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Alireza Milani, Marzieh Basirnejad, Sepideh Shahbazi, Azam Bolhassani
Carotenoids and retinoids have several similarities in biological activities such as antioxidant properties, the inhibition of malignant tumor growth, and the induction of apoptosis. Supplementation with carotenoids can influence cell growth regulation, and modulate gene expression and immune response. Epidemiologic studies have shown the correlation of high carotenoid intake from food sources with reduced risk of breast, cervical, ovarian, colorectal cancers, and cardiovascular or eye diseases. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary carotenoids involves some approaches including gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), growth factor signaling, cell cycle progression, differentiation-related proteins, retinoid-like receptors, antioxidant response element, nuclear receptors, AP-1 transcriptional complex, Wnt/β-Catenin pathway, and inflammatory cytokines...
September 16, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Pallab Ray, Deblina Guha, Juni Chakraborty, Shuvomoy Banerjee, Arghya Adhikary, Samik Chakraborty, Tanya Das, Gaurisankar Sa
Tumor suppressor p53 preserves the genomic integrity by restricting anomaly at the gene level. The hotspots for mutation in half of all colon cancers reside in p53. Hence, in a p53-mutated cellular milieu targeting cancer cells may be achievable by targeting the paralogue(s) of p53. Here we have shown the effectiveness of crocetin, a dietary component, in inducing apoptosis of colon cancer cells with varying p53 status. In wild-type p53-expressing cancer cells, p53 in one hand transactivates BAX and in parallel up-regulates p53-induced death domain protein (PIDD) that in turn cleaves and activates BID through caspase-2...
2016: Scientific Reports
V Sapanidou, I Taitzoglou, I Tsakmakidis, I Kourtzelis, D Fletouris, A Theodoridis, S Lavrentiadou, M Tsantarliotou
Oxidative stress is one of the major factors that contribute to poor semen quality and low rates of in vitro fertilization. Crocetin, a main constituent of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) possesses potent antioxidant activity, by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or enhancing the activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this study was to investigate, for the first time, the effect of crocetin on the quality characteristics of bull spermatozoa and fertilization rate. For this reason, frozen/thawed bovine spermatozoa were incubated with crocetin (1, 2...
August 30, 2016: Andrology
Takuya Ohba, Mitsue Ishisaka, Saori Tsujii, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Koya Kubo, Naofumi Umigai, Takao Iwawaki, Hideaki Hara
Crocetin, the aglycone of crocin, is a carotenoid found in fruits of gardenia (Gardeina jasminoides Ellis) and saffron (Crocus sativus L.). We investigated the protective effects of crocetin against ultraviolet-A (UV-A)-induced skin damage and explored the underlying mechanism. Human skin-derived fibroblasts cells (NB1-RGB) were damaged by exposure to UV-A irradiation (10J/cm(2)). Crocetin protected these cells against cell death and reduced the production of reactive oxygen species induced by UV-A irradiation...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Alireza Rezaee Khorasany, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
G Zullo, C De Canditiis, M E Pero, G Albero, A Salzano, G Neglia, G Campanile, B Gasparrini
The aim of this work was to assess the effect of supplementation of bovine culture medium with the natural antioxidant crocetin on in vitro blastocyst development and quality. This was evaluated as cryotolerance, apoptosis index, and total cells number and allocation. Abattoir-derived oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro according to standard procedure. Twenty hours after IVF, presumptive zygotes were cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid medium, supplemented with 0, 1, 2.5, and 5 μM crocetin (experiment 1) at 39 °C under humidified air with 5% CO2, 7% O2, and 88% N2...
November 2016: Theriogenology
Zohreh Hafezi Ghahestani, Fatemeh Alebooye Langroodi, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Mohammad Ramezani, Maryam Hashemi
Poor solubility of crocetin has limited its use as a potential chemotherapeutic agent. In this study, a crocetin nanocarrier was formulated based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer. The effect of preparation conditions on the size and entrap efficiency of PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) via single emulsion/solvent evaporation method was evaluated. Cytotoxicity of crocetin and crocetin-encapsulated PLGA NPs was assayed in MCF-7 cell line. In PLGA formulations, the optimal condition was found to be 5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), crocetin:polymer ratio 1:20 and dichloromethane as organic solvent...
