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MRSA bacteremia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067286/a-novel-chimeric-lysin-with-robust-antibacterial-activity-against-planktonic-and-biofilm-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Hang Yang, Huaidong Zhang, Jing Wang, Junping Yu, Hongping Wei
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most threatening pathogens due to its multi-drug resistance (MDR) and strong biofilm-forming capacity. Here, we described the screening of a novel chimeolysin (ClyF) that was active against planktonic and biofilm MRSA. Biochemical tests showed that ClyF was active against all S. aureus clinical isolates tested under planktonic and biofilm conditions. Structure analysis revealed that ClyF has an enhanced thermostability and pH tolerance than its parental lysin Pc by forming a hydrophobic cleft in the catalytic domain and an Ig-like structure in the cell-wall binding domain...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038791/combination-therapy-with-vancomycin-and-ceftaroline-for-refractory-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-a-case-series
#2
Diana Gritsenko, Marianna Fedorenko, Jorg J Ruhe, Jerry Altshuler
PURPOSE: Although vancomycin has been the mainstay of therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, its effectiveness has been challenged. Combination therapy may be used for patients with persistent MRSA bacteremia refractory to initial therapy. Studies have reported in vitro synergy between vancomycin and ceftaroline; however, clinical experience with this therapy is limited. Here, we report our experience with 5 cases of vancomycin-refractory MRSA bacteremia treated with the combination of vancomycin and ceftaroline...
December 27, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032484/treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#3
REVIEW
Eun Ju Choo, Henry F Chambers
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant cause of health care-associated infections. Vancomycin remains an acceptable treatment option. There has been a welcome increase in the number of agents available for the treatment of MRSA infection. These drugs have certain differentiating attributes and may offer some advantages over vancomycin, but they also have significant limitations. These agents provide some alternative when no other options are available.
December 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027279/the-influence-of-the-route-of-antibiotic-administration-methicillin-susceptibility-vancomycin-duration-and-serum-trough-concentration-on-outcomes-of-pediatric-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremic-osteoarticular-infection
#4
J Chase McNeil, Sheldon L Kaplan, Jesus G Vallejo
BACKGROUND: Bacteremia is often one factor used in deciding the need for prolonged intravenous antimicrobial therapy in osteoarticular infections (OAI). We examined treatment practices and outcomes of bacteremic S. aureus osteoarticular infections (BOAI) evaluated at Texas Children's Hospital (TCH). METHODS: Cases of acute hematogenous OAI in children with positive blood cultures for S. aureus at TCH from 2011-2014 were reviewed. Orthopedic complications included chronic osteomyelitis, growth arrest, pathologic fracture, avascular necrosis and chronic dislocation...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013263/invasive-systemic-infection-after-hospital-treatment-for-diabetic-foot-ulcer-risk-of-occurrence-and-effect-on-survival
#5
Shey-Ying Chen, John M Giurini, Adolf W Karchmer
BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) threaten limbs and prompt hospitalization. After hospitalization, remote-site invasive systemic infection related to DFU (DFU-ISI) may occur. The characteristics of DFU-ISIs and their effect on mortality risk have not been defined. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 819 diabetic patients hospitalized for treatment of 1212 unique DFUs during a 9-year period. We defined the index ulcer as that present at the first (index) DFU admission to our hospital...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929354/differences-in-mrsa-prevalence-and-resistance-patterns-in-a-tertiary-center-before-and-after-joining-an-international-program-for-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#6
Olivera Djuric, Snezana Jovanovic, Branka Stosovic, Tanja Tosic, Milica Jovanovic, Naomi Nartey, Jovana Todorovic, Ljiljana Markovic-Denic
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) emerged as one of the most important causes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (BSIs), especially the multidrug resistant clones. The aim of the present study was to compare prevalence and resistance patterns of MRSA bacteremia in the major tertiary-care academic and referral center in Serbia before and after implementing an active antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. Laboratory-based before-after study was conducted during a two-year period (January 2012 to December 2013) in Clinical Centre of Serbia...
