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S Ganesh Babu, P Aparna, G Satishkumar, Muthupandian Ashokkumar, B Neppolian
A recyclable heterogeneous catalyst has been successfully developed for application in a Fenton-type advanced oxidation process without adding external H2O2. LaFeO3 was prepared from Fe(NO3)3·9H2O and La(NO3)·6H2O by a simple sol-gel method and its catalytic efficiency was evaluated for mineralization of 4-chlorophenol using a Fenton-like process. The mineralization process was carried out under ultrasonication in presence of heterogeneous LaFeO3 catalyst with H2O2 that was produced during ultrasonication...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
A J Expósito, D A Patterson, J M Monteagudo, A Durán
The photo-Fenton degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ) assisted with ultrasound radiation (US/UV/H2O2/Fe) was tested in a lab thin film reactor allowing high TOC removals (89% in 35min). The synergism between the UV process and the sonolytic one was quantified as 55.2%. To test the applicability of this reactor for industrial purposes, the sono-photo-degradation of CBZ was also tested in a thin film pilot plant reactor and compared with a 28L UV-C conventional pilot plant and with a solar Collector Parabolic Compound (CPC)...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Sunil Rajoriya, Swapnil Bargole, Virendra Kumar Saharan
In the present study, decolorization and mineralization of a cationic dye, Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G), has been carried out using hydrodynamic cavitation (HC). Two cavitating devices such as slit and circular venturi were used to generate cavitation in HC reactor. The process parameters such as initial dye concentration, solution pH, operating inlet pressure, and cavitation number were investigated in detail to evaluate their effects on the decolorization efficiency of Rh6G. Decolorization of Rh6G was marginally higher in the case of slit venturi as compared to circular venturi...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
R Tafer, M Sleiman, A Boulkamh, C Richard
The photolysis of aqueous 5-chlorosalicylic acid (ClSA) and dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), its main photoproduct, was studied to determine the extent of degradation caused by simulated solar light. Photoproducts identification was achieved using high resolution LC-MS and GC-MS. About 40 photoproducts from C19 to C1 were characterized, including a dihydroxycyclopentadienic acid, a ring contraction photoproduct, and numerous carbonyls and carboxylic acid derivatives that were detected thanks to derivatization...
October 15, 2016: Water Research
Johanna M Kraus, Polly P Gibson, David M Walters, Marc A Mills
Riparian spiders are being used increasingly to track spatial patterns of contaminants in and fluxing from aquatic ecosystems. However, our understanding of the circumstances under which spiders are effective sentinels of aquatic pollution is limited. Here we test the hypothesis that riparian spiders may be effectively used to track spatial patterns of sediment pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic ecosystems with high habitat heterogeneity. We found that spatial pattern of ΣPCB concentrations in two common families of riparian spiders sampled in 2011-2013 generally tracked spatial variation in sediment ΣPCBs across all sites within the Manistique River Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC), a rivermouth ecosystem located on the south shore of the Upper Peninsula, Manistique, MI, that includes harbor, river, backwater, and lake habitats...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Yuyang Long, Jing Xu, Dongsheng Shen, Yao Du, Huajun Feng
Leachate membrane concentrates containing high concentrations of organics and trace toxic compounds pose a major threat to the environment, and their treatment is an urgent issue. In this work, various coagulants were used to treat leachate membrane concentrates. Appropriate pH values for treatments with FeCl2, FeSO4, polyaluminum chloride, and FeCl3 were 3, 5, 5, and 4, respectively. FeCl3 achieved the highest total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. The effect of the various anions in ferric coagulants [FeCl3, Fe2(SO4)3, and Fe(NO3)3] on the TOC removal efficiency was negligible...
