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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324449/toward-optimizing-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-normalization-reduces-the-need-for-strong-neck-muscle-contraction
#1
Kimberley S Noij, Barbara S Herrmann, Steven D Rauch, John J Guinan
BACKGROUND: The cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) represents an inhibitory reflex of the saccule measured in the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) in response to acoustic or vibrational stimulation. Since the cVEMP is a modulation of SCM electromyographic (EMG) activity, cVEMP amplitude is proportional to muscle EMG amplitude. We sought to evaluate muscle contraction influences on cVEMP peak-to-peak amplitudes (VEMPpp), normalized cVEMP amplitudes (VEMPn), and inhibition depth (VEMPid)...
January 12, 2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310507/inner-ear-test-battery-in-guinea-pig-models-a-review
#2
Yi-Ho Young
OBJECTIVE: This study reviewed the development of the inner ear test battery comprising auditory brainstem response (ABR), and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) tests in guinea pig models at our laboratory over the last 20 years. Detailed description of the methodology for testing the small animals is also included. METHODS: Inner ear disorders, i.e. ototoxicity, noise exposure, or perilymph fistula were established in guinea pig models first...
January 8, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288383/transcription-factors-regulating-embryonic-development-of-pulmonary-vasculature
#3
Craig Bolte, Jeffrey A Whitsett, Tanya V Kalin, Vladimir V Kalinichenko
Lung morphogenesis is a highly orchestrated process beginning with the appearance of lung buds on approximately embryonic day 9.5 in the mouse. Endodermally derived epithelial cells of the primitive lung buds undergo branching morphogenesis to generate the tree-like network of epithelial-lined tubules. The pulmonary vasculature develops in close proximity to epithelial progenitor cells in a process that is regulated by interactions between the developing epithelium and underlying mesenchyme. Studies in transgenic and knockout mouse models demonstrate that normal lung morphogenesis requires coordinated interactions between cells lining the tubules, which end in peripheral saccules, juxtaposed to an extensive network of capillaries...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283095/evaluation-of-cervical-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potential-in-subjects-with-chronic-noise-exposure
#4
Nehal Mamdouh Abd El Salam, Elshahat Ibrahem Ismail, Ayman El Saeed El Sharabasy
OBJECTIVE: Noise has been recognized as a major cause of cochlear damage resulting in both tinnitus and hearing loss. On the other hand, damage to the vestibular system, especially the saccule, can be considered as a potential problem. The cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) have been established as a clinical test of measuring both sac-cular and inferior vestibular nerve function. Therefore, it is thought to be sensitive to the noise-induced damage to the vestibular system...
December 14, 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198950/comparison-among-ultrasonic-electrical-apparatus-and-toxic-chemicals-for-vestibular-lesion-in-mice
#5
Yusuke Yamaoka, Chikara Abe, Hironobu Morita
BACKGROUND: The vestibular lesion (VL) is required to examine the physiological function of the vestibular system in animals. Toxic chemicals or electrical apparatus have been used for the VL, however, they are not ideal as they have low specificity, and can result in unintended damage, and systemic toxic effect. NEW METHOD: Localized vibration-induced VL, using an ultrasonicator, is expected to overcome the problems associated with chemical and electrical lesions...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194625/laryngeal-chondronecrosis-after-radiation-therapy-in-a-dog
#6
J Bertran, M Martinez, M Breit, M A McLoughlin, K L Ham, E Warry, V Wavreille
A 5-year-old pug presented with a soft tissue swelling on the ventral neck and moderate stridor with associated respiratory effort. This patient received hypofractionated radiotherapy for metastatic upper lip mast cell tumour and to the submandibular lymph nodes 6 months before presentation. Oral examination showed moderate elongation of the soft palate, stage III laryngeal collapse with only the right laryngeal saccule mildly everted and exuberant pale epiglottal and left pharyngeal mucosa. Staphylectomy, resection of the epiglottal mucosa and left arytenoid lateralisation were performed...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117061/three-dimensional-analysis-of-the-fundus-of-the-human-internal-acoustic-canal
#7
Nadine Schart-Morén, Sune Larsson, Helge Rask-Andersen, Hao Li
OBJECTIVES: Documentation of the nerve components in the internal acoustic canal is essential before cochlea implantation surgery. Interpretations may be challenged by wide anatomical variations of the VIIIth nerve and their ramifications. Malformations may further defy proper nerve identification. DESIGN: Using microcomputed tomography, we analyzed the fundus bone channels in an archival collection of 113 macerated human temporal bones and 325 plastic inner molds...
