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glycolic acid

Celina Yang, Kyle Bromma, Devika Chithrani
Optimizing the interface between nanoparticles (NPs) and the biological environment at various levels should be considered for improving delivery of NPs to the target tumor area. For NPs to be successfully delivered to cancer cells, NPs needs to be functionalized for circulation through the blood vessels. In this study, accumulation of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) was first tested using in vitro monolayer cells and multilayer cell models prior to in vivo models. A diameter of 10 nm sized GNP was selected for this study for sufficient penetration through tumor tissue...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Kazuhiko Akutsu, Yoko Kitagawa, Masato Yoshimitsu, Satoshi Takatori, Naoki Fukui, Masakazu Osakada, Kotaro Uchida, Emiko Azuma, Keiji Kajimura
Polyethylene glycol 300 is commonly used as a base material for "analyte protection" in multiresidue pesticide analysis via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. However, the disadvantage of the co-injection method using polyethylene glycol 300 is that it causes peak instability in α-cyano pyrethroids (type II pyrethroids) such as fluvalinate. In this study, we confirmed the instability phenomenon in type II pyrethroids and developed novel analyte protectants for acetone/n-hexane mixture solution to suppress the phenomenon...
March 20, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Margrit M Ayoub, Neveen G Elantouny, Hanan M El-Nahas, Fakhr El-Din S Ghazy
For patient convenience, sustained release Adefovir Poly-d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres were formulated to relieve the daily use of the drug which is a problem for patients treated from chronic hepatitis-B. PLGA microspheres were prepared and characterized by entrapment efficiency, particle size distribution and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In-vitro release and in-vivo studies were carried out. Factors such as drug: polymer ratio, polymer viscosity and polymer lactide content were found to be important variables for the preparation of PLGA Adefovir microspheres...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Anneliese S Ashhurst, Thaigarajan Parumasivam, John Gar Yan Chan, Leon C W Lin, Manuela Flórido, Nicholas P West, Hak-Kim Chan, Warwick J Britton
Tuberculosis places a staggering burden on human health globally. The new World Health Organisation End-TB Strategy has highlighted the urgent need for more effective TB vaccines to improve control of the disease. Protein-based subunit vaccines offer potential as safe and effective generators of protective immunity, and the use of particulate vaccine formulation and delivery by the pulmonary route may enhance local immunogenicity. In this study, novel particulate subunit vaccines were developed utilising biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) slow-release particles as carriers for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoprotein MPT83, together with the adjuvants trehalose-dibehenate (TDB) or Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)...
2018: PloS One
Sing Yee Yeung, Thomas Ederth, Guoqing Pan, Judita Cicėnaitė, Marite Cardenas, Thomas Arnebrant, Börje Sellergren
Lipid bilayers, forming the outer barrier of cells, display a wide array of proteins and carbohy-drates for modulating interfacial biological interactions. Formed by the spontaneous self-assembly of lipid molecules, these bilayers feature liquid crystalline order, while retaining a high degree of lateral mobility. Studies of these dynamic phenomena have been hampered by the fra-gility and instability of corresponding biomimetic cell membrane models. Here, we present the construct of a series of oligoethylene glycol-terminated reversible self-assembled monolayers (rSAMs) featuring lipid bilayer-like fluidity, while retaining air and protein stability and re-sistance...
March 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ye Zhang, Jiangna Guo, Dan Xu, Yi Sun, Feng Yan
Copper nanowires (Cu NWs) have become a promising material for flexible transparent conductive electrodes (FTCEs) owing to the outstanding transparency and conductivity properties. In this work, ultralong Cu NWs with an average length over 250 μm and diameter around 50 nm (aspect ratio ~5000) were synthesized in water/polyhydric alcohol co-solvent. The effects of polyhydric alcohols (including ethanol, ethylene glycol and glycerol) on the aspect ratio of Cu NWs were investigated. The diameter of Cu NWs decreased with the increased number of hydroxyl groups of polyhydric alcohols...
March 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Seeyoung Choi, Paul E Love
Oxidative inactivation of cysteine-dependent Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) by cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a critical role in regulating signal transduction in multiple cell types. The phosphatase activity of most PTPs depends upon a 'signature' cysteine residue within the catalytic domain that is maintained in the de-protonated state at physiological pH rendering it susceptible to ROS-mediated oxidation. Direct and indirect techniques for detection of PTP oxidation have been developed (Karisch and Neel, 2013)...
