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human lactation

Sergio Agudelo, Oscar Gamboa, Fabio Rodríguez, Sandra Cala, Nathalie Gualdrón, Evelyn Obando, María Lucía Padrón
BACKGROUND: Human lactancy is a simple and cost-effective strategy that influences infant and maternal mortality rates. Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is an immediate postpartum period strategy that has proven to benefit the initiation and continuation of human lactation and to decrease hospitalization during the first week of life. This study aims to determine the effect of SSC initiation at birth (immediate versus early) in healthy, full-term newborns treated at the Universidad de La Sabana Clinic on the duration of exclusive human lactation...
October 26, 2016: Trials
H Kim, T-J Bae, B-M Jung, H Yi, J A Jung, N Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Karina Zitta, Cacha Peeters-Scholte, Lena Sommer, Kerstin Parczany, Markus Steinfath, Martin Albrecht
Several animal models have been used to simulate cerebral hypoxia-ischemia and suggested neuroprotective effects of the biotin analogue 2-iminobiotin (2-IB). The aims of this study were to employ a human in-vitro hypoxia model to confirm protective effects of 2-IB on neuronal cells, determine the optimal neuroprotective concentrations of 2-IB and scrutinize underlying cellular effects of 2-IB. Neuronal IMR-32 cells were exposed to hypoxia employing an enzymatic hypoxia system and were thereafter incubated with various concentrations of 2-IB (10 to 300ng/ml)...
October 22, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Naoto Fujii, Brendan D McNeely, Glen P Kenny
β-adrenergic receptor agonists such as isoproterenol can induce cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating in humans, however, the mechanisms underpinning this response remains unresolved. We evaluated the hypotheses that 1) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) contributes to β-adrenergic cutaneous vasodilatation, whereas cyclooxygenase (COX) limits the vasodilatation, and 2) COX contributes to β-adrenergic sweating. In 10 young males (25 ± 5 years), cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were evaluated at four intradermal forearm skin sites infused with 1) lactated Ringer's (control), 2) 10 mm L -NNA, a non-specific NOS inhibitor, 3) 10 mM ketorolac, a non-specific COX inhibitor, or 4) a combination of L -NNA and ketorolac...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physiology
J S Milligan-Saville, B M Graham
Fear extinction is the laboratory basis of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. Recent findings have revealed that estradiol is necessary to the consolidation of extinction memories in females. These findings are based on studies conducted using virgin rats and young women whose reproductive history is unknown. We hypothesized that motherhood, which results in extensive endocrinological, neurobiological and behavioral changes, may lead to alterations in fear extinction in females. We used a cross-species translational approach to investigate the impact of reproductive experience on fear extinction and fear relapse in female rats (n=116) and women (n=64)...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Menghan Liu, Lake-Ee Quek, Ghazal Sultani, Nigel Turner
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a common malignancy with dismal prognosis. Metastatic spread and therapeutic resistance, the main causes of PDAC-related mortalities, are both partially underlined by the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of PDAC cells. While the role of Warburg metabolism has been recognized in supporting rapid cellular growth and proliferation in many cancer types, less is known about the metabolic changes occurring during EMT, particularly in the context of PDAC...
2016: Cancer & Metabolism
Bao-Ngoc Nguyen, Hassan Albadawi, Rahmi Oklu, Robert S Crawford, Mitchell P Fink, Richard P Cambria, Michael T Watkins
OBJECTIVE: Delayed paralysis is an unpredictable problem for patients undergoing complex repair of the thoracic/thoracoabdominal aorta. These experiments were designed to determine whether ethyl pyruvate (EP), a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent, might ameliorate delayed paralysis following thoracic aortic ischemia reperfusion (TAR). METHODS: C57BL6 mice were subjected to 5 minutes of thoracic aortic ischemia followed by reperfusion for up to 48 hours...
