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Wolfgang Bernhard
Lung surfactant is a complex with a unique phospholipid and protein composition. Its specific function is to reduce surface tension at the pulmonary air-liquid interface. The underlying Young-Laplace equation, applying to the surface of any geometrical structure, is the more important the smaller its radii are. It therefore applies to the alveoli and bronchioli of mature lungs, as well as to the tubules and saccules of immature lungs. Surfactant comprises 80% phosphatidylcholine (PC), of which dipalmitoyl-PC, palmitoyl-myristoyl-PC and palmitoyl-palmitoleoyl-PC together are 75%...
September 29, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Eva Degerman, Rene In 't Zandt, Annki Pålbrink, Lena Eliasson, Per Cayé-Thomasen, Måns Magnusson
CONCLUSION: The data indicate important roles for phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3, 4, 5, and related cAMP and cGMP pools in the regulation of inner ear fluid homeostasis. Thus, dysfunction of these enzymes might contribute to pathologies of the inner ear. OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying endolymphatic hydrops, a hallmark of inner ear dysfunction, are not known in detail; however, altered balance in cAMP and cGMP signaling systems appears to be involved. Key components of these systems are PDEs, enzymes that modulate the amplitude, duration, termination, and specificity of cAMP and cGMP signaling...
August 15, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Holly A Holman, Vy M Tran, Mausam Kalita, Lynn N Nguyen, Sailaja Arungundram, Balagurunathan Kuberan, Richard D Rabbitt
We report on a new xyloside conjugated to BODIPY, BX and its utility to prime fluorescent glycosaminoglycans (BX-GAGs) within the inner ear in vivo. When BX is administered directly into the endolymphatic space of the oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau) inner ear, fluorescent BX-GAGs are primed and become visible in the sensory epithelia of the semicircular canals, utricle, and saccule. Confocal and 2-photon microscopy of vestibular organs fixed 4 h following BX treatment, reveal BX-GAGs constituting glycocalyces that envelop hair cell kinocilium, nerve fibers, and capillaries...
September 12, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
K Topal, K Kilic, M S Sakat, E Altas, H Ucuncu
Laryngocele is an abnormal cystic dilatation of the saccule or appendix of the laryngeal ventricle filled with air and connected to the lumen of the larynx. They rarely cause clinical complaints. But still being rare clinical occasions, they may cause airway obstruction which required emergency interventions. In this report we presented an extremely rare case of laryngocele which causes airway obstruction. A 35-year old male was admitted due to hoarseness, progressive respiratory distress and swelling at the right side of the neck for three years...
February 22, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
L E Walther
Otoconia are calcite-based nanocomposites containing >90 % calcite and <10 % organic material. The mean size is approximately 10 µm. The external structure of all otoconia in the utricle and saccule is similar, with a cylindrical bulbous body with a slightly hexagonal contour. The internal structure consists of a composite with varying volume thickness, dense branching structures (branches) and less dense surrounding areas (bellies). Intact otoconia can be clearly identified only by scanning electron microscopy...
October 2016: HNO
Pezhman Salehi, Anthony Myint, Young J Kim, Marshall X Ge, Joel Lavinsky, Maria K Ho, Amanda L Crow, Charlene Cruz, Maya Monges-Hernadez, Juemei Wang, Jaana Hartiala, Li I Zhang, Hooman Allayee, Aldons J Lusis, Takahiro Ohyama, Rick A Friedman
This study aimed to investigate the genetic causes of vestibular dysfunction. We used vestibular sensory-evoked potentials (VsEPs) to characterize the vestibular function of 35 inbred mouse strains selected from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel and demonstrated strain-dependent phenotypic variation in vestibular function. Using these phenotypic data, we performed the first genome-wide association study controlling for population structure that has revealed two highly suggestive loci, one of which lies within a haplotype block containing five genes (Stard6, 4930503L19Rik, Poli, Mbd2, Dcc) on Chr...
