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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777922/pfoa-and-ulcerative-colitis
#1
Kyle Steenland, Subra Kugathasan, Dana Boyd Barr
INTRODUCTION: PFOA (perfluoroctanoic acid) is a perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS). Although use in the US has been phased out, PFOA persists indefinitely in the environment, and is present in the serum of virtually all people in industrialized countries. Approximately 6 million Americans drink water comtaminated with PFOA above EPA-recommended levels. In a previous cohort study (n = 32,000), we found a strong positive exposure-response relation between PFOA serum levels and subsequent ulcerative colitis (UC) in a high-exposed population from the mid-Ohio valley, but no association with Crohn's disease...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775793/analysis-of-dna-methylation-at-specific-loci-in-stool-samples-detects-colorectal-cancer-and-high-grade-dysplasia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
John B Kisiel, Pasquale Klepp, Hatim T Allawi, William R Taylor, Maria Giakoumopoulos, Tamara Sander, Tracy C Yab, Bjorn A Moum, Graham P Lidgard, Stephan Brackmann, Douglas W Mahoney, Arne Roseth, David A Ahlquist
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), are at increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Analyses of DNA methylation patterns in stool samples have been reported to detect CRC in patients with IBD. We sought to validate these findings in larger cohorts and assess the accuracy of analysis of DNA methylation patterns in stool for detection of CRC and high-grade dysplasia (HGD) normalized to methylation level at ZDHHC1...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775600/variation-in-interleukin-6-receptor-gene-associates-with-risk-of-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis
#3
C A Parisinos, S Serghiou, M Katsoulis, M J George, R S Patel, H Hemingway, A D Hingorani
Interleukin 6 (IL6) is an inflammatory cytokine; signaling via its receptor (IL6R) is believed to contribute to development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The single nucleotide polymorphism rs2228145 in IL6R associates with increased levels of soluble IL6R (s-IL6R), as well as reduced IL6R signaling and risk of inflammatory disorders; its effects are similar to those of a therapeutic monoclonal antibody that blocks IL6R signaling. We used the effect of rs2228145 on s-IL6R level as an indirect marker to investigate whether reduced IL6R signaling associates with risk of ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD)...
May 15, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774226/metastatic-gastric-signet-ring-cell-carcinoma-mimicking-crohn-s-disease
#4
Michael W Winter, Amr Dokmak, Zachary Marnoy, Shweta Sinagare, Alexander N Levy
Signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is an adenocarcinoma characterized by mucin-producing cells and most commonly arises in the stomach. Colonic SRCC can share features of colitis, including long segments of concentric bowel wall thickening and ulcerated mucosa with regions of sparing. We describe a rare case of metastatic gastric SRCC mimicking Crohn's disease. Our patient underwent 2 colonoscopies, and biopsies revealed chronic active inflammation with no evidence of malignancy. The diagnosis of SRCC was only made after colectomy was performed for recurrent bowel obstruction...
2018: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774158/efficacy-of-vedolizumab-for-induction-of-clinical-response-and-remission-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-inflammatory-bowel-disease-who-failed-at-least-two-tnf-antagonists
#5
Martine De Vos, Barbara Dhooghe, Severine Vermeire, Edouard Louis, Fazia Mana, Ann Elewaut, Peter Bossuyt, Filip Baert, Catherine Reenaers, Marc Van Gossum, Elisabeth Macken, Marc Ferrante, Pieter Hindryckx, Olivier Dewit, Tom Holvoet, Denis Franchimont
Background: Vedolizumab is a recently available monoclonal antibody targeting α4β7 integrin for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Objective: The objective of this article is to evaluate the efficacy of vedolizumab induction therapy in anti-TNF-refractory/intolerant UC and CD patients in real life. Methods: A cohort of 149 moderately to severely active UC and CD patients who failed or showed intolerance to at least two TNF antagonists participated in a medical need program and received vedolizumab in 37 Belgian centers (April-September 2015)...
