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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107447/a-software-tool-for-estimation-of-burden-of-infectious-diseases-in-europe-using-incidence-based-disability-adjusted-life-years
#1
Edoardo Colzani, Alessandro Cassini, Daniel Lewandowski, Marie-Josee J Mangen, Dietrich Plass, Scott A McDonald, Alies van Lier, Juanita A Haagsma, Guido Maringhini, Alessandro Pini, Piotr Kramarz, Mirjam E Kretzschmar
The burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology poses a challenge. The aim of the Burden of Communicable Disease in Europe (BCoDE) project is to summarize the impact of communicable disease in the European Union and European Economic Area Member States (EU/EEA MS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100215/a-discrete-event-simulation-model-to-evaluate-the-use-of-community-services-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-united-kingdom
#2
Reda Lebcir, Eren Demir, Raheelah Ahmad, Christos Vasilakis, David Southern
BACKGROUND: The number of people affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasing in the United Kingdom driven by population ageing. The treatment of the disease is complex, resource intensive and currently there is no known cure to PD. The National Health Service (NHS), the public organisation delivering healthcare in the UK, is under financial pressures. There is a need to find innovative ways to improve the operational and financial performance of treating PD patients. The use of community services is a new and promising way of providing treatment and care to PD patients at reduced cost than hospital care...
January 18, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095838/communication-with-families-regarding-organ-and-tissue-donation-after-death-in-intensive-care-comfort-protocol-for-an-intervention-study
#3
Julie E Potter, Robert G Herkes, Lin Perry, Rosalind M Elliott, Anders Aneman, Jorge L Brieva, Elena Cavazzoni, Andrew T H Cheng, Michael J O'Leary, Ian M Seppelt, Val Gebski
BACKGROUND: Discussing deceased organ donation can be difficult not only for families but for health professionals who initiate and manage the conversations. It is well recognised that the methods of communication and communication skills of health professionals are key influences on decisions made by families regarding organ donation. METHODS: This multicentre study is being performed in nine intensive care units with follow-up conducted by the Organ and Tissue Donation Service in New South Wales (NSW) Australia...
January 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092800/effect-of-venepuncture-process-design-on-efficiency-and-failure-rates-a-simulation-model-study-for-secondary-care
#4
Sean Reed, Rasa Remenyte-Prescott, Ben Rees
BACKGROUND: Healthcare aims to deliver good patient outcomes. For many clinical procedures there are multiple alternative task sequences that can be performed. These deviations can influence procedure reliability, efficiency of usage of hospital resources and risk to staff and patient safety. Venepuncture is one of the most common invasive procedures in healthcare. Literature of clinical practice shows evidence of wide variability in the procedure order and the duration of each step, which can depend on attributes, such as patient health, sampling method and staff skills...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076545/economic-evaluation-of-the-programs-rede-farm%C3%A3-cia-de-minas-do-sus-versus-farm%C3%A3-cia-popular-do-brasil
#5
Marina Morgado Garcia, Augusto Afonso Guerra, Francisco de Assis Acúrcio
We conducted an economic assessment of the Pharmaceutical Assistance - Rede Farmácia de Minas Gerais-RFMG and Farmácia Popular do Brasil-FPB to ascertain which of the two models stands out as the most efficient. To do this, a model, which consisted of a study of incurred costs in both programs, up to the dispensing of medicine to citizens, was developed. The uncertainties of the proposed model were tested using the Monte Carlo method. If the entire population initially estimated in the RFMG were attended in the FPB, there would be an additional cost of R$ 139,324,050...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073934/the-influence-of-customer-medicine-seller-transactional-dynamics-on-childhood-diarrhoea-management-a-qualitative-study-in-ghana
#6
Lauren Rosapep, Emily Sanders, Kathryn Banke
In 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) jointly revised the recommended treatment for acute paediatric diarrhoea to specify supplementing reduced osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) with zinc. In many countries, however, a significant knowledge-practice gap persists in appropriate diarrhoea management among private healthcare providers. For example, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Strengthening Health Outcomes through the Private Sector (SHOPS) project recently demonstrated that over-the-counter medicine sellers (MS) in Ghana recommended inappropriate diarrhoea treatments, despite their demonstrated knowledge of appropriate treatment protocols...
