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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216153/dynamic-modulation-of-cyp21a1-21-hydroxylase-expression-sites-in-the-mouse-developing-lung
#1
Catherine Gilbert, Pierre R Provost, Yves Tremblay
21-hydroxylase is expressed in the developing lung where it is proposed as a local source of glucocorticoids playing important roles in lung development. We have studied the precise sites of Cyp21a1 expression in the developing mouse lung from the pseudoglandular stage (gestation day (GD) 15.5) to the alveolar stage (postnatal day (PND) 15) by in situ hybridization. Cyp21a1-mRNA was found mainly in epithelial cells from GD 15.5 to PND 5, but the precise site of expression shifted from the distal epithelium during the pseudoglandular and the canalicular stages including the distal epithelium without lumina, to the proximal epithelium and the wall of developing saccules during the perinatal period (GD 19...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188060/mesenteric-findings-of-ct-enterography-are-well-correlated-with-the-endoscopic-severity-of-crohn-s-disease
#2
Takehiro Sakurai, Tatsuro Katsuno, Keiko Saito, Sayuri Yoshihama, Tomoo Nakagawa, Hirotaka Koseki, Takashi Taida, Hideaki Ishigami, Ken-Ichiro Okimoto, Daisuke Maruoka, Tomoaki Matsumura, Makoto Arai, Osamu Yokosuka
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of mucosal healing is a primary goal when treating Crohn's disease (CD). Endoscopy is the most precise method for the assessment of mucosal healing, but is considered overly invasive for patients with CD. In contrast, CT enterography (CTE) is less invasive, but little is known about the correlation between mucosal status and CTE parameters. METHODS: We recruited CD patients who underwent CTE and double balloon endoscopy (DBE) on the same day at our hospital between 2012 and 2014...
November 27, 2016: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161405/neo-yoke-repair-for-severe-hypospadias-a-simple-modification-for-better-outcome
#3
Hamed M Seleim, Hani Morsi, Mohamed M Elbarbary
BACKGROUND: Although staged repair for reconstructing severe hypospadias is more popular, various one-stage repairs have been attempted. Koyanagi repair (parameatal-based and fully extended circumferential foreskin flap urethroplasty) has enabled correction of severe hypospadias in one stage. However, its un-acceptably high incidence of complications has initiated a series of technical modifications, including the "yoke" repair. OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively analyze the outcome of a proposed modification of the originally described yoke repair, for patients with severe hypospadias...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145833/a-new-theory-for-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#4
Jeremy Hornibrook, Philip Bird
Ménière's disease is an inner ear disorder characterized by vertigo attacks, fluctuating and progressive hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness in the affected ear. The pathophysiology of Ménière's disease remains elusive. Theories so far are anatomical variation in the size or position of the endolymphatic sac and duct, viral inflammation or autoimmune involvement of the sac, or a genetically determined abnormality of endolymph control. Animal studies on blocking the ductus reuniens and endolymphatic duct have produced hydrops in the cochlea, saccule, and utricle...
February 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118481/connectivity-and-ultrastructure-of-dopaminergic-innervation-of-the-inner-ear-and-auditory-efferent-system-of-a-vocal-fish
#5
Jonathan T Perelmuter, Paul M Forlano
Dopamine (DA) is a conserved modulator of vertebrate neural circuitry, yet our knowledge of its role in peripheral auditory processing is limited to mammals. The present study combines immunohistochemistry, neural tract tracing and electron microscopy to investigate the origin and synaptic characteristics of DA fibers innervating the inner ear and the hindbrain auditory efferent nucleus in the plainfin midshipman, a vocal fish that relies upon the detection of mate calls for reproductive success. We identify a DA cell group in the diencephalon as a common source for innervation of both the hindbrain auditory efferent nucleus and saccule, the main hearing endorgan of the inner ear...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999985/mri-of-endolymphatic-hydrops-in-patients-with-meniere-s-disease-a-case-controlled-study-with-a-simplified-classification-based-on-saccular-morphology
#6
Arnaud Attyé, Michael Eliezer, Naïla Boudiaf, Irène Tropres, David Chechin, Sébastien Schmerber, Georges Dumas, Alexandre Krainik
OBJECTIVES: Endolymphatic hydrops (EH) can be studied in patients by MRI. With the semi-quantitative grading system, previous imaging studies showed discrepancies in the occurrence and grading of EH in patients with Meniere's disease (MD). Here, we compared the inversion of the saccule to utricle area ratio (SURI) with the semi-quantitative method of grading conventionally used to diagnose MD. METHODS: Imaging was carried out on a 3-T MRI scanner. We performed 3D-FLAIR sequences 4 h after a single intravenous dose of contrast agent...