January 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
Qinghui Wang, Xiaoyu Ding, Yuhui Wang, Qian Du, Tianguo Xu, Bin Du, Hanchun Yao
Tumor pH detection and pH value change monitoring have been of great interest in the field of nanomedicine. In this study, a pH-sensitive near-infrared fluorescence probe SiRB (Si-rhodamine and Boronic acid group) was synthesized by introducing a boronic acid group into the silicon rhodamine structure. ICG (Indocyanine green) as the fluorescence internal standard and SiRB were loaded into PLGA (poly lactic-co-glycolic acid) to form PLGA-SiRB-ICG nanoparticle. The experiments showed that the size of the nanoparticle was about 90 nm, which can reach tumor passively by enhancing permeability and retention effect...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Patrick J Kennedy, Ines Perreira, Daniel Ferreira, Marika Nestor, Carla Oliveira, Pedro L Granja, Bruno Sarmento
Targeted drug delivery with nanoparticles (NPs) requires proper surface ligand presentation and availability. Surfactants are often used as stabilizers in the production of targeted NPs. Here, we evaluated the impact of surfactants on ligand functionalization and downstream molecular recognition. Our model system consisted of fluorescent poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs that were nanoprecipitated in one of a small panel of commonly-used surfactants followed by equivalent washes and conjugation of an engineered Fab antibody fragment...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Emily Wonder, Lorena Simón-Gracia, Pablo Scodeller, Ramsey N Majzoub, Venkata Ramana Kotamraju, Kai K Ewert, Tambet Teesalu, Cyrus R Safinya
Cationic liposome-nucleic acid (CL-NA) complexes, which form spontaneously, are a highly modular gene delivery system. These complexes can be sterically stabilized via PEGylation [PEG: poly (ethylene glycol)] into nanoparticles (NPs) and targeted to specific tissues and cell types via the conjugation of an affinity ligand. However, there are currently no guidelines on how to effectively navigate the large space of compositional parameters that modulate the specific and nonspecific binding interactions of peptide-targeted NPs with cells...
March 2, 2018: Biomaterials
Arezoo Mohammadi Gazestani, Samideh Khoei, Sepideh Khoee, Soraya Emamgholizadeh Minaei, Manijeh Motevalian
Magnetite nanographene oxide has exhibited great potential in drug delivery and photothermal therapy (PTT) for cancer treatment. Here we developed 5-fluorouracil-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coated magnetite nanographene oxide (NGO-SPION-PLGA-5-Fu) to simplify combined PTT and chemotherapy in one complex. The nanocarrier was synthesized using a modified O1 /W1 /O2 /W2 multiple emulsion solvent evaporation method and was characterized for size, zeta potential, drug loading, in vitro and in vivo release...
March 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Musammir Khan, Janne T Koivisto, Terttu I Hukka, Mikko Hokka, Minna Kellomäki
Biopolymers are attractive candidates to fabricate biocompatible hydrogels, but the low water solubility of most of them at physiological pH, has hindered their applications. To prepare a water-soluble derivative of chitosan (WSC) biopolymer, it was grafted with a small anionic amino acid, L-glutamic acid, using a single step 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide coupling reaction. This resulted in a zwitterion-tethered structure onto the polymer backbone. The degree of substitution ranged between 13-16 ± 1...
March 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Antonella Accardo, Carlo Diaferia, Nicole Balasco, Teresa Sibillano, Cinzia Giannini, Luigi Vitagliano, Giancarlo Morelli
Over the years, a large number of multidisciplinary investigations has unveiled that the self-assembly of short peptides and even of individual amino acids can generate a variety of different biomaterials. In this framework, we have recently reported that polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugates of short homopeptides, containing aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine (Phe, F) and naphthylalanine (Nal), are able to form elongated fibrillary aggregates having interesting chemical and physical properties. We here extend these analyses characterizing the self-assembling propensity of PEG6-W4, a PEG adduct of the tetra-tryptophan (W4) sequence...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Chaoyu Liu, Chong Wang, Qilong Zhao, Xiaohua Li, Feiyue Xu, Xumei Yao, Min Wang
Electrospun fibrous scaffolds have been extensively used as cell-supporting matrices or delivery vehicles for various biomolecules in tissue engineering. Biodegradable scaffolds with tunable degradation behaviors are favorable for various resorbable tissue replacements. In nerve tissue engineering, delivery of growth factors (GFs) such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) from scaffolds can be used to promote peripheral nerve repair. In this study, using the established dual-source dual-power (DS-DP) electrospinning technique, bicomponent scaffolds incorporated with NGF and GDNF were designed and demonstrated as a strategy to develop scaffolds providing dual GF delivery...