December 8, 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914127/impact-of-initial-vancomycin-trough-concentration-on-clinical-and-microbiological-outcomes-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-children
#7
Ree Nar Yoo, Seo Hee Kim, Jina Lee
It is important to use vancomycin in a proper manner to ensure optimal drug exposure. Despite extensive use of vancomycin in children, studies on its optimal trough concentration (Ctrough) in the pediatric population remained rare. This retrospective study included children < 18 years old with culture-confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia who were hospitalized in our institute from January 2010 to April 2014. Clinical characteristics, initial vancomycin dose, Ctrough and clinical/microbiological outcomes were retrospectively collected from medical records...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870814/the-contemporary-microbiology-and-rates-of-concomitant-osteomyelitis-in-acute-septic-arthritis
#8
Jessica Branson, Jesus G Vallejo, Anthony R Flores, Kristina G Hulten, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan, J Chase McNeil
BACKGROUND: Septic arthritis (SA) and acute osteomyelitis (AO) are among the most common serious bacterial infections of childhood. Knowledge of the microbiology of SA is critical to treatment. Awareness of the presence of attendant AO is also important to guide clinical management. We sought to describe the current microbiology of SA in children as well as describe clinical features associated with coexisting AO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with SA were identified from the infectious diseases consult service records from 2010-2014...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767002/experience-with-rapid-microarray-based-diagnostic-technology-and-antimicrobial-stewardship-for-patients-with-gram-positive-bacteremia
#9
Elizabeth A Neuner, Andrea M Pallotta, Simon W Lam, David Stowe, Steven M Gordon, Gary W Procop, Sandra S Richter
OBJECTIVE To describe the impact of rapid diagnostic microarray technology and antimicrobial stewardship for patients with Gram-positive blood cultures. DESIGN Retrospective pre-intervention/post-intervention study. SETTING A 1,200-bed academic medical center. PATIENTS Inpatients with blood cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, Streptococcus spp., and Listeria monocytogenes during the 6 months before and after implementation of Verigene Gram-positive blood culture microarray (BC-GP) with an antimicrobial stewardship intervention...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765353/carnosic-acid-acts-synergistically-with-gentamicin-in-killing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clinical-isolates
#10
Nicolás M Vázquez, Graciela Fiorilli, Paulo A Cáceres Guido, Silvia Moreno
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to different commonly used antibiotics, stressing the need for further strategies to treat this human pathogen with worldwide prevalence. The use of phytochemicals within the current pharmacology is a promising approach to enhance the antimicrobial activity of common antibiotics in the battle against these bacteria. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effectiveness of carnosic acid, the major constituent of Rosmarinus officinalis L...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738564/hospital-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-related-to-medicare-antibiotic-prescriptions-a-state-level-analysis
#11
Bryce T Fukunaga, Wesley K Sumida, Deborah A Taira, James W Davis, Todd B Seto
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) results in almost half of all deaths caused by antibiotic resistant organisms. Current evidence suggests that MRSA infections are associated with antibiotic use. This study examined state-level data to determine whether outpatient antibiotic use was associated with hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) infections. The 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Healthcare-Associated Infections Progress Report was used to obtain HA-MRSA infection rates...
October 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736763/using-mrsa-screening-tests-to-predict-methicillin-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#12
Guillaume Butler-Laporte, Matthew P Cheng, Alexandre P Cheng, Emily G McDonald, Todd C Lee
Bloodstream infections with Staphylococcus aureus are clinically significant and are often treated with empirical methicillin resistance (MRSA, methicillin-resistant S. aureus) coverage. However, vancomycin has associated harms. We hypothesized that MRSA screening correlated with resistance in S. aureus bacteremia and could help determine the requirement for empirical vancomycin therapy. We reviewed consecutive S. aureus bacteremias over a 5-year period at two tertiary care hospitals. MRSA colonization was evaluated in three ways: as tested within 30 days of bacteremia (30-day criterion), as tested within 30 days but accounting for any prior positive results (ever-positive criterion), or as tested in known-positive patients, with patients with unknown MRSA status being labeled negative (known-positive criterion)...
December 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730778/antibiotic-lock-therapy-in-the-era-of-gram-negative-resistance
#13
Rajeev Soman, Neha Gupta, Mitesh Suthar, Jatin Kothari, Alan Almeida, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Central-line-associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI) is a highly consequential nosocomial infection. The most effective management includes the removal of the infected catheter. Retention of the catheter and antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) along with systemic antibiotics may be attempted only if there are unusual extenuating circumstances. CLABSIs due to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is more common in our setting and the organisms are often highly resistant. Hence, there is a need to explore the use of novel antimicrobials for catheter lock solutions along with antibiofilm agents...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709434/complete-adherence-to-evidence-based-quality-of-care-indicators-for-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-resulted-in-better-prognosis
#14
Miki Nagao, Masaki Yamamoto, Yasufumi Matsumura, Isao Yokota, Shunji Takakura, Satoshi Teramukai, Satoshi Ichiyama
PURPOSE: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a serious clinical condition associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have revealed that adherence to evidence-based quality-of-care indicators (QCIs) for the management of SAB could result in reduced mortality. We aimed to determine whether compliance with QCIs was associated with mortality and whether compliance with QCIs predicted the mortality of patients with SAB. METHODS: In a university hospital in Kyoto, Japan, SAB patients, who survived at least 14 days after positive blood cultures were analyzed from 2006 to 2014 to assess their compliance with QCIs and the trend in mortality...