April 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774052/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-vedolizumab-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-current-data-and-future-directions
#6
REVIEW
Mark G Ward, Miles P Sparrow, Xavier Roblin
The introduction of vedolizumab, a lymphocyte adhesion inhibitor, has expanded the relatively limited therapeutic armamentarium available for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Despite its effectiveness, both primary nonresponse and secondary loss of response to vedolizumab do occur, as is observed with the use of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. Further, in a proportion, onset of efficacy may be relatively slow. A large body of data support an exposure-response relationship with anti-TNF drug levels, which has led to therapeutic drug monitoring becoming incorporated into everyday clinical management...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773794/calreticulin-and-integrin-alpha-dissociation-induces-anti-inflammatory-programming-in-animal-models-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Masayoshi Ohkuro, Jun-Dal Kim, Yoshikazu Kuboi, Yuki Hayashi, Hayase Mizukami, Hiroko Kobayashi-Kuramochi, Kenzo Muramoto, Manabu Shirato, Fumiko Michikawa-Tanaka, Jun Moriya, Teruya Kozaki, Kazuma Takase, Kenichi Chiba, Kishan Lal Agarwala, Takayuki Kimura, Makoto Kotake, Tetsuya Kawahara, Naoki Yoneda, Shinsuke Hirota, Hiroshi Azuma, Nobuko Ozasa-Komura, Yoshiaki Ohashi, Masafumi Muratani, Keiji Kimura, Ieharu Hishinuma, Akiyoshi Fukamizu
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition initiated by integrins-mediated leukocyte adhesion to the activated colonic microvascular endothelium. Calreticulin (CRT), a calcium-binding chaperone, is known as a partner in the activation of integrin α subunits (ITGAs). The relationship between their interaction and the pathogenesis of IBD is largely unknown. Here we show that a small molecule, orally active ER-464195-01, inhibits the CRT binding to ITGAs, which suppresses the adhesiveness of both T cells and neutrophils...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772233/roseburia-intestinalis-derived-flagellin-is-a-negative-regulator-of-intestinal-inflammation
#8
Yongsheng Quan, Kerui Song, Yan Zhang, Changxin Zhu, Zhaohua Shen, Shuai Wu, Weiwei Luo, Bei Tan, Zhenyu Yang, Xiaoyan Wang
Our previous study showed that the Roseburia intestinalis (R. intestinalis), one of the dominant intestinal bacterial microbiota, was significantly decreased in Crohn's disease patients and protected colon epithelial cells from inflammatory damage. However, the roles of lncRNAs in R. intestinalis flagellin-mediated anti-inflammation remain unclear. In this study, we investigate global lncRNA expression profiles using microarray analysis of ulcerative colitis samples from DSS/Flagellin-challenged mice and identified a Flagellin-induced upregulated lncRNA (HIF1A-AS2)...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771698/updates-in-colorectal-cancer-screening-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
William T Clarke, Joseph D Feuerstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review article will discuss the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as the current recommendations for CRC screening and surveillance in patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's colitis involving one-third of the colon. RECENT FINDINGS: Given that most cases of CRC are thought to arise from dysplasia, previous guidelines have recommended endoscopic surveillance with random biopsies obtained from all segments of the colon...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771163/review-of-saccharomyces-boulardii-as-a-treatment-option-in-ibd
#10
Kavitha Sivananthan, Andreas Munk Petersen
CONTEXT: Review of the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii as a treatment option for the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. OBJECTIVE: IBD is caused by an inappropriate immune response to gut microbiota. Treatment options could therefore be prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics and/or fecal transplant. In this review, we have looked at the evidence for the yeast S. boulardii as a treatment option. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Searches in PubMed and the Cochrane Library with the MeSH words 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND IBD', 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND Inflammatory Bowel Disease', 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND ulcerative colitis' and 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND Crohn's disease' gave total a total of 80 articles...
May 17, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766731/-current-and-prospective-biologics-and-small-molecules-in-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#11
Milan Buc
Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) belong to chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, which are induced by autoimmune processes. While CD is characterized by over-activity of Th1, ILC1, and MAIT cells, UC is mediated by exaggerated activities of Th2 and ILC2 cells and cytokines they produce. Knowledge of the pathogenesis enabled a rational therapy based mostly on biologics and small molecules. TNF is the principal proinflammatory cytokine in both diseases. Anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies, mostly infliximab or adalimumab were therefore introduced to their treatment...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764567/-features-and-management-of-very-early-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Jie-Yu You
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic nonspecific intestinal inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. This disease includes three main types: Crohn′s disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and IBD-unclassified (IBD-U). IBD is frequently presented in adults, but in recent years, there is a rising incidence in pediatric populations. Very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD) is a fraction of pediatric IBD, but they have exclusive phenotypic and genetic characteristics such that they are accompanied by severe disease course and resistance to conventional therapy...
May 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764306/long-term-complications-of-appendectomy-a-systematic-review
#13
T Rasmussen, S Fonnes, J Rosenberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Appendectomy is a common surgical procedure, but no overview of the long-term consequences exists. Our aim was to systematically review the long-term complications of appendectomy for acute appendicitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic review was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42017064662). The databases PubMed and EMBASE were searched for original reports on appendectomy with n ≥ 500 and follow-up >30 days...