November 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Hans E Purkey, Kirk Robarge, Jinhua Chen, Zhongguo Chen, Laura B Corson, Charles Z Ding, Antonio G DiPasquale, Peter S Dragovich, Charles Eigenbrot, Marie Evangelista, Benjamin P Fauber, Zhenting Gao, Hongxiu Ge, Anna Hitz, Qunh Ho, Sharada S Labadie, Kwong Wah Lai, Wenfeng Liu, Yajing Liu, Chiho Li, Shuguang Ma, Shiva Malek, Thomas O'Brien, Jodie Pang, David Peterson, Laurent Salphati, Steve Sideris, Mark Ultsch, BinQing Wei, Ivana Yen, Qin Yue, Huihui Zhang, Aihe Zhou
A series of trisubstituted hydroxylactams was identified as potent enzymatic and cellular inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase A. Utilizing structure-based design and physical property optimization, multiple inhibitors were discovered with <10 μM lactate IC50 in a MiaPaca2 cell line. Optimization of the series led to 29, a potent cell active molecule (MiaPaca2 IC50 = 0.67 μM) that also possessed good exposure when dosed orally to mice.
October 13, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Anja Stajnko, Ingrid Falnoga, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Darja Mazej, Marta Jagodic, Mladen Krsnik, Alfred B Kobal, Marija Prezelj, Lijana Kononenko, Milena Horvat
BACKGROUND: Urine cadmium (Cd) and renal function biomarkers, mostly analysed in urine spot samples, are well established biomarkers of occupational exposure. Their use and associations at low environmental level are common, but have recently been questioned, particularly in terms of physiological variability and normalisation bias in the case of urine spot samples. AIM: To determine the appropriateness of spot urine and/or blood Cd exposure biomarkers and their relationships with renal function biomarkers at low levels of exposure...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
Mustafa Nakipoğlu, Fadime Yilmaz, Bulent Icgen
Untreated wastewaters and treated effluents even after final disinfection contain antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes before they are released into surface waters. A correlation between resistant bacteria and antibiotics in surface waters has been found, as have antibiotic resistance genes. Of particular interest are vancomycin-resistant enterococci harboring vanA gene that confers high level of resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics including teicoplanin. Therefore, in this study, river water samples were analysed to investigate vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant bacterial isolates harboring vanA gene...
October 21, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Raj Kumar Sharma, Kumudesh Mishra, Alvina Farooqui, Anu Behari, Vinay Kumar Kapoor, Neeraj Sinha
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: We present in this article (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic approach to screen the serum metabolic alterations in human gallbladder inflammation with chronic cholecystitis (CC). MATERIAL/METHODS: Total of 71 human serum samples was divided into two groups, (n = 41, CC) and (n = 30 control). (1)H NMR metabolic profiling was carried out for investigation of metabolic alterations. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied for pattern recognition and identification of metabolites playing crucial role in gallbladder inflammation...
October 21, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Brett A Beaupre, Joseph V Roman, Matthew R Hoag, Kathleen M Meneely, Nicholas R Silvaggi, Audrey L Lamb, Graham R Moran
Renalase catalyzes the oxidation of isomers of β-NAD(P)H that carry the hydride in the 2 or 6 positions of the nicotinamide base to form β-NAD(P)(+). This activity is thought to alleviate inhibition of multiple β-NAD(P)-dependent enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism by these isomers. Here we present evidence for a variety of ligand binding phenomena relevant to the function of renalase. We offer evidence of the potential for primary metabolism inhibition with structures of malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase bound to the 6-dihydroNAD isomer...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Alexandra C Sundermann, Troy D Abell, Lisa C Baker, Mark B Mengel, Kathryn E Reilly, Michael A Bonow, Gregory E Hoy, Richard D Clover
BACKGROUND: The specialization of human fat deposits is an inquiry of special importance in the study of fetal growth. It has been theorized that maternal lower-body fat is designated specifically for lactation and not for the growth of the fetus. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to compare the contributions of maternal upper-body versus lower-body adiposity to infant birth weight. We hypothesized that upper-body adiposity would be strongly associated with infant birth weight and that lower-body adiposity would be weakly or negligibly associated with infant birth weight-after adjusting for known determinants...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Michael L Power, Jay Schulkin, Heather Drought, Lauren A Milligan, Katie L Murtough, Robin M Bernstein
