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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930443/otolith-dysfunction-in-persons-with-both-diabetes-and-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#1
Linda J DʼSilva, Hinrich Staecker, James Lin, Christy Maddux, John Ferraro, Hongying Dai, Patricia M Kluding
OBJECTIVE: Vestibular dysfunction is a well-recognized complication of type 2 diabetes (DM) that may contribute to increased fall risk. The prevalence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is higher in people with DM. The impact of DM on the otolith organs of the vestibular system in people with BPPV is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze otolith function using vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) tests in people with DM and concurrent BPPV (BPPV + DM), and to examine the relationships between VEMP variables and diabetes-related variables...
December 7, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917898/incomplete-and-delayed-sox2-deletion-defines-residual-ear-neurosensory-development-and-maintenance
#2
Martina Dvorakova, Israt Jahan, Iva Macova, Tetyana Chumak, Romana Bohuslavova, Josef Syka, Bernd Fritzsch, Gabriela Pavlinkova
The role of Sox2 in neurosensory development is not yet fully understood. Using mice with conditional Islet1-cre mediated deletion of Sox2, we explored the function of Sox2 in neurosensory development in a model with limited cell type diversification, the inner ear. In Sox2 conditional mutants, neurons initially appear to form normally, whereas late- differentiating neurons of the cochlear apex never form. Variable numbers of hair cells differentiate in the utricle, saccule, and cochlear base but sensory epithelium formation is completely absent in the apex and all three cristae of the semicircular canal ampullae...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881797/deterioration-of-vestibular-cells-in-labyrinthitis
#3
Serdar Kaya, Patricia A Schachern, Vladimir Tsuprun, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu
OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively assess the effect of serous labyrinthitis, suppurative labyrinthitis, and labyrinthitis ossificans on vestibular hair cells, dark cells, and transitional cells. METHODS: We examined human temporal bone specimens with serous labyrinthitis, suppurative labyrinthitis, and labyrinthitis ossificans, then compared them with age-matched control groups without labyrinthitis. We evaluated the density of type I and II vestibular hair cells, dark cells, and transitional cells in the peripheral sensorial organs...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792272/spatiotemporal-differences-in-otoconial-gene-expression
#4
Yinfang Xu, Yan Zhang, Yunxia Wang Lundberg
Otoconia are minute biocrystals composed of glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and CaCO3 , and are indispensable for sensory processing in the utricle and saccule. Otoconia abnormalities and degeneration can cause or facilitate crystal dislocation to the ampulla, leading to vertigo and imbalance in humans. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism controlling otoconia formation and maintenance, we have examined the spatial and temporal expression differences of otoconial genes in the mouse inner ear at developmental, mature and aging stages using whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) and quantitative RT-PCR...
October 28, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768854/gastric-type-h-k-atpase-in-mouse-vestibular-end-organs
#5
Masaya Takumida, Hiroshi Takumida, Matti Anniko
CONCLUSION: Gastric type H(+),K(+)-ATPase in the vestibular end organs may be of importance for K(+) circulation and may also be related to pH regulation in vestibular end organs and endolymphatic sac. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression of gastric-type H(+),K(+)-ATPase in normal mouse vestibular end organs. METHODS: 8 weeks old CBA/J mice were used in this study. The presence of gastric-type H(+),K(+)-ATPase α and β in the vestibular end organs, viz...
October 21, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755367/ultra-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-human-inner-ear-at-11-7%C3%A2-tesla
#6
David S Thylur, Russell E Jacobs, John L Go, Arthur W Toga, John K Niparko
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI) at 11.7 T to visualize membranous structures of the human inner ear. SPECIMENS: Three temporal bones were extracted from cadaveric human heads for use with small-bore UHF-MRI. INTERVENTION: Ex vivo cadaveric temporal bone specimens were imaged using an 11.7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner via T1- and T2-weighted-imaging with and without contrast...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753635/postnatal-organ-development-as-a-complicating-factor-in-juvenile-toxicity-studies-in-rats
#7
Catherine A Picut, George A Parker
Toxicologic pathologists must evaluate tissues of immature animals from a number of types of nonclinical toxicity studies. The pathologist who is familiar with normal postnatal organ development is in a better position to appropriately detect and differentiate between abnormal, delayed, or precocious development. Vacuolation and apoptosis in multiple tissue types are normal components of development that could influence the interpretation of some tissues. Unique postnatal features such as the germal matrix in the brain, gonocytes in the testes, and saccules in the lung may complicate the histopathological evaluation...