March 14, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Parker W Lee, Jonathan K Pokorski
Injectable or implantable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) devices for the sustained delivery of proteins have been widely studied and utilized to overcome the necessity of repeated administrations for therapeutic proteins due to poor pharmacokinetic profiles of macromolecular therapies. These devices can come in the form of microparticles, implants, or patches depending on the disease state and route of administration. Furthermore, the release rate can be tuned from weeks to months by controlling the polymer composition, geometry of the device, or introducing additives during device fabrication...
March 13, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Ting Zhang, Songlei Zhou, Ling Hu, Bo Peng, Yang Liu, Xiang Luo, Xinrong Liu, Yanzhi Song, Yihui Deng
Polysialic acid (PSA) is a nonimmunogenic and biodegradable polysaccharide. In recent years, PSA has shown its potential applications to cancer treatment. In this study, PSA-polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugate was synthesized for the decoration of epirubicin (EPI)-loaded liposomes. The study aimed to evaluate the PSA-PEG conjugated modified liposomes (EPI-PSL) in vitro and in vivo to investigate the role of PSA on physicochemical characteristics and antitumor activity in PEGylated liposomes. EPI-PSL showed a particle size of 116...
March 13, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Matharage Gayani Dilshara, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga Jayasooriya, Ilandarage Menu Neelaka Molagoda, Jin-Woo Jeong, Seungheon Lee, Sang Rul Park, Gi-Young Kim, Yung Hyun Choi
In this study, we addressed how silibinin enhances tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis in various cancer cells. Combined treatment with silibinin and TRAIL (silibinin/TRAIL) induced apoptosis accompanied by the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and Bax, and cytosolic accumulation of cytochrome c. Anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, IAP-1, and IAP-2 were inhibited as well. Silibinin also triggered TRAIL-induced apoptosis in A549 cells through upregulation of death receptor 5 (DR5)...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Muhammad Naeem, Junhwan Bae, Murtada A Oshi, Min-Soo Kim, Hyung Ryong Moon, Bok Luel Lee, Eunok Im, Yunjin Jung, Jin-Wook Yoo
Background: Colon-targeted oral nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as an ideal, safe, and effective therapy for ulcerative colitis (UC) owing to their ability to selectively accumulate in inflamed colonic mucosa. Cyclosporine A (CSA), an immunosuppressive agent, has long been used as rescue therapy in severe steroid-refractory UC. In this study, we developed CSA-loaded dual-functional polymeric NPs composed of Eudragit® FS30D as a pH-sensitive polymer for targeted delivery to the inflamed colon, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as a sustained-release polymer...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Claudia Conte, Francesca Mastrotto, Vincenzo Taresco, Aleksandra Tchoryk, Fabiana Quaglia, Snjezana Stolnik, Cameron Alexander
In the treatment of lung cancer, there is an urgent need of innovative medicines to optimize pharmacological responses of conventional chemotherapeutics while attenuating side effects. Here, we have exploited some relatively unexplored subtle differences in reduction potential, associated with cancer cell microenvironments in addition to the well-known changes in intracellular redox environment. We report the synthesis and application of novel redox-responsive PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) -PEG (polyethylene glycol) nanoparticles (RR-NPs) programmed to change surface properties when entering tumor microenvironments, thus enhance cell internalization of the particles and their drug cargo...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
N Wang, Q Xu, Y Liu, Y Jin, P W Harlina, M Ma
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from hen egg yolk has high nutritional value and plays an important role in the fields of biology, medicine, and materials. To develop fundamental research about LDL, a highly efficient extraction method is necessary. We found that 30% saturated ammonium sulfate can extract more crude LDL than 40% saturation. We selected polyethylene glycol (PEG; nonionic type) to obtain crude LDL. Three factors were employed, namely, degree of polymerization, concentration of PEG, and pH of egg yolk plasma...
March 8, 2018: Poultry Science
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