June 21, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Zhiheng Huang, Chen Nan, Hanqing Wang, Qiang Su, Wenda Xue, Yanyan Chen, Xin Shan, Jinao Duan, Gang Chen, Weiwei Tao
Crocetin ester (CE) is the active ingredient of Crocus sativus L. stigmas and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of CE on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) through Rho/ROCK/NF-κB pathway and explore its underlying mechanism. Administration of CE (25 and 50mg/kg) could significantly reduce the serum contents of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
September 2016: International Immunopharmacology
John L Gainer, Jason P Sheehan, James M Larner, David R Jones
OBJECTIVE A new drug, trans sodium crocetinate (TSC), has been developed to enhance the delivery of oxygen to hypoxic tissues. Cancerous tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), are very hypoxic, and it has been suggested that radiation therapy (RT) is more beneficial if tumors are better oxygenated. A Phase I/II clinical trial was conducted to determine the effect of adding TSC to RT sessions. METHODS An open, single-arm clinical trial incorporating the standard of care (SOC) for GBM was conducted at 18 clinical sites...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Tahereh Farkhondeh
Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used as a food additive, preservative, and medicinal herb. Traditionally, it has been used as an alternative treatment for different diseases. C. sativus' medicinal effects are related to its major constituents like crocins, crocetin, and safranal. According to the literature, C. sativus and its constituents could be considered as an effective treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, coronary artery diseases, asthma, bronchitis, colds, fever, diabetes, and so on...
July 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Wei-E Zhou, Yuan Zhang, Yang Li, Yun Ling, Hong-Na Li, Shao-Hui Li, Shou-Jun Jiang, Zhi-Qin Ren, Zhi-Qiang Huang, Feng Zhang
A novel, rapid and simple analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of crocin, crocetin and geniposide in soft drink, pastry and instant noodles. The solid samples were relatively homogenized into powders and fragments. The gardenia yellow colorants were successively extracted with methanol using ultrasound-assisted extraction. The analytes were quantitatively measured in the extracts by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. High correlation coefficients (r(2)>0...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Oussama Ahrazem, Angela Rubio-Moraga, Javier Argandoña-Picazo, Raquel Castillo, Lourdes Gómez-Gómez
The carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 2, a new member of the CCD family, catalyzes the conversion of zeaxanthin into crocetin-dialdehyde in Crocus. CCD2 is expressed in flowers, being responsible for the yellow, orange and red colorations displayed by tepals and stigma. Three CsCCD2 genes were identified in Crocus sativus, the longest contains ten exons and the shorter is a truncated copy with no introns and which lacks one exon sequence. Analysis of RNA-seq datasets of three developmental stages of saffron stigma allowed the determination of alternative splicing in CsCCD2, being intron retention (IR) the prevalent form of alternative splicing in CsCCD2...
June 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Ping Chen, Yang Chen, Yarong Wang, Shining Cai, Liang Deng, Jia Liu, Hao Zhang
Iridoid glycosides (mainly geniposide) and crocetin derivatives (crocins) are the two major active constituents in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. In the present study, geniposide, crocins, crocin-1 and crocetin were separated from gardenia chromatographically. Then, mice were orally administrated with geniposide (400 mg/kg b.w.), crocins (400 mg/kg b.w.), crocin-1 (400 mg/kg b.w.) and crocetin (140 mg/kg b.w.) once daily for 7 days with CCl4. Hepatoprotective properties were evaluated by biochemical parameters: Administration of geniposide, crocins, crocin-1and crocetin significantlylowered serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in CCl4-treated mice...
March 1, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Hamid Mollazadeh, Seyyed Ahmad Emami, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi's Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi...