October 17, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693601/lung-surfactant-function-and-composition-in-the-context-of-development-and-respiratory-physiology
#8
REVIEW
Wolfgang Bernhard
Lung surfactant is a complex with a unique phospholipid and protein composition. Its specific function is to reduce surface tension at the pulmonary air-liquid interface. The underlying Young-Laplace equation, applying to the surface of any geometrical structure, is the more important the smaller its radii are. It therefore applies to the alveoli and bronchioli of mature lungs, as well as to the tubules and saccules of immature lungs. Surfactant comprises 80% phosphatidylcholine (PC), of which dipalmitoyl-PC, palmitoyl-myristoyl-PC and palmitoyl-palmitoleoyl-PC together are 75%...
November 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685753/inhibition-of-phosphodiesterase-3-4-and-5-induces-endolymphatic-hydrops-in-mouse-inner-ear-as-evaluated-with-repeated-9-4t-mri
#9
Eva Degerman, Rene In 't Zandt, Annki Pålbrink, Lena Eliasson, Per Cayé-Thomasen, Måns Magnusson
CONCLUSION: The data indicate important roles for phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3, 4, 5, and related cAMP and cGMP pools in the regulation of inner ear fluid homeostasis. Thus, dysfunction of these enzymes might contribute to pathologies of the inner ear. OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying endolymphatic hydrops, a hallmark of inner ear dysfunction, are not known in detail; however, altered balance in cAMP and cGMP signaling systems appears to be involved. Key components of these systems are PDEs, enzymes that modulate the amplitude, duration, termination, and specificity of cAMP and cGMP signaling...
August 15, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619213/bodipy-conjugated-xyloside-primes-fluorescent-glycosaminoglycans-in-the-inner-ear-of-opsanus-tau
#10
Holly A Holman, Vy M Tran, Mausam Kalita, Lynn N Nguyen, Sailaja Arungundram, Balagurunathan Kuberan, Richard D Rabbitt
We report on a new xyloside conjugated to BODIPY, BX and its utility to prime fluorescent glycosaminoglycans (BX-GAGs) within the inner ear in vivo. When BX is administered directly into the endolymphatic space of the oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau) inner ear, fluorescent BX-GAGs are primed and become visible in the sensory epithelia of the semicircular canals, utricle, and saccule. Confocal and 2-photon microscopy of vestibular organs fixed 4 h following BX treatment, reveal BX-GAGs constituting glycocalyces that envelop hair cell kinocilium, nerve fibers, and capillaries...
December 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617587/laryngocele-causing-airway-obstruction-a-unique-case-report
#11
K Topal, K Kilic, M S Sakat, E Altas, H Ucuncu
Laryngocele is an abnormal cystic dilatation of the saccule or appendix of the laryngeal ventricle filled with air and connected to the lumen of the larynx. They rarely cause clinical complaints. But still being rare clinical occasions, they may cause airway obstruction which required emergency interventions. In this report we presented an extremely rare case of laryngocele which causes airway obstruction. A 35-year old male was admitted due to hoarseness, progressive respiratory distress and swelling at the right side of the neck for three years...
February 22, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590488/-otoconia-current-aspects-of-research
#12
L E Walther
Otoconia are calcite-based nanocomposites containing >90 % calcite and <10 % organic material. The mean size is approximately 10 µm. The external structure of all otoconia in the utricle and saccule is similar, with a cylindrical bulbous body with a slightly hexagonal contour. The internal structure consists of a composite with varying volume thickness, dense branching structures (branches) and less dense surrounding areas (bellies). Intact otoconia can be clearly identified only by scanning electron microscopy...
October 2016: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539716/genome-wide-association-analysis-identifies-dcc-as-an-essential-factor-in-the-innervation-of-the-peripheral-vestibular-system-in-inbred-mice
#13
Pezhman Salehi, Anthony Myint, Young J Kim, Marshall X Ge, Joel Lavinsky, Maria K Ho, Amanda L Crow, Charlene Cruz, Maya Monges-Hernadez, Juemei Wang, Jaana Hartiala, Li I Zhang, Hooman Allayee, Aldons J Lusis, Takahiro Ohyama, Rick A Friedman
This study aimed to investigate the genetic causes of vestibular dysfunction. We used vestibular sensory-evoked potentials (VsEPs) to characterize the vestibular function of 35 inbred mouse strains selected from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel and demonstrated strain-dependent phenotypic variation in vestibular function. Using these phenotypic data, we performed the first genome-wide association study controlling for population structure that has revealed two highly suggestive loci, one of which lies within a haplotype block containing five genes (Stard6, 4930503L19Rik, Poli, Mbd2, Dcc) on Chr...