November 7, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093067/practice-guideline-cervical-and-ocular-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potential-testing-report-of-the-guideline-development-dissemination-and-implementation-subcommittee-of-the-american-academy-of-neurology
#8
Terry D Fife, James G Colebatch, Kevin A Kerber, Krister Brantberg, Michael Strupp, Hyung Lee, Mark F Walker, Eric Ashman, Jeffrey Fletcher, Brian Callaghan, David S Gloss
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence and make recommendations with regard to diagnostic utility of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP and oVEMP, respectively). Four questions were asked: Does cVEMP accurately identify superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS)? Does oVEMP accurately identify SCDS? For suspected vestibular symptoms, does cVEMP/oVEMP accurately identify vestibular dysfunction related to the saccule/utricle? For vestibular symptoms, does cVEMP/oVEMP accurately and substantively aid diagnosis of any specific vestibular disorder besides SCDS? METHODS: The guideline panel identified and classified relevant published studies (January 1980-December 2016) according to the 2004 American Academy of Neurology process...
November 28, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047114/complications-following-laryngeal-sacculectomy-in-brachycephalic-dogs
#9
J R Hughes, B M Kaye, A R Beswick, G Ter Haar
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of sacculectomy on the immediate postoperative complication rate in dogs affected with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical records of brachycephalic dogs with everted saccules that underwent surgery for brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome between 2009 and 2014. Dogs were grouped as those having nares resection and staphylectomy only and those having nares resection, staphylectomy and laryngeal sacculectomy...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042213/morpho-functional-variety-of-the-coxal-glands-in-cheyletoid-mites-prostigmata-ii-cheyletidae
#10
S A Filimonova
Trombidiform mites are characterized by the presence of several paired glands in the anterior body portion united by a common conducting duct (podocephalic canal). Apart from the acinous (salivary) glands the podocephalic system includes a pair of tubular coxal glands (CGs) responsible for osmoregulation. The aim of the present study was to figure out how functional changes of acinous glands reflect on the corresponding CG. For this purpose, the anatomy and fine structure of the CG were analyzed in two mite species, Bakericheyla chanayi and Ornithocheyletia sp...
October 23, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951962/saccular-measurements-in-routine-mri-can-predict-hydrops-in-meni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#11
François Simon, Jean-Pierre Guichard, Romain Kania, Julie Franc, Philippe Herman, Charlotte Hautefort
Most patients with suspicion of hydrops do not have access to MRI with 3D reconstruction of the endolymphatic space. Our main objective was to show that measurements of the saccule on a non-enhanced 3D-T2 MRI could show hydrops and help diagnose Menière disease. We conducted a prospective study from 2015 to 2016 to compare consecutive patients consulting for Menière's disease to a control group (patients with unilateral non-hydrops disorders and contralateral healthy ears). They all received full auditory and vestibular testing...
December 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932188/is-there-evidence-for-myelin-modeling-by-astrocytes-in-the-normal-adult-brain
#12
Alfredo Varela-Echevarría, Víctor Vargas-Barroso, Carlos Lozano-Flores, Jorge Larriva-Sahd
A set of astrocytic process associated with altered myelinated axons is described in the forebrain of normal adult rodents with confocal, electron microscopy, and 3D reconstructions. Each process consists of a protuberance that contains secretory organelles including numerous lysosomes which polarize and open next to disrupted myelinated axons. Because of the distinctive asymmetric organelle distribution and ubiquity throughout the forebrain neuropil, this enlargement is named paraxial process (PAP). The myelin envelope contiguous to the PAP displays focal disruption or disintegration...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924861/role-of-bdnf-and-neurotrophic-receptors-in-human-inner-ear-development
#13
L Johnson Chacko, M J F Blumer, E Pechriggl, H Rask-Andersen, W Dietl, A Haim, H Fritsch, R Glueckert, J Dudas, A Schrott-Fischer
The expression patterns of the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, and the neurotrophic receptors-p75NTR and Trk receptors-in the developing human fetal inner ear between the gestational weeks (GW) 9 to 12 are examined via in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. BDNF mRNA expression was highest in the cochlea at GW 9 but declined in the course of development. In contrast to embryonic murine specimens, a decline in BDNF expression from the apical to the basal turn of the cochlea could not be observed...
