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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932188/is-there-evidence-for-myelin-modeling-by-astrocytes-in-the-normal-adult-brain
#1
Alfredo Varela-Echevarría, Víctor Vargas-Barroso, Carlos Lozano-Flores, Jorge Larriva-Sahd
A set of astrocytic process associated with altered myelinated axons is described in the forebrain of normal adult rodents with confocal, electron microscopy, and 3D reconstructions. Each process consists of a protuberance that contains secretory organelles including numerous lysosomes which polarize and open next to disrupted myelinated axons. Because of the distinctive asymmetric organelle distribution and ubiquity throughout the forebrain neuropil, this enlargement is named paraxial process (PAP). The myelin envelope contiguous to the PAP displays focal disruption or disintegration...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924861/role-of-bdnf-and-neurotrophic-receptors-in-human-inner-ear-development
#2
L Johnson Chacko, M J F Blumer, E Pechriggl, H Rask-Andersen, W Dietl, A Haim, H Fritsch, R Glueckert, J Dudas, A Schrott-Fischer
The expression patterns of the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, and the neurotrophic receptors-p75NTR and Trk receptors-in the developing human fetal inner ear between the gestational weeks (GW) 9 to 12 are examined via in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. BDNF mRNA expression was highest in the cochlea at GW 9 but declined in the course of development. In contrast to embryonic murine specimens, a decline in BDNF expression from the apical to the basal turn of the cochlea could not be observed...
September 19, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861037/the-clinical-utility-of-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-in-the-diagnosis-of-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Maxime Maheu, Jenny Marylin Alvarado-Umanzor, Audrey Delcenserie, François Champoux
Ménière's disease (MD) is a condition that has been proposed over 150 years ago, which involves audiological and vestibular manifestations, such as aural fullness, tinnitus, vertigo, and fluctuating hearing thresholds. Over the past few years, many researchers have assessed different techniques to help diagnose this pathology. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) is an electrophysiological method assessing the saccule (cVEMP) and the utricule (oVEMP). Its clinical utility in the diagnosis of multiple pathologies, such as superior canal dehiscence, has made this tool a common method used in otologic clinics...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855028/fgf-signaling-diverse-roles-during-cochlear-development
#4
Michael Ebeid, Sung-Ho Huh
Mammalian inner ear comprises of six sensory organs; cochlea, utricle, saccule, and three semicircular canals. The cochlea contains sensory epithelium known as the organ of Corti which senses sound through mechanosensory hair cells. Mammalian inner ear undergoes series of morphogenesis during development by beginning thickening of ectoderm nearby hindbrain. These events require tight regulation of multiple signaling cascades including FGF, Wnt, Notch and Bmp signaling. In this review, we will discuss the role of newly emerging signaling, FGF signaling, for its roles required for cochlear development...
August 31, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834538/claudin7b-is-required-for-the-formation-and-function-of-inner-ear-in-zebrafish
#5
Xiaohui Li, Guili Song, Yasong Zhao, Feng Zhao, Chunyan Liu, Dong Liu, Qing Li, Zongbin Cui
Zebrafish has become an excellent model for studying the development and function of inner ear. We report here a zebrafish line in which claudin 7b (cldn7b) locus is interrupted by a Tol2 transposon at its first intron. The homozygous mutants have enlarged otocysts, smaller or no otoliths, slowly formed semicircular canals, and insensitiveness to sound stimulation. These abnormal phenotypes and hearing loss of inner ear could be mostly rescued by injection of cldn7b-mRNA into one-cell stage homozygous mutant embryos...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811219/trinucleotide-repeat-containing-6c-tnrc6c-is-essential-for-microvascular-maturation-during-distal-airspace-sacculation-in-the-developing-lung
#6
Hua Guo, Yana Kazadaeva, Fabian E Ortega, Narasimaswamy Manjunath, Tushar J Desai
GW182 (also known asTNRC6) family members are critically involved in the final effector phase of miRNA-mediated mRNA repression. The three mammalian paralogs, TNRC6a, b and c, are thought to be redundant based on Argonaute (Ago) binding, tethering assays, and RNAi silencing of individual members in cell lines. To test this idea, we generated TNRC6a, b and c knockout mice. TNRC6a mutants die at mid-gestation, while b- and c- deleted mice are born at a Mendelian ratio. However, the majority of TNRC6b and all TNRC6c mutants die within 24h after birth, the latter with respiratory failure...
