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Lei Song, Chen Kang, Yuan Sun, Wenrui Huang, Wei Liu, Zhiyu Qian
BACKGROUND/AIM: Crocetin is a readily bioavailable and bioactive compound extracted from Saffron. Previous studies indicated its various biomedical properties including antioxidant and anti-coagulation potencies. However, its effect on inflammation, notably within the cardiovascular system, has not been investigated yet. In the present study, we utilized human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) to elucidate the effect of Crocetin on vascular inflammation. METHODS: Cell viability and toxicity were evaluated by MTT and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, respectively...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Roberto Tiribuzi, Lucia Crispoltoni, Valerio Chiurchiù, Antonella Casella, Celeste Montecchiani, Alberto Marco Del Pino, Mauro Maccarrone, Carlo Alberto Palmerini, Carlo Caltagirone, Toshitaka Kawarai, Aldo Orlacchio, Antonio Orlacchio
Herbal medicines have been recently employed in research and clinical studies for the potential treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms associated with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and other types of dementia. The present study investigates the effect of trans-crocetin, an active constituent of Crocus sativus L., to restore in vitro the reduced ability of AD patients' monocytes to degrade amyloid-β(1-42) (Aβ42). CD14(+) monocytes from 22 sporadic AD patients with moderate cognitive impairment were isolated; then, the role of trans-crocetin, purified from saffron extracts, was evaluated in terms of Aβ42 degradation rate through flow cytometry, as well as expression of cathepsin B by Western blotting...
November 6, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Metabolic syndrome is a disorder which encompasses with obesity, high blood glucose, high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. Moreover metabolic syndrome is considered as the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of mortality in the world for both men and women. Although several chemical drugs are available to treat metabolic risk factors, however, because of the safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects, nowadays herbal therapy has a critical role in the treatment of these CVD risk factors...
November 12, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Mitali Nitin Dawalbhakta, Manasi Alok Telang
BACKGROUND: Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has a long history of use as a food additive and a traditional medicine for treating a number of disorders. Prominent bioactives of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to carry out an extensive patent search to collect information on saffron bioactives and their derivatives as therapeutic and cosmeceutical agents. All patents related to the area of interest published globally till date have been reviewed...
November 14, 2016: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Fatemeh Soltani, Mohammad Ramezani, Sara Amel Farzad, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Maryam Hashemi
Poor water solubility of hydrophobic drugs is one of the major problems in pharmaceutical sciences. Herein, in order to address the poor solubility of crocetin, the 30% of primary amines of PAMAM G4 and PPI G4 were alkylated and evaluated as drug delivery vectors. According to the results, this modification could improve the drug delivery efficiency in term of drug solubility, release pattern and cytotoxicity; however, the encapsulation yield was decreased. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the designed alkylated dendrimers are able to improve the drug delivery efficiency, may be through improving the solubility and cellular uptake of crocetin...
October 31, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Alireza Milani, Marzieh Basirnejad, Sepideh Shahbazi, Azam Bolhassani
Carotenoids and retinoids have several similarities in biological activities such as antioxidant properties, the inhibition of malignant tumor growth, and the induction of apoptosis. Supplementation with carotenoids can influence cell growth regulation, and modulate gene expression and immune response. Epidemiologic studies have shown the correlation of high carotenoid intake from food sources with reduced risk of breast, cervical, ovarian, colorectal cancers, and cardiovascular or eye diseases. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary carotenoids involves some approaches including gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), growth factor signaling, cell cycle progression, differentiation-related proteins, retinoid-like receptors, antioxidant response element, nuclear receptors, AP-1 transcriptional complex, Wnt/β-Catenin pathway, and inflammatory cytokines...
September 16, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Pallab Ray, Deblina Guha, Juni Chakraborty, Shuvomoy Banerjee, Arghya Adhikary, Samik Chakraborty, Tanya Das, Gaurisankar Sa
Tumor suppressor p53 preserves the genomic integrity by restricting anomaly at the gene level. The hotspots for mutation in half of all colon cancers reside in p53. Hence, in a p53-mutated cellular milieu targeting cancer cells may be achievable by targeting the paralogue(s) of p53. Here we have shown the effectiveness of crocetin, a dietary component, in inducing apoptosis of colon cancer cells with varying p53 status. In wild-type p53-expressing cancer cells, p53 in one hand transactivates BAX and in parallel up-regulates p53-induced death domain protein (PIDD) that in turn cleaves and activates BID through caspase-2...
2016: Scientific Reports
V Sapanidou, I Taitzoglou, I Tsakmakidis, I Kourtzelis, D Fletouris, A Theodoridis, S Lavrentiadou, M Tsantarliotou
Oxidative stress is one of the major factors that contribute to poor semen quality and low rates of in vitro fertilization. Crocetin, a main constituent of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) possesses potent antioxidant activity, by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or enhancing the activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this study was to investigate, for the first time, the effect of crocetin on the quality characteristics of bull spermatozoa and fertilization rate. For this reason, frozen/thawed bovine spermatozoa were incubated with crocetin (1, 2...
August 30, 2016: Andrology
Takuya Ohba, Mitsue Ishisaka, Saori Tsujii, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Koya Kubo, Naofumi Umigai, Takao Iwawaki, Hideaki Hara
Crocetin, the aglycone of crocin, is a carotenoid found in fruits of gardenia (Gardeina jasminoides Ellis) and saffron (Crocus sativus L.). We investigated the protective effects of crocetin against ultraviolet-A (UV-A)-induced skin damage and explored the underlying mechanism. Human skin-derived fibroblasts cells (NB1-RGB) were damaged by exposure to UV-A irradiation (10J/cm(2)). Crocetin protected these cells against cell death and reduced the production of reactive oxygen species induced by UV-A irradiation...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Alireza Rezaee Khorasany, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
G Zullo, C De Canditiis, M E Pero, G Albero, A Salzano, G Neglia, G Campanile, B Gasparrini
The aim of this work was to assess the effect of supplementation of bovine culture medium with the natural antioxidant crocetin on in vitro blastocyst development and quality. This was evaluated as cryotolerance, apoptosis index, and total cells number and allocation. Abattoir-derived oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro according to standard procedure. Twenty hours after IVF, presumptive zygotes were cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid medium, supplemented with 0, 1, 2.5, and 5 μM crocetin (experiment 1) at 39 °C under humidified air with 5% CO2, 7% O2, and 88% N2...