September 19, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861037/the-clinical-utility-of-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-in-the-diagnosis-of-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Maxime Maheu, Jenny Marylin Alvarado-Umanzor, Audrey Delcenserie, François Champoux
Ménière's disease (MD) is a condition that has been proposed over 150 years ago, which involves audiological and vestibular manifestations, such as aural fullness, tinnitus, vertigo, and fluctuating hearing thresholds. Over the past few years, many researchers have assessed different techniques to help diagnose this pathology. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) is an electrophysiological method assessing the saccule (cVEMP) and the utricule (oVEMP). Its clinical utility in the diagnosis of multiple pathologies, such as superior canal dehiscence, has made this tool a common method used in otologic clinics...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855028/fgf-signaling-diverse-roles-during-cochlear-development
#15
Michael Ebeid, Sung-Ho Huh
Mammalian inner ear comprises of six sensory organs; cochlea, utricle, saccule, and three semicircular canals. The cochlea contains sensory epithelium known as the organ of Corti which senses sound through mechanosensory hair cells. Mammalian inner ear undergoes series of morphogenesis during development beginning thickening of ectoderm nearby hindbrain. These events require tight regulation of multiple signaling cascades including FGF, Wnt, Notch and Bmp signaling. In this review, we will discuss the role of newly emerging signaling, FGF signaling, for its roles required for cochlear development...
October 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834538/claudin7b-is-required-for-the-formation-and-function-of-inner-ear-in-zebrafish
#16
Xiaohui Li, Guili Song, Yasong Zhao, Feng Zhao, Chunyan Liu, Dong Liu, Qing Li, Zongbin Cui
Zebrafish has become an excellent model for studying the development and function of inner ear. We report here a zebrafish line in which claudin 7b (cldn7b) locus is interrupted by a Tol2 transposon at its first intron. The homozygous mutants have enlarged otocysts, smaller or no otoliths, slowly formed semicircular canals, and insensitiveness to sound stimulation. These abnormal phenotypes and hearing loss of inner ear could be mostly rescued by injection of cldn7b-mRNA into one-cell stage homozygous mutant embryos...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811219/trinucleotide-repeat-containing-6c-tnrc6c-is-essential-for-microvascular-maturation-during-distal-airspace-sacculation-in-the-developing-lung
#17
Hua Guo, Yana Kazadaeva, Fabian E Ortega, Narasimaswamy Manjunath, Tushar J Desai
GW182 (also known asTNRC6) family members are critically involved in the final effector phase of miRNA-mediated mRNA repression. The three mammalian paralogs, TNRC6a, b and c, are thought to be redundant based on Argonaute (Ago) binding, tethering assays, and RNAi silencing of individual members in cell lines. To test this idea, we generated TNRC6a, b and c knockout mice. TNRC6a mutants die at mid-gestation, while b- and c- deleted mice are born at a Mendelian ratio. However, the majority of TNRC6b and all TNRC6c mutants die within 24h after birth, the latter with respiratory failure...
October 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798718/vestibular-modulation-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity-to-muscle-and-skin-in-humans
#18
REVIEW
Elie Hammam, Vaughan G Macefield
We review the existence of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans. While several methods to activate the human vestibular apparatus have been used, galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a means of selectively modulating vestibular afferent activity via electrodes over the mastoid processes, causing robust vestibular illusions of side-to-side movement. Sinusoidal GVS (sGVS) causes partial entrainment of sympathetic outflow to muscle and skin. Modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) from vestibular inputs competes with baroreceptor inputs, with stronger temporal coupling to the vestibular stimulus being observed at frequencies remote from the cardiac frequency; "super entrainment" was observed in some individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719825/degeneration-of-the-vestibular-nerve-in-unilateral-meniere-s-disease-evaluated-by-galvanic-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials
#19
Chih-Ming Chang, Yi-Ho Young, Fu-Shan Jaw, Chi-Te Wang, Po-Wen Cheng
OBJECTIVE: The staging system of Meniere's disease utilizes audiograms to probe cochlear dysfunction. We explored the addition of galvanic vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) to further explore vestibular function. METHODS: Seventy patients with unilateral Meniere's disease were enrolled in this study. Within 2weeks of diagnosis, all subjects underwent pure tone audiometry, cervical and ocular VEMP, and caloric test. The prevalence of abnormal tests and the VEMP characteristic parameters such as latencies and amplitudes were analyzed...
September 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691340/intra-and-intersexual-swim-bladder-dimorphisms-in-the-plainfin-midshipman-fish-porichthys-notatus-implications-of-swim-bladder-proximity-to-the-inner-ear-for-sound-pressure-detection
#20
Robert A Mohr, Elizabeth A Whitchurch, Ryan D Anderson, Paul M Forlano, Richard R Fay, Darlene R Ketten, Timothy C Cox, Joseph A Sisneros
The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a nocturnal marine teleost that uses social acoustic signals for communication during the breeding season. Nesting type I males produce multiharmonic advertisement calls by contracting their swim bladder sonic muscles to attract females for courtship and spawning while subsequently attracting cuckholding type II males. Here, we report intra- and intersexual dimorphisms of the swim bladder in a vocal teleost fish and detail the swim bladder dimorphisms in the three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) of plainfin midshipman fish...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
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