October 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516760/the-woodrat-gut-microbiota-as-an-experimental-system-for-understanding-microbial-metabolism-of-dietary-toxins
#14
REVIEW
Kevin D Kohl, M Denise Dearing
The microbial communities inhabiting the alimentary tracts of mammals, particularly those of herbivores, are estimated to be one of the densest microbial reservoirs on Earth. The significance of these gut microbes in influencing the physiology, ecology and evolution of their hosts is only beginning to be realized. To understand the microbiome of herbivores with a focus on nutritional ecology, while evaluating the roles of host evolution and environment in sculpting microbial diversity, we have developed an experimental system consisting of the microbial communities of several species of herbivorous woodrats (genus Neotoma) that naturally feed on a variety of dietary toxins...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469415/optical-coherence-tomography-imaging-of-optic-disc-cavernous-haemangioma
#15
Mohamed Katta, Hemal Mehta, Ivan Ho, Ray Garrick, Robert Chong
Optic disc cavernous haemangiomas are either found incidentally or after presentation with vitreous haemorrhage. They are characterised by a cluster of grapes appearance to the multiple vascular saccules that make up the tumour. They are more often found in the retinal periphery but rarely occur at the optic disc. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging may be a useful non-invasive imaging modality to follow-up these lesions. We present the case of an asymptomatic 60-year-old lady referred from her optometrist with a lesion overlying the optic disc and the ensuing diagnosis of cavernous haemangioma using fundus fluorescein angiography and OCT...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464869/bilateral-combined-laryngocele
#16
Abrar A Suqati, Ameen Z Alherabi, Osama A Marglani, Tariq O Alaidarous
Laryngocele is an uncommon condition that represents a benign dilatation of the laryngeal saccule with air and/or fluid, arising in the region of the laryngeal ventricle. Laryngoceles, or laryngomucocele can be classified as internal, or combined. The aim of presenting this rare case of a bilateral combined laryngocele, are to emphasize the importance of diagnostic laryngoscopy in upper airway pathologies evaluation, increase awareness in the general otolaryngologist community, and to highlight the external surgical method...
August 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424972/the-analysis-of-factors-influencing-the-success-of-diagnosing-salpingemphraxis-by-x-ray-hysterosalpingography
#17
A-X Xu, D-W Zhang, M Wang, J-F Long
OBJECTIVE: The factors influencing the diagnosing of salpingemphraxis by X-ray hysterosalpingography (HSG) are identified and summarized, to provide a reference for improving the precision of the diagnosis procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In order to analyze the collected data, the methods of stratified sampling and retrospective analysis were adopted. Two county-level medical units, two medical units in prefecture-level cities and two provincial medical units in our province were chosen...
July 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418664/molecular-characterization-of-quail-bronchitis-virus-isolated-from-bobwhite-quail-in-minnesota
#18
Azad Singh, Aschalew Z Bekele, Devi P Patnayak, Naresh Jindal, Robert E Porter, Sunil K Mor, Sagar M Goyal
From 2008 to 2012, 4 separate cases of quail bronchitis virus infection were seen in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) raised in Minnesota. The quail chicks ranged in age from 5 d to 8 wk and suffered from respiratory distress and elevated mortality. On necropsy, gross lesions consisted of mucus in trachea, congested lungs, caseous air sacculitis, accumulation of chalky white urates on internal organs, necrotic foci in liver, and enlarged spleen. Histologic examination revealed fibrinoheterophilic rhinitis, heterophilic bronchitis, heterophilic tracheitis, and interstitial pneumonia in addition to deciliation, desquamation, and necrosis of bronchial respiratory epithelium...
December 1, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412481/type-iv-collagen-drives-alveolar-epithelial-endothelial-association-and-the-morphogenetic-movements-of-septation
#19
Maria Loscertales, Fotini Nicolaou, Marion Jeanne, Mauro Longoni, Douglas B Gould, Yunwei Sun, Faouzi I Maalouf, Nandor Nagy, Patricia K Donahoe
BACKGROUND: Type IV collagen is the main component of the basement membrane that gives strength to the blood-gas barrier (BGB). In mammals, the formation of a mature BGB occurs primarily after birth during alveologenesis and requires the formation of septa from the walls of the saccule. In contrast, in avians, the formation of the BGB occurs rapidly and prior to hatching. Mutation in basement membrane components results in an abnormal alveolar phenotype; however, the specific role of type IV collagen in regulating alveologenesis remains unknown...
2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397722/evaluation-of-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-vemp-and-electrocochleography-for-the-diagnosis-of-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#20
Pauliana Lamounier, Thiago Silva Almeida de Souza, Debora Aparecida Gobbo, Fayez Bahmad
INTRODUCTION: Ménière's disease (MD) is an inner ear disorder characterized by episodic vertigo, tinnitus, ear fullness, and fluctuating hearing. Its diagnosis can be especially difficult in cases where vestibular symptoms are present in isolation (vestibular MD). The definitive diagnosis is made histologically and can only be performed post-mortem, after analysis of the temporal bone. Endolymphatic hydrops is a histopathological finding of the disease and occurs more often in the cochlea and saccule, followed by the utricle and semicircular canals...
June 2, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
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