October 5, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572414/cefazolin-and-ertapenem-a-synergistic-combination-used-to-clear-persistent-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#15
George Sakoulas, Joshua Olson, Juwon Yim, Niedita B Singh, Monika Kumaraswamy, Diana T Quach, Michael J Rybak, Joseph Pogliano, Victor Nizet
Ertapenem and cefazolin were used in combination to successfully clear refractory methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. In addition, recent work has demonstrated activity of combination therapy with beta-lactams from different classes against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The ertapenem-plus-cefazolin combination was evaluated for synergy in vitro and in vivo in a murine skin infection model using an index MSSA bloodstream isolate from a patient in whom persistent bacteremia was cleared with this combination and against a cadre of well-described research strains and clinical strains of MSSA and MRSA...
November 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571200/rapid-diagnosis-of-staphylococcal-catheter-related-bacteraemia-in-direct-blood-samples-by-real-time-pcr
#16
Yuliya Zboromyrska, Cristina De la Calle, Marcelo Soto, Laura Sampietro-Colom, Alex Soriano, Míriam José Alvarez-Martínez, Manel Almela, Francesc Marco, Ruth Arjona, Nazaret Cobos-Trigueros, Laura Morata, José Mensa, José Antonio Martínez, Aurea Mira, Jordi Vila
Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients, being staphylococci the main etiologic agents. The objective of this study was to assess the use of a PCR-based assay for detection of staphylococci directly from blood obtained through the catheter to diagnose CRB caused by these microorganisms and to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis. A total of 92 patients with suspected CRB were included in the study. Samples were obtained through the catheter...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533601/epidemiology-and-mortality-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-australian-and-new-zealand-children
#17
Brendan J McMullan, Asha Bowen, Christopher C Blyth, Sebastiaan Van Hal, Tony M Korman, Jim Buttery, Lesley Voss, Sally Roberts, Celia Cooper, Steven Y C Tong, John Turnidge
Importance: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in children causes significant morbidity and mortality, but the epidemiology in children is not well characterized. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of SAB in children and adolescents younger than 18 years from Australia and New Zealand. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study, using data from the Australian New Zealand Cooperative on Outcomes in Staphylococcal Sepsis cohort for 1153 children with SAB from birth to less than 18 years in pediatric and general hospitals across Australia and New Zealand, collected between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2012...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526714/staphylococcus-aureus-vaccines-deviating-from-the-carol
#18
REVIEW
Dominique Missiakas, Olaf Schneewind
Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal of the human nasopharynx and skin, also causes invasive disease, most frequently skin and soft tissue infections. Invasive disease caused by drug-resistant strains, designated MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), is associated with failure of antibiotic therapy and elevated mortality. Here we review polysaccharide-conjugate and subunit vaccines that were designed to prevent S. aureus infection in patients at risk of bacteremia or surgical wound infection but failed to reach their clinical endpoints...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522002/trends-in-antibiotic-resistance-among-major-bacterial-pathogens-isolated-from-blood-cultures-tested-at-a-large-private-laboratory-network-in-india-2008-2014
#19
Sumanth Gandra, Nestor Mojica, Eili Y Klein, Ashvin Ashok, Vidya Nerurkar, Mamta Kumari, Uma Ramesh, Sunanda Dey, Viral Vadwai, Bibhu R Das, Ramanan Laxminarayan
OBJECTIVE: There have been no long-term studies on trends in antibiotic resistance (ABR) on a national scale in India. Using a private laboratory network, the ABR patterns of organisms most commonly associated with bacteremia, obtained from patients across India between 2008 and 2014, were examined. METHODS: A retrospective study of patient blood cultures collected over a 7-year period (January 1, 2008-December 31, 2014) was conducted. Data on the microorganism(s) identified and their antimicrobial susceptibility were obtained from SRL Diagnostics (Mumbai, India)...
September 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520326/ceftaroline-as-salvage-monotherapy-for-persistent-mrsa-bacteremia-a-review-of-current-literature
#20
Yvonne J Burnett, Kelly Echevarria, Kristi A Traugott
OBJECTIVE: To summarize published data regarding the use of ceftaroline as salvage monotherapy for persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia. DATA SOURCES: PubMed (January 1980-June 2016) was searched using combinations of the search terms methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, bacteremia, ceftaroline, refractory, and persistent Supplemental references were generated through review of identified literature citations. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Available English-language, full-text articles pertaining to the use of ceftaroline for persistent MRSA bacteremia (MRSAB) were included...
August 12, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
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