December 20, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942898/assessment-of-endolymphatic-hydrops-and-otolith-function-in-patients-with-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#7
Tomoko Okumura, Takao Imai, Yasumitsu Takimoto, Noriaki Takeda, Tadashi Kitahara, Atsuhiko Uno, Takefumi Kamakura, Yasuhiro Osaki, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Hidenori Inohara
Ménière's disease is associated with hydrops of the inner ear endolymphatic space, and histopathologically, the cochlea and vestibule are usually involved. We used gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and measured cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the gain in the utricular induced linear vestibulo-ocular reflex to test the hypothesis that vestibular hydrops in Ménière's disease patients is associated with otolith organ dysfunction. We evaluated 21 patients diagnosed with unilateral definitive Ménière's disease using gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging to detect endolymphatic hydrops in the cochlea and vestibule...
December 10, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930443/otolith-dysfunction-in-persons-with-both-diabetes-and-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#8
Linda J DʼSilva, Hinrich Staecker, James Lin, Christy Maddux, John Ferraro, Hongying Dai, Patricia M Kluding
OBJECTIVE: Vestibular dysfunction is a well-recognized complication of type 2 diabetes (DM) that may contribute to increased fall risk. The prevalence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is higher in people with DM. The impact of DM on the otolith organs of the vestibular system in people with BPPV is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze otolith function using vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) tests in people with DM and concurrent BPPV (BPPV + DM), and to examine the relationships between VEMP variables and diabetes-related variables...
March 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917898/incomplete-and-delayed-sox2-deletion-defines-residual-ear-neurosensory-development-and-maintenance
#9
Martina Dvorakova, Israt Jahan, Iva Macova, Tetyana Chumak, Romana Bohuslavova, Josef Syka, Bernd Fritzsch, Gabriela Pavlinkova
The role of Sox2 in neurosensory development is not yet fully understood. Using mice with conditional Islet1-cre mediated deletion of Sox2, we explored the function of Sox2 in neurosensory development in a model with limited cell type diversification, the inner ear. In Sox2 conditional mutants, neurons initially appear to form normally, whereas late- differentiating neurons of the cochlear apex never form. Variable numbers of hair cells differentiate in the utricle, saccule, and cochlear base but sensory epithelium formation is completely absent in the apex and all three cristae of the semicircular canal ampullae...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881797/deterioration-of-vestibular-cells-in-labyrinthitis
#10
Serdar Kaya, Patricia A Schachern, Vladimir Tsuprun, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu
OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively assess the effect of serous labyrinthitis, suppurative labyrinthitis, and labyrinthitis ossificans on vestibular hair cells, dark cells, and transitional cells. METHODS: We examined human temporal bone specimens with serous labyrinthitis, suppurative labyrinthitis, and labyrinthitis ossificans, then compared them with age-matched control groups without labyrinthitis. We evaluated the density of type I and II vestibular hair cells, dark cells, and transitional cells in the peripheral sensorial organs...
February 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792272/spatiotemporal-differences-in-otoconial-gene-expression
#11
Yinfang Xu, Yan Zhang, Yunxia Wang Lundberg
Otoconia are minute biocrystals composed of glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and CaCO3 , and are indispensable for sensory processing in the utricle and saccule. Otoconia abnormalities and degeneration can cause or facilitate crystal dislocation to the ampulla, leading to vertigo and imbalance in humans. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism controlling otoconia formation and maintenance, we have examined the spatial and temporal expression differences of otoconial genes in the mouse inner ear at developmental, mature and aging stages using whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) and quantitative RT-PCR...
December 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768854/gastric-type-h-k-atpase-in-mouse-vestibular-end-organs
#12
Masaya Takumida, Hiroshi Takumida, Matti Anniko
CONCLUSION: Gastric type H(+),K(+)-ATPase in the vestibular end organs may be of importance for K(+) circulation and may also be related to pH regulation in vestibular end organs and endolymphatic sac. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression of gastric-type H(+),K(+)-ATPase in normal mouse vestibular end organs. METHODS: 8 weeks old CBA/J mice were used in this study. The presence of gastric-type H(+),K(+)-ATPase α and β in the vestibular end organs, viz...
October 21, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755367/ultra-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-human-inner-ear-at-11-7%C3%A2-tesla
#13
David S Thylur, Russell E Jacobs, John L Go, Arthur W Toga, John K Niparko
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI) at 11.7 T to visualize membranous structures of the human inner ear. SPECIMENS: Three temporal bones were extracted from cadaveric human heads for use with small-bore UHF-MRI. INTERVENTION: Ex vivo cadaveric temporal bone specimens were imaged using an 11.7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner via T1- and T2-weighted-imaging with and without contrast...
January 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753635/postnatal-organ-development-as-a-complicating-factor-in-juvenile-toxicity-studies-in-rats
#14
Catherine A Picut, George A Parker
Toxicologic pathologists must evaluate tissues of immature animals from a number of types of nonclinical toxicity studies. The pathologist who is familiar with normal postnatal organ development is in a better position to appropriately detect and differentiate between abnormal, delayed, or precocious development. Vacuolation and apoptosis in multiple tissue types are normal components of development that could influence the interpretation of some tissues. Unique postnatal features such as the germal matrix in the brain, gonocytes in the testes, and saccules in the lung may complicate the histopathological evaluation...