August 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798718/vestibular-modulation-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity-to-muscle-and-skin-in-humans
#7
REVIEW
Elie Hammam, Vaughan G Macefield
We review the existence of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans. While several methods to activate the human vestibular apparatus have been used, galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a means of selectively modulating vestibular afferent activity via electrodes over the mastoid processes, causing robust vestibular illusions of side-to-side movement. Sinusoidal GVS (sGVS) causes partial entrainment of sympathetic outflow to muscle and skin. Modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) from vestibular inputs competes with baroreceptor inputs, with stronger temporal coupling to the vestibular stimulus being observed at frequencies remote from the cardiac frequency; "super entrainment" was observed in some individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719825/degeneration-of-the-vestibular-nerve-in-unilateral-meniere-s-disease-evaluated-by-galvanic-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials
#8
Chih-Ming Chang, Yi-Ho Young, Fu-Shan Jaw, Chi-Te Wang, Po-Wen Cheng
OBJECTIVE: The staging system of Meniere's disease utilizes audiograms to probe cochlear dysfunction. We explored the addition of galvanic vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) to further explore vestibular function. METHODS: Seventy patients with unilateral Meniere's disease were enrolled in this study. Within 2weeks of diagnosis, all subjects underwent pure tone audiometry, cervical and ocular VEMP, and caloric test. The prevalence of abnormal tests and the VEMP characteristic parameters such as latencies and amplitudes were analyzed...
September 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691340/intra-and-intersexual-swim-bladder-dimorphisms-in-the-plainfin-midshipman-fish-porichthys-notatus-implications-of-swim-bladder-proximity-to-the-inner-ear-for-sound-pressure-detection
#9
Robert A Mohr, Elizabeth A Whitchurch, Ryan D Anderson, Paul M Forlano, Richard R Fay, Darlene R Ketten, Timothy C Cox, Joseph A Sisneros
The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a nocturnal marine teleost that uses social acoustic signals for communication during the breeding season. Nesting type I males produce multiharmonic advertisement calls by contracting their swim bladder sonic muscles to attract females for courtship and spawning while subsequently attracting cuckholding type II males. Here, we report intra- and intersexual dimorphisms of the swim bladder in a vocal teleost fish and detail the swim bladder dimorphisms in the three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) of plainfin midshipman fish...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668316/ontogenetic-development-of-the-inner-ear-saccule-and-utricle-in-the-lusitanian-toadfish-potential-implications-for-auditory-sensitivity
#10
Patrícia P Chaves, Ciara M C Valdoria, M Clara P Amorim, Raquel O Vasconcelos
Studies addressing structure-function relationships of the fish auditory system during development are sparse compared to other taxa. The Batrachoididae has become an important group to investigate mechanisms of auditory plasticity and evolution of auditory-vocal systems. A recent study reported ontogenetic improvements in the inner ear saccule sensitivity of the Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, but whether this results from changes in the sensory morphology remains unknown. We investigated how the macula and organization of auditory receptors in the saccule and utricle change during growth in this species...
June 15, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618821/low-intensity-ultrasound-activates-vestibular-otolith-organs-through-acoustic-radiation-force
#11
M M Iversen, D A Christensen, D L Parker, H A Holman, J Chen, M J Frerck, R D Rabbitt
The present study examined the efficacy of 5 MHz low-intensity focused ultrasound (LiFU) as a stimulus to remotely activate inner ear vestibular otolith organs. The otolith organs are the primary sensory apparati responsible for detecting orientation of the head relative to gravity and linear acceleration in three-dimensional space. These organs also respond to loud sounds and vibration of the temporal bone. The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was used to facilitate unobstructed acoustic access to the otolith organs in vivo...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607796/acutely-obstructed-airway-resulting-from-complications-of-a-laryngopyocoele
#12
Rosalind Mole, Stephen Hayes, Simon Dennis
Laryngocoeles are rare cystic dilatations of the laryngeal ventricle. Obstruction of its outlet can cause entrapment of mucus and superimposed infection causes a laryngopyocoele. Such presentations, although rare, have potential to cause airway obstruction. A 67-year-old lady presented with a one-week history of hoarseness and shortness of breath. On examination, she was stridulous and had fullness of the left side of the neck. Nasendoscopy revealed large bilateral vocal cord polyps and near-complete glottis obstruction...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578877/progression-of-changes-in-the-sensorial-elements-of-the-cochlear-and-peripheral-vestibular-systems-the-otitis-media-continuum
#13
Rafael da Costa Monsanto, Patricia Schachern, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu, Norma de Oliveira Penido
Our study aimed to evaluate pathologic changes in the cochlear (inner and outer hair cells and stria vascularis) and vestibular (vestibular hair cells, dark, and transitional cells) sensorial elements in temporal bones from donors who had otitis media. We studied 40 temporal bones from such donors, which were categorized in serous otitis media (SOM), serous-purulent otitis media (SPOM), mucoid/mucoid-purulent otitis media (MOM/MPOM), and chronic otitis media (COM); control group comprised 10 nondiseased temporal bones...