In addition to nutrients, milk contains signaling molecules that influence offspring development. Human milk is similar in nutrient composition to that of apes, but appears to differ in other aspects such as immune function. We examine the longitudinal patterns across lactation of macronutrients, the metabolic hormone adiponectin, the growth factors epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2), and two receptors for these growth factors (EGF-R and TGF-β2-RIII) in milk samples collected between days 175 and 313 postpartum from a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) and between days 3 and 1,276 from a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and compare the results with human data from the literature...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Zhanglong Peng, Shibani Pati, Magali J Fontaine, Kelly Hall, Anthony V Herrera, Rosemary A Kozar
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have demonstrated that the early and empiric use of plasma improves survival after hemorrhagic shock. We have demonstrated in rodent models of hemorrhagic shock that resuscitation with plasma is protective to the lungs compared with lactated Ringer's solution. As our long-term objective is to determine the molecular mechanisms that modulate plasma's protective effects in injured bleeding patients, we have used human plasma in a mouse model of hemorrhagic shock...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Zhen Wang, Eric P Chang, Vern L Schramm
Transition path sampling simulations have proposed that human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) employs protein promoting vibrations (PPVs) on the femtosecond (fs) to picosecond (ps) timescale to promote crossing of the chemical barrier. This chemical barrier involves both hydride and proton transfers to pyruvate to form L-lactate, using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as the cofactor. Here we report experimental evidence from three types of isotope effect experiments that support coupling of the promoting vibrations to barrier crossing and the coincidence of hydride and proton transfer...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shelby Calkins, M B Couger, Colin Jackson, Jordan Zandler, Garett C Hudgins, Radwa A Hanafy, Connie Budd, Donald P French, Wouter D Hoff, Noha Youssef
Staphylococcus hominis is a predominant member of the human skin microbiome. We here report on the genomic analysis of Staphylococcus hominis strain Hudgins that was isolated from the wrist area of human skin. The partial genome assembly of S. hominis Hudgins consists of 2,211,863 bp of DNA with 2174 protein-coding genes and 90 RNA genes. Based on the genomic analysis of KEGG pathways, the organism is expected to be a versatile heterotroph potentially capable of hydrolyzing the sugars glucose, fructose, mannose, and the amino acids alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, arginine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan for energy production through aerobic respiration, with occasional lactate and acetate fermentation...
December 2016: Genomics Data
Teresa Delgado-Goni, Maria Falck Miniotis, Slawomir Wantuch, Harold G Parkes, Richard Marais, Paul Workman, Martin O Leach, Mounia Beloueche-Babari
Understanding the impact of BRAF signaling inhibition in human melanoma on key disease mechanisms is important for developing biomarkers of therapeutic response and combination strategies to improve long term disease control. This work investigates the downstream metabolic consequences of BRAF inhibition with vemurafenib, the molecular and biochemical processes that underpin them, their significance for antineoplastic activity and potential as non-invasive imaging response biomarkers.(1)H NMR spectroscopy showed that vemurafenib decreases the glycolytic activity of BRAF mutant (WM266...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Zhengwang Sun, Sang Yong Park, Eunson Hwang, Bom Park, Seul A Seo, Jin-Gyeong Cho, Mengyang Zhang, Tae-Hoo Yi
BACKGROUND: Foeniculum vulgare Mill (FV) has long been prescribed in traditional medicine due to its antioxidant anti-inflammatory properties. However, little research has been done on the use of FV to alleviate changes in UVB-induced photoaging PURPOSE: This study was to investigate the photoprotective effects and mechanism of FV in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The anti-photoaging effect of FV was assessed in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) in vitro. The secretion of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), GSH, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), procollagen type I, IL-6 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured by kits...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ingrid K Hals, Rinku Singh, Zuheng Ma, Hanne Scholz, Anneli Björklund, Valdemar Grill
We tested whether exposure of beta cells at reduced glucose leads to mitochondrial adaptions and whether such adaptions modulate effects of hypoxia. Rat islets, human islets and INS-1 832/13 cells were pre-cultured short term at half standard glucose concentrations (5.5 mM for rat islets and cells, 2.75 mM for human islets) without overtly negative effects on subsequently measured function (insulin secretion and cellular insulin contents) or on viability. Culture at half standard glucose upregulated complex I and tended to upregulate complex II in islets and INS-1 cells alike...
October 20, 2016: Islets
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