October 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Kevin D Kohl, M Denise Dearing
The microbial communities inhabiting the alimentary tracts of mammals, particularly those of herbivores, are estimated to be one of the densest microbial reservoirs on Earth. The significance of these gut microbes in influencing the physiology, ecology and evolution of their hosts is only beginning to be realized. To understand the microbiome of herbivores with a focus on nutritional ecology, while evaluating the roles of host evolution and environment in sculpting microbial diversity, we have developed an experimental system consisting of the microbial communities of several species of herbivorous woodrats (genus Neotoma) that naturally feed on a variety of dietary toxins...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mohamed Katta, Hemal Mehta, Ivan Ho, Ray Garrick, Robert Chong
Optic disc cavernous haemangiomas are either found incidentally or after presentation with vitreous haemorrhage. They are characterised by a cluster of grapes appearance to the multiple vascular saccules that make up the tumour. They are more often found in the retinal periphery but rarely occur at the optic disc. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging may be a useful non-invasive imaging modality to follow-up these lesions. We present the case of an asymptomatic 60-year-old lady referred from her optometrist with a lesion overlying the optic disc and the ensuing diagnosis of cavernous haemangioma using fundus fluorescein angiography and OCT...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Abrar A Suqati, Ameen Z Alherabi, Osama A Marglani, Tariq O Alaidarous
Laryngocele is an uncommon condition that represents a benign dilatation of the laryngeal saccule with air and/or fluid, arising in the region of the laryngeal ventricle. Laryngoceles, or laryngomucocele can be classified as internal, or combined. The aim of presenting this rare case of a bilateral combined laryngocele, are to emphasize the importance of diagnostic laryngoscopy in upper airway pathologies evaluation, increase awareness in the general otolaryngologist community, and to highlight the external surgical method...
August 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
A-X Xu, D-W Zhang, M Wang, J-F Long
OBJECTIVE: The factors influencing the diagnosing of salpingemphraxis by X-ray hysterosalpingography (HSG) are identified and summarized, to provide a reference for improving the precision of the diagnosis procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In order to analyze the collected data, the methods of stratified sampling and retrospective analysis were adopted. Two county-level medical units, two medical units in prefecture-level cities and two provincial medical units in our province were chosen...
July 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Azad Singh, Aschalew Z Bekele, Devi P Patnayak, Naresh Jindal, Robert E Porter, Sunil K Mor, Sagar M Goyal
From 2008 to 2012, 4 separate cases of quail bronchitis virus infection were seen in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) raised in Minnesota. The quail chicks ranged in age from 5 d to 8 wk and suffered from respiratory distress and elevated mortality. On necropsy, gross lesions consisted of mucus in trachea, congested lungs, caseous air sacculitis, accumulation of chalky white urates on internal organs, necrotic foci in liver, and enlarged spleen. Histologic examination revealed fibrinoheterophilic rhinitis, heterophilic bronchitis, heterophilic tracheitis, and interstitial pneumonia in addition to deciliation, desquamation, and necrosis of bronchial respiratory epithelium...
July 14, 2016: Poultry Science
Maria Loscertales, Fotini Nicolaou, Marion Jeanne, Mauro Longoni, Douglas B Gould, Yunwei Sun, Faouzi I Maalouf, Nandor Nagy, Patricia K Donahoe
BACKGROUND: Type IV collagen is the main component of the basement membrane that gives strength to the blood-gas barrier (BGB). In mammals, the formation of a mature BGB occurs primarily after birth during alveologenesis and requires the formation of septa from the walls of the saccule. In contrast, in avians, the formation of the BGB occurs rapidly and prior to hatching. Mutation in basement membrane components results in an abnormal alveolar phenotype; however, the specific role of type IV collagen in regulating alveologenesis remains unknown...