November 2016: Theriogenology
Zohreh Hafezi Ghahestani, Fatemeh Alebooye Langroodi, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Mohammad Ramezani, Maryam Hashemi
Poor solubility of crocetin has limited its use as a potential chemotherapeutic agent. In this study, a crocetin nanocarrier was formulated based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer. The effect of preparation conditions on the size and entrap efficiency of PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) via single emulsion/solvent evaporation method was evaluated. Cytotoxicity of crocetin and crocetin-encapsulated PLGA NPs was assayed in MCF-7 cell line. In PLGA formulations, the optimal condition was found to be 5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), crocetin:polymer ratio 1:20 and dichloromethane as organic solvent...
June 21, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Zhiheng Huang, Chen Nan, Hanqing Wang, Qiang Su, Wenda Xue, Yanyan Chen, Xin Shan, Jinao Duan, Gang Chen, Weiwei Tao
Crocetin ester (CE) is the active ingredient of Crocus sativus L. stigmas and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of CE on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) through Rho/ROCK/NF-κB pathway and explore its underlying mechanism. Administration of CE (25 and 50mg/kg) could significantly reduce the serum contents of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
September 2016: International Immunopharmacology
John L Gainer, Jason P Sheehan, James M Larner, David R Jones
OBJECTIVE A new drug, trans sodium crocetinate (TSC), has been developed to enhance the delivery of oxygen to hypoxic tissues. Cancerous tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), are very hypoxic, and it has been suggested that radiation therapy (RT) is more beneficial if tumors are better oxygenated. A Phase I/II clinical trial was conducted to determine the effect of adding TSC to RT sessions. METHODS An open, single-arm clinical trial incorporating the standard of care (SOC) for GBM was conducted at 18 clinical sites...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Tahereh Farkhondeh
Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used as a food additive, preservative, and medicinal herb. Traditionally, it has been used as an alternative treatment for different diseases. C. sativus' medicinal effects are related to its major constituents like crocins, crocetin, and safranal. According to the literature, C. sativus and its constituents could be considered as an effective treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, coronary artery diseases, asthma, bronchitis, colds, fever, diabetes, and so on...
July 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Wei-E Zhou, Yuan Zhang, Yang Li, Yun Ling, Hong-Na Li, Shao-Hui Li, Shou-Jun Jiang, Zhi-Qin Ren, Zhi-Qiang Huang, Feng Zhang
A novel, rapid and simple analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of crocin, crocetin and geniposide in soft drink, pastry and instant noodles. The solid samples were relatively homogenized into powders and fragments. The gardenia yellow colorants were successively extracted with methanol using ultrasound-assisted extraction. The analytes were quantitatively measured in the extracts by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. High correlation coefficients (r(2)>0...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Oussama Ahrazem, Angela Rubio-Moraga, Javier Argandoña-Picazo, Raquel Castillo, Lourdes Gómez-Gómez
The carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 2, a new member of the CCD family, catalyzes the conversion of zeaxanthin into crocetin-dialdehyde in Crocus. CCD2 is expressed in flowers, being responsible for the yellow, orange and red colorations displayed by tepals and stigma. Three CsCCD2 genes were identified in Crocus sativus, the longest contains ten exons and the shorter is a truncated copy with no introns and which lacks one exon sequence. Analysis of RNA-seq datasets of three developmental stages of saffron stigma allowed the determination of alternative splicing in CsCCD2, being intron retention (IR) the prevalent form of alternative splicing in CsCCD2...
June 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Ping Chen, Yang Chen, Yarong Wang, Shining Cai, Liang Deng, Jia Liu, Hao Zhang
Iridoid glycosides (mainly geniposide) and crocetin derivatives (crocins) are the two major active constituents in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. In the present study, geniposide, crocins, crocin-1 and crocetin were separated from gardenia chromatographically. Then, mice were orally administrated with geniposide (400 mg/kg b.w.), crocins (400 mg/kg b.w.), crocin-1 (400 mg/kg b.w.) and crocetin (140 mg/kg b.w.) once daily for 7 days with CCl4. Hepatoprotective properties were evaluated by biochemical parameters: Administration of geniposide, crocins, crocin-1and crocetin significantlylowered serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in CCl4-treated mice...
March 1, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Hamid Mollazadeh, Seyyed Ahmad Emami, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi's Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi...
December 2015: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Gianluca Paredi, Samanta Raboni, Francesco Marchesani, Stella A Ordoudi, Maria Z Tsimidou, Andrea Mozzarelli
Saffron is a spice comprised of the dried stigmas and styles of Crocus sativus L. flowers and, since it is very expensive, it is frequently adulterated. So far, proteomic tools have never been applied to characterize the proteome of saffron or identify possible cases of fraud. In this study, 1D-Gel Electrophoresis was carried out to characterize the protein profile of (i) fresh stigmas and styles of the plant; (ii) dried stigmas and styles from different geographical origins (Spanish, Italian, Greek and Iranian) that had been stored for various periods of time after their processing; and (iii) two common plant adulterants, dried petals of Carthamus tinctorius L...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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