October 17, 2016: Chemosphere
Xin-Xin Lu, Zhao-Hui Wang, Jie Feng
Dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts), biogenic elements and metals were analyzed from sediment cores collected from Zhelin Bay of the South China Sea in December 2008 to understand the environmental changes over the past 50years. Dinocyst concentrations ranged from 0cysts/g to 770cysts/g, and they were dominated by heterotrophic taxa. There was a clear increase trend upcore for biogenic elements, except for biogenic silica. Metals originated from both the lithogenic source and human activities, and significantly increased after 1985-1995...
October 16, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Atsushi Kubo, Jota Kanda
Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) contents, their stable C and N isotope ratio (δ(13)C and δ(15)N), and chlorophyll a ([Chl a]sed) of surface sediments were investigated monthly to identify the seasonal variations and sources of organic matter in Tokyo Bay. The sedimentary TOC (TOCsed) and TN (TNsed) contents, and the sedimentary δ(13)C and δ(15)N (δ(13)Csed and δ(15)Nsed) values were higher in summer than other seasons. The seasonal variations were controlled by high primary production in the water column and hypoxic water in the bottom water during summer...
October 16, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Hu Ningjing, Huang Peng, Zhang Hui, Wang Xiaojing, Zhu Aimei, Liu Jihua, Shi Xuefa
Geochemical sources, spatio-temporal distribution, and associated environmental risk of Cd in the Bohai Sea were investigated using data from 405 surface sediment samples and two sediment cores. Local point Cd sources, TOC content, and currents are the main controlling factors of Cd distribution. The contribution of Cd from river discharge surpasses that from atmospheric deposition. Sediment-quality guidelines, enrichment factors, and chemical fraction analysis were used to assess metal toxicity in the collected sediments...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nupur Verma, John D Pham, Ken F Linnau
This is the 21st installment of a series that will highlight one case per publication issue from the bank of cases available online as part of the American Society of Emergency Radiology (ASER) educational resources. Our goal is to generate more interest in and use of our online materials. To view more cases online, please visit the ASER Core Curriculum and Recommendations for Study online at .
October 18, 2016: Emergency Radiology
Susan R Mallery, Daren Wang, Brian Santiago, Ping Pei, Steven Schwendeman, Kari Nieto, Richard Spinney, Meng Tong, George Koutras, Byungdo B Han, Andrew S Holpuch, James C Lang
Over 1/3 of patients who have undergone oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) surgical resections develop life-threatening and often untreatable recurrences. A variety of drugs, intended for management of recurrent or disseminated cancers, were designed to exploit cancer cells' reliance upon overexpressed receptors and gratuitous signaling. Despite their conceptual promise, clinical trials showed these agents lacked efficacy and were often toxic. These findings are consistent with evasion of pathway-targeted treatments via extensive signaling redundancies and compensatory mechanisms common to cancers...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Juliessa M Pavon, Sandro O Pinheiro, Gwendolen T Buhr
OBJECTIVE: We developed a Transitions of Care (TOC) curriculum to teach and measure learner competence in performing TOC tasks for older adults. DESIGN: Internal medicine interns at an academic residency program received the curriculum, which consisted of experiential learning, self-study, and small group discussion. Interns completed retrospective pre/post surveys rating their confidence in performing five TOC tasks, qualitative open-ended survey questions, and a self-reflection essay...
October 18, 2016: Gerontology & Geriatrics Education
Guang-Lin Zhang, Sheng Wang, Jin-Le Hou, Chong-Jiao Mo, Chen-Jie Que, Qin-Yu Zhu, Jie Dai
Although a lot of titanium oxo-clusters (TOCs) have been synthesized and characterized, research studies on their application properties are still limited. The work described here is not only aimed at the synthesis and crystal structures of the TOCs, but also aimed at exploration of their potential applications in molecule based fluorescence labelling and photocatalysis. Three heterometallic TOC compounds with lanthanide (Ln) elements Sm(iii) (1), Eu(iii) (2) and Gd(iii) (3) are prepared and their cluster structures are characterized as LnTi11 cages...
