asim F Choudhri, Terry D Fife, Isabelle M Germano, A Tuba Kendi, Jeffrey H Kim, Michael D Luttrull, Diego Nunez, Lubdha M Shah, Aseem Sharma, Vilaas S Shetty, Sophia C Symko, Rebecca S Cornelius
Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of an external source. It is a common symptom that can be related to hearing loss and other benign causes. However, tinnitus may be disabling and can be the only symptom in a patient with a central nervous system process disorder. History and physical examination are crucial first steps to determine the need for imaging. CT and MRI are useful in the setting of pulsatile tinnitus to evaluate for an underlying vascular anomaly or abnormality. If there is concomitant asymmetric hearing loss, neurologic deficit, or head trauma, imaging should be guided by those respective ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) documents, rather than the presence of tinnitus...
November 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100627/locus-coeruleus-activity-mediates-hyperresponsiveness-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#13
Christoph Naegeli, Thomas Zeffiro, Marco Piccirelli, Assia Jaillard, Anina Weilenmann, Katayun Hassanpour, Matthis Schick, Michael Rufer, Scott P Orr, Christoph Mueller-Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are hyperresponsive to unexpected or potentially threatening environmental stimuli. Research in lower animals and humans suggests that sensitization of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system may underlie behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness in PTSD. However, direct evidence linking locus coeruleus system hyperactivity to PTSD hyperresponsiveness is sparse. METHODS: Psychophysiological recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging were used during passive listening to brief, 95-dB sound pressure level, white noise bursts presented intermittently to determine whether behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness to sudden sounds in PTSD is associated with locus coeruleus hyperresponsiveness...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099790/design-of-uav-embedded-microphone-array-system-for-sound-source-localization-in-outdoor-environments
#14
Kotaro Hoshiba, Kai Washizaki, Mizuho Wakabayashi, Takahiro Ishiki, Makoto Kumon, Yoshiaki Bando, Daniel Gabriel, Kazuhiro Nakadai, Hiroshi G Okuno
In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS) consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools...
November 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099442/prospective-evaluation-of-patients-undergoing-translabyrinthine-excision-of-vestibular-schwannoma-with-concurrent-cochlear-implantation
#15
Meredith A Rooth, Margaret T Dillon, Kevin D Brown
OBJECTIVE: Translabyrinthine (TL) vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection may be accomplished with preservation of the cochlear nerve, permitting successful, concurrent cochlear implantation. In this single institution, Food and Drug Administration-approved feasibility study, we wished to determine the success and outcomes of concurrent cochlear implantation at the time of TL resection of VS. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Tertiary referral center...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098286/development-of-an-18-item-measure-of-symptom-burden-in-patients-with-glaucoma-from-the-collaborative-initial-glaucoma-treatment-study-s-symptom-and-health-problem-checklist
#16
David C Musch, Michelle E Tarver, Matt J Goren, Nancy K Janz
Importance: Administration of a brief questionnaire to evaluate glaucoma symptoms would lend useful information for patient care. Objectives: To develop a shortened glaucoma symptom measure based on the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS) Symptom and Health Problem Checklist (SHPC) and evaluate its psychometric properties. Design, Setting, and Participants: This measure development study evaluated the factor structure of the 43-item SHPC that was obtained from CIGTS participants at baseline and every 6 months thereafter...
November 2, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096327/early-visual-deprivation-prompts-the-use-of-body-centered-frames-of-reference-for-auditory-localization
#17
Tiziana Vercillo, Alessia Tonelli, Monica Gori
The effects of early visual deprivation on auditory spatial processing are controversial. Results from recent psychophysical studies show that people who were born blind have a spatial impairment in localizing sound sources within specific auditory settings, while previous psychophysical studies revealed enhanced auditory spatial abilities in early blind compared to sighted individuals. An explanation of why an auditory spatial deficit is sometimes observed within blind populations and its task-dependency remains to be clarified...
October 26, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093599/herschel-survey-and-modelling-of-externally-illuminated-photoevaporating-protoplanetary-disks
#18
J Champion, O Berné, S Vicente, I Kamp, F Le Petit, A Gusdorf, C Joblin, J R Goicoechea
Context: Protoplanetary disks undergo substantial mass-loss by photoevaporation, a mechanism which is crucial to their dynamical evolution. However, the processes regulating the gas energetics have not been well constrained by observations so far. Aims: We aim at studying the processes involved in disk photoevaporation when it is driven by far-UV photons (i.e. 6 < E < 13.6 eV). Methods: We present a unique Herschel survey and new ALMA observations of four externally-illuminated photoevaporating disks (a...
August 2017: Astronomy and Astrophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092575/a-multiscale-analytical-model-of-bronchial-airway-acoustics
#19
Brian Henry, Thomas J Royston
Sound transmission and resulting airway wall vibration in a complex multiscale viscoelastic model of the subglottal bronchial tree was calculated using a modified one-dimensional (1D) branching acoustic waveguide approach. This is an extension of previous work to enable use of complex airway trees that are partially derived from subject-specific medical images, without the need for self-similarity in the geometric structure. The approach was validated numerically for simplified airway geometries, as well as experimentally by comparison to previous studies...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092572/localization-of-complex-sounds-is-modulated-by-behavioral-relevance-and-sound-category
#20
Kiki Derey, Josef P Rauschecker, Elia Formisano, Giancarlo Valente, Beatrice de Gelder
Meaningful sounds represent the majority of sounds that humans hear and process in everyday life. Yet studies of human sound localization mainly use artificial stimuli such as clicks, pure tones, and noise bursts. The present study investigated the influence of behavioral relevance, sound category, and acoustic properties on the localization of complex, meaningful sounds in the horizontal plane. Participants localized vocalizations and traffic sounds with two levels of behavioral relevance (low and high) within each category, as well as amplitude-modulated tones...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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