January 10, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069621/the-costs-of-diabetes-among-australians-aged-45-64%C3%A2-years-from-2015-to-2030-projections-of-lost-productive-life-years-plys-lost-personal-income-lost-taxation-revenue-extra-welfare-payments-and-lost-gross-domestic-product-from-health-wealthmod2030
#7
Deborah Schofield, Rupendra N Shrestha, Michelle M Cunich, Megan E Passey, Lennert Veerman, Robert Tanton, Simon J Kelly
OBJECTIVES: To project the number of people aged 45-64 years with lost productive life years (PLYs) due to diabetes and related costs (lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue); and lost gross domestic product (GDP) attributable to diabetes in Australia from 2015 to 2030. DESIGN: A simulation study of how the number of people aged 45-64 years with diabetes increases over time (based on population growth and disease trend data) and the economic losses incurred by individuals and the government...
January 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068910/outcome-sensitive-multiple-imputation-a-simulation-study
#8
Evangelos Kontopantelis, Ian R White, Matthew Sperrin, Iain Buchan
BACKGROUND: Multiple imputation is frequently used to deal with missing data in healthcare research. Although it is known that the outcome should be included in the imputation model when imputing missing covariate values, it is not known whether it should be imputed. Similarly no clear recommendations exist on: the utility of incorporating a secondary outcome, if available, in the imputation model; the level of protection offered when data are missing not-at-random; the implications of the dataset size and missingness levels...
January 9, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065193/incidence-of-surgical-site-infections-cannot-be-derived-reliably-from-point-prevalence-survey-data-in-dutch-hospitals
#9
A P Meijs, J A Ferreira, S C DE Greeff, M C Vos, M B G Koek
Thorough studies on whether point prevalence surveys of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) can be used to reliably estimate incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) are scarce. We examined this topic using surveillance data of 58 hospitals that participated in two Dutch national surveillances; HAI prevalence and SSI incidence surveillance, respectively. First, we simulated daily prevalences of SSIs from incidence data. Subsequently, Rhame & Sudderth's formula was used to estimate SSI incidence from prevalence...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062410/distance-learning-for-updating-health-professionals-in-palliative-care-a-systematic-review
#10
Anderson Luiz Carvalho Taroco, Tania Cristina de Oliveira Valente, Camila Soares Carbogim
OBJECTIVES: To review literature regarding online educational initiatives in palliative care which are targeted to update health professionals and prepare distance courses suitable for a Brazilian context. METHODS: 7 databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS, SCIELO, CINAHL, Science Direct and Scopus) were reviewed for published papers between January 2004 and August 2014 using the PRISMA methodology. Included studies focused on health professionals and had at least part of the course in a distance learning approach...
January 6, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056835/clinical-prediction-in-defined-populations-a-simulation-study-investigating-when-and-how-to-aggregate-existing-models
#11
Glen P Martin, Mamas A Mamas, Niels Peek, Iain Buchan, Matthew Sperrin
BACKGROUND: Clinical prediction models (CPMs) are increasingly deployed to support healthcare decisions but they are derived inconsistently, in part due to limited data. An emerging alternative is to aggregate existing CPMs developed for similar settings and outcomes. This simulation study aimed to investigate the impact of between-population-heterogeneity and sample size on aggregating existing CPMs in a defined population, compared with developing a model de novo. METHODS: Simulations were designed to mimic a scenario in which multiple CPMs for a binary outcome had been derived in distinct, heterogeneous populations, with potentially different predictors available in each...
January 6, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052886/intestinal-rehabilitation-for-children-with-intestinal-failure-is-cost-effective-a-simulation-study
#12
Henk Groen, Esther G Neelis, Marten J Poley, Joanne F Olieman, René Scheenstra, Paul Fm Krabbe, Gerard Dijkstra, Edmond Hhm Rings
BACKGROUND: Children with intestinal failure (IF) depend on parenteral nutrition (PN). The goal in the treatment of IF is to wean children off PN through intestinal rehabilitation (IR). Although the healthcare burden of IF is enormous, to our knowledge there has been no previous cost-effectiveness analysis in pediatric IF including IR. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of IR in terms of costs and life-years. DESIGN: We simulated the treatment of IF in children in a discrete-event model...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050896/cost-analysis-of-single-use-ambu-%C3%A2-ascope%C3%A2-and-reusable-bronchoscopes-in-the-icu
#13
S Perbet, M Blanquet, C Mourgues, J Delmas, S Bertran, B Longère, V Boïko-Alaux, P Chennell, J-E Bazin, J-M Constantin
BACKGROUND: Flexible optical bronchoscopes are essential for management of airways in ICU, but the conventional reusable flexible scopes have three major drawbacks: high cost of repairs, need for decontamination, and possible transmission of infectious agents. The main objective of this study was to measure the cost of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) using reusable bronchoscopes and single-use bronchoscopes in an ICU of an university hospital. The secondary objective was to compare the satisfaction of healthcare professionals with reusable and single-use bronchoscopes...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048910/su-g-jep2-10-on-the-need-for-a-dynamic-model-for-patient-specific-distortion-corrections-for-mr-only-pelvis-treatment-planning