2016: BMC Biology
Pauliana Lamounier, Thiago Silva Almeida de Souza, Debora Aparecida Gobbo, Fayez Bahmad
INTRODUCTION: Ménière's disease (MD) is an inner ear disorder characterized by episodic vertigo, tinnitus, ear fullness, and fluctuating hearing. Its diagnosis can be especially difficult in cases where vestibular symptoms are present in isolation (vestibular MD). The definitive diagnosis is made histologically and can only be performed post-mortem, after analysis of the temporal bone. Endolymphatic hydrops is a histopathological finding of the disease and occurs more often in the cochlea and saccule, followed by the utricle and semicircular canals...
June 2, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Gerd Weigmann, Sergey G Ermilov
The octotaxic system of notogaster in poronotic oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) usually is represented by two types, either porose areas or saccules. These dermal gland structures are observed as constant for each species (except sexual dimorphism; see below), therefore their type often is used as key character, and in consequence of this, it is used in taxonomy and systematics as diagnostic character for different taxa levels from species to family (Subías 2004, online version 2015; Weigmann 2006; Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009; Bayartogtokh 2010)...
2016: Zootaxa
Togas Tulandi, Aviad Cohen
The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cesarean scar defects and its clinical manifestations in reproductive-aged women. We performed a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement using keywords of "cesarean scar defect, uterine scar defect, uterine diverticulum niche, isthmocele, pouch, or sacculation" and their combination. Thirty-two trials met the inclusion criteria. Cesarean scar defects are commonly found on ultrasound examination (24%-88%)...
September 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Scott M Reid, Jill Banks, Vanessa Ceeraz, Amanda Seekings, Wendy A Howard, Anita Puranik, Susan Collins, Ruth Manvell, Richard M Irvine, Ian H Brown
In April 2013, an H9N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus was isolated in a turkey breeder farm in Eastern England comprising 4966 birds. Point-of-lay turkey breeding birds had been moved from a rearing site and within 5 days had shown rapid onset of clinical signs of dullness, coughing, and anorexia. Three houses were involved, two contained a total of 4727 turkey hens, and the third housed 239 male turkeys. Around 50% of the hens were affected, whereas the male turkeys demonstrated milder clinical signs...
May 2016: Avian Diseases
Bing-Yi Lin, Yi-Ho Young
This study adopted an inner ear test battery in adults with congenital hearing loss to assess residual vestibular function. Thirty patients with non-inherited non-syndromatic congenital hearing loss were assigned to two groups based on their pure tone average (PTA). Subjects in Group A (n = 10) had PTA >90 dB, and those with PTA ≤90 dB were assigned to Group B (n = 20). All patients underwent audiometry, and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), cervical VEMP (cVEMP) and caloric tests...
June 13, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Joseph B Nadol
HYPOTHESIS: Endolymphatic hydrops of the human inner ear may be localized focally in the pars inferior of the human inner ear. BACKGROUND: Endolymphatic hydrops may be found in the human inner ear in patients who in life had suffered from Ménière's syndrome or a variety of other disorders. The degree of endolymphatic hydrops may differ based on location in the inner ear. METHODS: A computer-assisted search of all cases in the collection of the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary in which endolymphatic hydrops was found in the inner ear yielded 13 specimens in which there was good evidence for focal endolymphatic hydrops in the pars inferior...
August 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Fei Li, Jianhua Zhuang, Ying Chen, Bo Gao, Huanhuan Gu, Xiaowen Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to find whether inreversible function damage of saccule was exist and correlated in Meniere's patients with different audition. METHOD: Senenty-nine patients with unilateral Meniere's disease, who visited the Dizziness Diagnosis and Treatment Centre of the Second Military Medical University from January to July in 2015 were included. They were grouped as slightly audition damage group (41 cases), mildly-severely audition damage group(38 cases)...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Mary Shuttleworth, Abdul Jabbar, Ian Beveridge
Cloacina johnstoni sp. nov. (Nematoda: Strongyloidea) is described from the sacculated forestomach of the wallaroo, Macropus robustus (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from Australia. It resembles the synhospitalic species Cloacina macropodis but differs from it principally in the shape of the cephalic papillae. The two species are also distinguishable based on differences in the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Cloacina johnstoni commonly co-occurs in the same individual host as C...
September 2016: Parasitology Research
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