October 18, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Han Gong, Wei Chu, So Hiu Lam, Angela Yu-Chen Lin
This study shows the degradation of ibuprofen in aqueous solution using oxone process mediated by Fe(2+) with UV irradiation (FOU). Fe(2+)/Oxone (FO), Fe(2+)/UV (FU), Oxone/UV (OU) processes were investigated separately to elucidate the role of different conditions in the processes. The effects of UV wavelength, the dosage of Fe(2+), the dosage of oxone, initial target compound concentration, solution pH and anions on the degradation efficiency were studied. In general the FOU is best performed among the processes...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
Fang Li, Jing Jin, Dongqin Tan, Longxing Wang, Ningbo Geng, Rong Cao, Yuan Gao, Jiping Chen
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are two kinds of brominated flame retardants and widely present in the environment and biota. The levels, spatial distributions and mass inventories of HBCD and TBBPA were investigated in sediments and paddy soils from the Liaohe River Basin in northeast China. The concentrations of ΣHBCD and TBBPA were in the range of not detected (nd) to 4.02ng/g dry weight (dw) and 0.03 to 4.06ng/g dw, respectively. γ-HBCD was dominated in sediments, while the abundance of α-HBCD was relatively high in paddy soils...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Nneka Amadife, Barbara Pawley
This is the 21st installment of a series that will highlight one case per publication issue from the bank of cases available online as part of the American Society of Emergency Radiology (ASER) educational resources. Our goal is to generate more interest in and use of our online materials. To view more cases online please visit the ASER Core Curriculum and Recommendations for Study online at: .
October 15, 2016: Emergency Radiology
Shizong Wang, Yanan Yin, Jianlong Wang
Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent which has been frequently detected in the environment. In this paper, the biodegradation of triclosan after radiation-induced advanced oxidation was investigated. The results show that the removal efficiency of triclosan in the combined irradiation and biological treatment process ranged from 88% to 97%, depending on the absorbed dose, while it was only 54% in the single biological treatment process. The removal efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) was in the range of 53...
October 13, 2016: Chemosphere
Avinash S Bansode, Supriya E More, Ejaz Ahmad Siddiqui, Shruti Satpute, Absar Ahmad, Sudha V Bhoraskar, Vikas L Mathe
The paper reports the use of atmospheric non-thermal plasma torch as a catalyst for degradation of various organic pollutants dissolved in water. A flow of He mixed with air was used to produce the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), at the tip of the torch, using pulsed electric excitation at 12 kV. The torch, operated at a power of 750 mW/mm(2), was seen to completely degrade the aqueous solutions of the pollutants namely methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO) and rhodamine-B (RB), at around 10(-4) M concentrations, the concentration of polluants is one order higher than of routinely used heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions, within 10 min of irradiation time at room temperature...
October 13, 2016: Chemosphere
Yahya Jani, Fabio Kaczala, Charlotte Marchand, Marika Hogland, Mait Kriipsalu, William Hogland, Anders Kihl
The present research studies the characterisation and the physico-chemical properties of an excavated fine fraction (<10 mm) from a Swedish landfill, the Högbytorp. The results showed that the fine fraction represents 38% by mass of the total excavated wastes and it contains mainly soil-type materials and minerals. Higher concentrations of zinc, copper, barium and chromium were found with concentrations higher than the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for contaminated soil. The found moisture and organic contents of the fine fraction were 23...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Luca Fortunato, Sanghyun Jeong, Yiran Wang, Ali R Behzad, TorOve Leiknes
Fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBR) is acknowledged to be complex and unclear. An integrated characterization methodology was employed in this study to understand the fouling on a gravity-driven submerged MBR (GD-SMBR). It involved the use of different analytical tools, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), total organic carbon (TOC), flow cytometer (FCM), adenosine triphosphate analysis (ATP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The three-dimensional (3D) biomass morphology was acquired in a real-time through non-destructive and in situ OCT scanning of 75% of the total membrane surface directly in the tank...
October 1, 2016: Bioresource Technology
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