August 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436247/effects-of-peripheral-vestibular-dysfunction-on-dynamic-postural-stability-measured-by-the-functional-reach-test-and-timed-up-and-go-test
#14
Toshiko Nishi, Teru Kamogashira, Chisato Fujimoto, Makoto Kinoshita, Naoya Egami, Keiko Sugasawa, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Shinichi Iwasaki
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of vestibular function on dynamic postural stability assessed by the functional reach test (FRT) and the timed up and go test (TUG). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The FRT and TUG were performed in 399 patients with dizziness. The effects of peripheral vestibular dysfunction assessed by the caloric test and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) to air-conducted sound (500 Hz, tone burst) on the results of FRT and TUG were analyzed...
June 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436246/histopathologic-changes-of-human-vestibular-epithelia-in-intralabyrinthine-hemorrhage
#15
Serdar Kaya, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intralabyrinthine hemorrhage affects vestibular hair cells, dark cells, and transitional cells in human temporal bones. METHODS: We examined 9 temporal bone specimens from 9 deceased donors with unilateral intralabyrinthine hemorrhage (the hemorrhage group) along with their 9 contralateral temporal bone specimens without hemorrhage (the control group). We estimated the density of type I and type II hair cells in all peripheral sensorial organs (including the cristae of the superior, lateral, and posterior semicircular canals, as well as the maculae of the saccule and utricle)...
June 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428804/morphogenesis-of-honeybee-hypopharyngeal-gland-during-pupal-development
#16
Sascha Peter Klose, Daniel Rolke, Otto Baumann
BACKGROUND: The hypopharyngeal gland of worker bees contributes to the production of the royal jelly fed to queens and larvae. The gland consists of thousands of two-cell units that are composed of a secretory cell and a duct cell and that are arranged in sets of about 12 around a long collecting duct. RESULTS: By fluorescent staining, we have examined the morphogenesis of the hypopharyngeal gland during pupal life, from a saccule lined by a pseudostratified epithelium to the elaborate organ of adult worker bees...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408205/temporal-spatial-and-phenotypical-changes-of-pdgfr%C3%AE-expressing-fibroblasts-during-late-lung-development
#17
Mehari Endale, Shawn Ahlfeld, Erik Bao, Xiaoting Chen, Jenna Green, Zach Bess, Matthew T Weirauch, Yan Xu, Anne Karina Perl
Many studies have investigated the source and role of epithelial progenitors during lung development; such information is limited for fibroblast populations and their complex role in the developing lung. In this study, we characterized the spatial location, mRNA expression and Immunophenotyping of PDGFRα(+) fibroblasts during sacculation and alveolarization. Confocal microscopy identified spatial association of PDGFRα expressing fibroblasts with proximal epithelial cells of the branching bronchioles and the dilating acinar tubules at E16...
May 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346644/laryngoceles-concepts-of-diagnosis-and-management
#18
Mohammad Kamal Mobashir, Waleed M Basha, Abd ElRaof Mohamed, Mostafa Hassaan, Ahmed M Anany
A laryngocele is an abnormal dilatation of the laryngeal saccule. It is a rare benign lesion of the larynx. Various modalities of treatment have been advocated for its management. We present our treatment results and outcomes of a series of cases of laryngoceles and discuss the concepts of their management. This study included patients with different laryngocele types. Patients with an internal laryngocele underwent endoscopic CO2 laser resection, while those with a combined laryngocele underwent resection via a V-shaped lateral thyrotomy approach...
March 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330066/endolymphatic-hydrops-imaging-why-oving-from-semi-quantitative-to-anatomical-based-evaluation
#19
Michael Eliezer, Irène Tropres, Alexandre Krainik, Arnaud Attye
INTRODUCTION: Recently, the semi-quantitative ratio grading for endolymphatic hydrops (EH) was found as none specific of MD because all healthy subjects referred with at least one hydrops location with this grading method and 3D-FLAIR sequence. The objectives of this study were to assess the EH prevalence in MD using both the semi-quantitative ratio method of grading and the Saccule to Utricle Ration Inversion (SURI) technique with two 3D-FLAIR sequences, closely similar except for the inversion time of the sequence...
March 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291399/resection-and-primary-closure-of-edematous-glossoepiglottic-mucosa-in-a-dog-causing-laryngeal-obstruction
#20
Kevin J Schabbing, Jeffrey A Seaman
An approximately 22 mo old male neutered English bulldog was evaluated for acute onset of dyspnea with suspected brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS). Laryngoscopic exam revealed diffuse, severe edema and static displacement of redundant glossoepiglottic (GE) mucosa causing complete obstruction of the larynx and epiglottic entrapment. Static displacement of the GE mucosa was observed and determined to be the overriding component of dyspnea in this patient with BOAS. Resection and primary closure with two separate, simple continuous sutures of the GE mucosa were performed...
May 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
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