#14
C Glide-Hurst, W Zheng, C Stehning, S Weiss, S Renisch
PURPOSE: Patient-specific distortions, particularly near tissue/air interfaces, require assessment and possible corrections for MRI-only radiation treatment planning (RTP). However, patients are dynamic due to changes in physiological status and motion during imaging sessions. This work investigated the need for dynamic patient-specific distortion corrections to support pelvis MR-only RTP. METHODS: The pelvises of healthy volunteers were imaged at 1.0T, 1.5T, and 3...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048834/th-ef-bra-03-assessment-of-data-driven-respiratory-motion-compensation-methods-for-4d-cbct-image-registration-and-reconstruction-using-clinical-datasets
#15
M J Riblett, E Weiss, G E Christensen, G D Hugo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of a 4D-CBCT registration and reconstruction method that corrects for respiratory motion and enhances image quality under clinically relevant conditions. METHODS: Building on previous work, which tested feasibility of a motion-compensation workflow using image datasets superior to clinical acquisitions, this study assesses workflow performance under clinical conditions in terms of image quality improvement. Evaluated workflows utilized a combination of groupwise deformable image registration (DIR) and image reconstruction...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048813/mo-fg-209-04-dbt-applications-of-feature-adaptive-visual-search-model-oberver
#16
M Das
: This symposium will review recent advances in the simulation methods for evaluation of novel breast imaging systems - the subject of AAPM Task Group TG234. Our focus will be on the various approaches to development and validation of software anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in the statistical assessment of novel imaging systems using such phantoms along with computational models for the x-ray image formation process. Due to the dynamic development and complex design of modern medical imaging systems, the simulation of anatomical structures, image acquisition modalities, and the image perception and analysis offers substantial benefits of reduced cost, duration, and radiation exposure, as well as the known ground-truth and wide variability in simulated anatomies...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048796/mo-fg-campus-jep2-04-comparison-study-for-ct-and-mr-only-prostate-imrt-treatment-planning-a-framework-for-the-estimation-of-relative-contribution-of-body-contour-discrepancies-tissue-stratification-and-hu-red-conversion-to-the-overall-dose-difference
#17
M Maspero, P R Seevinck, G Schubert, M Hoesl, G J Meijer, M A Viergever, Jjw Lagendijk, Cat van den Berg
PURPOSE: To compare dose of prostate IMRT plans on CT vs MR-based pseudo-CT (pCT). A framework is demonstrated to isolate various confounding factors causing dose differences. This approach will be valuable for medical physicists interested in commissioning strategy of MR-only dose planning. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on fourteen prostate patients that underwent CT and MRI scans. MR was equipped with an in-house-developed flat table-top and coil support...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048735/mo-fg-209-00-recent-advances-in-virtual-tools-for-validation-of-3d-4d-breast-imaging-systems-tg234
#18
Predrag Bakic, Kyle Myers
: This symposium will review recent advances in the simulation methods for evaluation of novel breast imaging systems - the subject of AAPM Task Group TG234. Our focus will be on the various approaches to development and validation of software anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in the statistical assessment of novel imaging systems using such phantoms along with computational models for the x-ray image formation process. Due to the dynamic development and complex design of modern medical imaging systems, the simulation of anatomical structures, image acquisition modalities, and the image perception and analysis offers substantial benefits of reduced cost, duration, and radiation exposure, as well as the known ground-truth and wide variability in simulated anatomies...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048700/tu-d-bra-00-treatment-planning-system-commissioning-and-qa
#19
Greg Salomons
INTRODUCTION: Treatment planning systems (TPS) are a cornerstone of modern radiation therapy. Errors in their commissioning or use can have a devastating impact on many patients. To support safe and high quality care, medical physicists must conduct efficient and proper commissioning, good clinical integration, and ongoing quality assurance (QA) of the TPS. AAPM Task Group 53 and related publications have served as seminal benchmarks for TPS commissioning and QA over the past two decades...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048652/tu-d-brb-00-dual-energy-ct-in-radiation-therapy
#20
Zacariah Labby
: Dual-energy CT technology is becoming increasingly available to the medical imaging community. In addition, several models of CT simulators sold for use in radiation therapy departments now feature dual-energy technology. The images provided by dual-energy CT scanners add new information to the radiation treatment planning process; multiple spectral components can be used to separate and identify material composition as well as generate virtual monoenergetic images. In turn, this information could be used to investigate pathologic processes, separate the properties of contrast agents from soft tissues, assess tissue response to therapy, and other applications of therapeutic interest...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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