October 17, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693601/lung-surfactant-function-and-composition-in-the-context-of-development-and-respiratory-physiology
#15
REVIEW
Wolfgang Bernhard
Lung surfactant is a complex with a unique phospholipid and protein composition. Its specific function is to reduce surface tension at the pulmonary air-liquid interface. The underlying Young-Laplace equation, applying to the surface of any geometrical structure, is the more important the smaller its radii are. It therefore applies to the alveoli and bronchioli of mature lungs, as well as to the tubules and saccules of immature lungs. Surfactant comprises 80% phosphatidylcholine (PC), of which dipalmitoyl-PC, palmitoyl-myristoyl-PC and palmitoyl-palmitoleoyl-PC together are 75%...
November 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685753/inhibition-of-phosphodiesterase-3-4-and-5-induces-endolymphatic-hydrops-in-mouse-inner-ear-as-evaluated-with-repeated-9-4t-mri
#16
Eva Degerman, Rene In 't Zandt, Annki Pålbrink, Lena Eliasson, Per Cayé-Thomasen, Måns Magnusson
CONCLUSION: The data indicate important roles for phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3, 4, 5, and related cAMP and cGMP pools in the regulation of inner ear fluid homeostasis. Thus, dysfunction of these enzymes might contribute to pathologies of the inner ear. OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying endolymphatic hydrops, a hallmark of inner ear dysfunction, are not known in detail; however, altered balance in cAMP and cGMP signaling systems appears to be involved. Key components of these systems are PDEs, enzymes that modulate the amplitude, duration, termination, and specificity of cAMP and cGMP signaling...
January 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619213/bodipy-conjugated-xyloside-primes-fluorescent-glycosaminoglycans-in-the-inner-ear-of-opsanus-tau
#17
Holly A Holman, Vy M Tran, Mausam Kalita, Lynn N Nguyen, Sailaja Arungundram, Balagurunathan Kuberan, Richard D Rabbitt
We report on a new xyloside conjugated to BODIPY, BX and its utility to prime fluorescent glycosaminoglycans (BX-GAGs) within the inner ear in vivo. When BX is administered directly into the endolymphatic space of the oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau) inner ear, fluorescent BX-GAGs are primed and become visible in the sensory epithelia of the semicircular canals, utricle, and saccule. Confocal and 2-photon microscopy of vestibular organs fixed 4 h following BX treatment, reveal BX-GAGs constituting glycocalyces that envelop hair cell kinocilium, nerve fibers, and capillaries...
December 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617587/laryngocele-causing-airway-obstruction-a-unique-case-report
#18
K Topal, K Kilic, M S Sakat, E Altas, H Ucuncu
Laryngocele is an abnormal cystic dilatation of the saccule or appendix of the laryngeal ventricle filled with air and connected to the lumen of the larynx. They rarely cause clinical complaints. But still being rare clinical occasions, they may cause airway obstruction which required emergency interventions. In this report we presented an extremely rare case of laryngocele which causes airway obstruction. A 35-year old male was admitted due to hoarseness, progressive respiratory distress and swelling at the right side of the neck for three years...
February 22, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590488/-otoconia-current-aspects-of-research
#19
L E Walther
Otoconia are calcite-based nanocomposites containing >90 % calcite and <10 % organic material. The mean size is approximately 10 µm. The external structure of all otoconia in the utricle and saccule is similar, with a cylindrical bulbous body with a slightly hexagonal contour. The internal structure consists of a composite with varying volume thickness, dense branching structures (branches) and less dense surrounding areas (bellies). Intact otoconia can be clearly identified only by scanning electron microscopy...
October 2016: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539716/genome-wide-association-analysis-identifies-dcc-as-an-essential-factor-in-the-innervation-of-the-peripheral-vestibular-system-in-inbred-mice
#20
Pezhman Salehi, Anthony Myint, Young J Kim, Marshall X Ge, Joel Lavinsky, Maria K Ho, Amanda L Crow, Charlene Cruz, Maya Monges-Hernadez, Juemei Wang, Jaana Hartiala, Li I Zhang, Hooman Allayee, Aldons J Lusis, Takahiro Ohyama, Rick A Friedman
This study aimed to investigate the genetic causes of vestibular dysfunction. We used vestibular sensory-evoked potentials (VsEPs) to characterize the vestibular function of 35 inbred mouse strains selected from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel and demonstrated strain-dependent phenotypic variation in vestibular function. Using these phenotypic data, we performed the first genome-wide association study controlling for population structure that has revealed two highly suggestive loci, one of which lies within a haplotype block containing five genes (Stard6, 4930503L19Rik, Poli, Mbd2, Dcc) on Chr...
October 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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