December 2015: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Gianluca Paredi, Samanta Raboni, Francesco Marchesani, Stella A Ordoudi, Maria Z Tsimidou, Andrea Mozzarelli
Saffron is a spice comprised of the dried stigmas and styles of Crocus sativus L. flowers and, since it is very expensive, it is frequently adulterated. So far, proteomic tools have never been applied to characterize the proteome of saffron or identify possible cases of fraud. In this study, 1D-Gel Electrophoresis was carried out to characterize the protein profile of (i) fresh stigmas and styles of the plant; (ii) dried stigmas and styles from different geographical origins (Spanish, Italian, Greek and Iranian) that had been stored for various periods of time after their processing; and (iii) two common plant adulterants, dried petals of Carthamus tinctorius L...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
S Mahdavifard, S Z Bathaie, M Nakhjavani, M Taghikhani
Protein glycation due to hyperglycemia resulting in misfolding and aggregation, which is known as one of the most important reasons of diabetes complications. We previously showed the beneficial effects of some antiglycating agents in diabetic rats. Here, the effect of MB-92, a combination of some amino acids and crocetin (Crt, a saffron carotenoid), was studied in the prevention of diabetic complications in diabetic-atherosclerotic rats. In addition, the inhibitory effect of these treatments on glycation intermediates, aggregation and misfolding of proteins was investigated both in vivo and in vitro...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jurong Ding, Jianhua Su, Li Zhang, Jian Ma
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Regulatory T cells (Treg) are critical regulators of asthma. Crocetin is isolated from Chinese herb saffron and is a natural carotenoid dicarboxylic acid with anti-inflammatory potential. However, the effects of Crocetin on asthma as well as the underlying mechanisms have not been studied. METHODS: We used Crocetin to treat mice with established ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. We purified CD4+CD25+ Treg cells by flow cytometry and analyzed the levels of two immunoregulatory proteins Foxp3 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2) in Treg cells...
2015: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
John Richard Bend, Xue Yan Xia, Daofeng Chen, Abudi Awaysheh, Andrea Lo, Michael John Rieder, Rebecca Jane Rylett
PURPOSE: Our working hypothesis is that single bioactive phytochemicals with antioxidant properties that are important constituents of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and their defined mixtures have potential as chemoprotective agents for chronic conditions characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress, including Alzheimer's. Here we evaluate the ability of baicalein, crocetin, trans-resveratrol or schisanhenol and two defined mixtures of these TCM phytochemicals to attenuate the toxicity resulting from exposure to cell permeant t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBPH) in wild-type and bioengineered (to express choline acetyltransferase) HEK 293 cells...
2015: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Lee Zhang, Dao-Feng Chen, Xue Yan Xia, Cindy Yip, Michael John Rieder, John Richard Bend
PURPOSE: Our working hypothesis is that bioactive phytochemicals that are important constituents of Traditional Chinese Medicine and their defined mixtures have potential as complementary therapy for chemoprotection against adverse drug reactions whose toxicity is not related to the pharmacological action of the drug but where oxidative and nitrosative stress are causative factors. METHODS: In this investigation we measured cytotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS/NOS-mediated changes in the disulfide proteome of Jurkat E6...
2015: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Oussama Ahrazem, Angela Rubio-Moraga, Maria L Jimeno, Lourdes Gómez-Gómez
Crocin biosynthesis in Crocus has been proposed to proceed through a zeaxanthin cleavage pathway catalyzed by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 2 (CCD2), and followed by glucosylation reactions catalyzed by CsGT2 (UGT74AD1). In Crocus ancyrensis flowers, crocins with eight (crocin-1), seven (crocin-2), and six glucose (crocin-3) moieties accumulated both in stigma and tepals. We have characterized the structure of these highly glucosylated crocins and follow up their accumulation by high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector along the development of both tissues, and coupled to the isolation and analysis of the expression of eighteen genes (PSY-I, PSY-II, PDS-(I-V), ISO-ZDS, ZDS, CtrISO, LYC-I and II, BCH, CaCCD2, UGT74AD2-5) related with the apocarotenoid metabolism in C...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
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