May 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery: SJS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762697/sarcopenia-is-a-novel-predictor-of-the-need-for-rescue-therapy-in-hospitalized-ulcerative-colitis-patients
#14
Kelly C Cushing, Hamed Kordbacheh, Michael S Gee, Avinash Kambadakone, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
Background: Acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) affects one in four patients with UC. Clinical parameters perform modestly in predicting need for rescue therapy. Sarcopenia and visceral adiposity predict natural history in Crohn's disease, but the role of such metabolic factors on ASUC outcomes is unknown. Aim: To define the effect of sarcopenia and visceral adiposity on outcomes in ASUC. Methods: We studied patients hospitalized for ASUC who underwent an abdominal CT scan during the hospitalization...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762265/link-between-celiac-disease-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Ayesha Shah, Marjorie Walker, Daniel Burger, Neal Martin, Moritz von Wulffen, Natasha Koloski, Mike Jones, Nicholas J Talley, Gerald J Holtmann
GOAL: The aim of this analysis was to assess in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) the risk of celiac disease and in celiac disease patients the risk of IBD. BACKGROUND: Previous studies report a possible association between IBD and celiac disease; however, this link is controversial. STUDY: Using the search terms "inflammatory bowel disease" and "celiac disease," we identified initially 1525 publications. In total 27 studies met inclusion criteria...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761252/testing-and-treating-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-reduces-symptoms-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Shirley Cohen-Mekelburg, Zaid Tafesh, Elliot Coburn, Russell Weg, Neena Malik, Colleen Webb, Hoda Hammad, Ellen Scherl, Brian P Bosworth
BACKGROUND: Common mechanisms against small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), including an intact ileocecal valve, gastric acid secretion, intestinal motility, and an intact immune system, are compromised in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and therefore, a relatively high incidence of SIBO has been reported in this population. AIMS: We aimed to determine whether an improvement in IBD clinical activity scores is seen after testing and treating SIBO. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 147 patients with inflammatory bowel disease who were referred for SIBO breath testing from 1/2012 to 5/2016 was performed...
May 14, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757772/systematic-analysis-of-annual-health-resource-utilization-and-costs-in-hospitalized-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-switzerland
#17
Alain Schoepfer, Stephan R Vavricka, Beat Brüngger, Oliver Reich, Eva Blozik, Caroline Bähler
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Real-life data on health resource utilization and costs of hospitalized patients with inflammatory bowel disease are lacking in Switzerland. We aimed to assess health resource utilization and costs during a 1-year follow-up period starting with an index hospitalization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: On the basis of claims data of the Helsana health insurance group, health resource utilization was assessed and costs reimbursed by mandatory basic health insurance [in Swiss Francs (CHF); 1 CHF=0...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757363/targeting-endothelial-ligands-icam-1-alicaforsen-madcam-1
#18
Walter Reinisch, Kenneth Hung, Mina Hassan-Zahraee, Fabio Cataldi
The specific blockade of the endothelial ligands intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule (MAdCAM) involved in leukocyte recruitment to the site of inflammation as therapeutic targets in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been recognized from their overexpression in the inflamed mucosa and their successful intervention in preclinical animal models. Interventions to target ICAM-1 in human IBD are confined to the ICAM-1 anti-sense oligonucleotide alicaforsen. Whereas results with parenteral formulations of alicaforsen in Crohn's disease were largely negative, efficacy signals derived from studies with an enema formulation in ulcerative and pouchitis are promising and having lead to a FDA Fast-Track designation for the latter...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755892/regional-control-of-regulatory-immune-cells-in-the-intestine
#19
Tina L Morhardt, Atsushi Hayashi, John Y Kao, Nobuhiko Kamada
Purpose of review: The intestine contains the largest compartment of immune regulatory cells which include T regulatory cells and IL-10 producing macrophages. These cell populations serve to restrain unnecessary immune responses of the intestine, which may lead to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease or food allergy. Recent findings: This review discusses the recent findings pertaining to the functional regulation of these cells which may provide insight into novel therapies...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754190/allergic-and-immunologic-perspectives-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
REVIEW
Kofi Clarke, Jayakrishna Chintanaboina
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory condition primarily involving the gastrointestinal tract. It includes Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and a less common phenotype-indeterminate colitis. It is thought to result from a complex interplay of environmental, microbial, and host factors including genetic factors, although the exact mechanism is not known. Dietary factors have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD and can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota as well as disrupt the immune function in the gut...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
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