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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528513/the-expansive-role-of-oxylipins-on-platelet-biology
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer Yeung, Megan Hawley, Michael Holinstat
In mammals, three major oxygenases, cyclooxygenases (COXs), lipoxygenases (LOXs), and cytochrome P450 (CYP450), generate an assortment of unique lipid mediators (oxylipins) from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) which exhibit pro- or anti-thrombotic activity. Over the years, novel oxylipins generated from the interplay of theoxygenase activity in various cells, such as the specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), have been identified and investigated in inflammatory disease models. Although platelets have been implicated in inflammation, the role and mechanism of these SPMs produced from immune cells on platelet function are still unclear...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524746/a-contemporary-profile-of-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-participants-from-the-narcoms-registry
#2
Amber Salter, Nina P Thomas, Tuula Tyry, Gary R Cutter, Ruth Ann Marrie
BACKGROUND: Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) represents 10%-15% of all multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnoses. Information regarding socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of persons with PPMS is limited. OBJECTIVE: To characterize persons with PPMS in the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry. METHODS: We compared demographic and health-related characteristics of NARCOMS Registry participants reporting PPMS in the spring 2015 update survey with those reporting relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), with characteristics of published PPMS cohorts...
May 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516804/spinal-cord-atrophy-as-a-primary-outcome-measure-in-phase-ii-trials-of-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Niamh Cawley, Carmen Tur, Ferran Prados, Domenico Plantone, Hugh Kearney, Khaled Abdel-Aziz, Sebastian Ourselin, Claudia Am Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, David H Miller, Alan J Thompson, Olga Ciccarelli
OBJECTIVES: To measure the development of spinal cord (SC) atrophy over 1 year in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS) and determine the sample sizes required to demonstrate a reduction in spinal cord cross-sectional area (SC-CSA) as an outcome measure in clinical trials. METHODS: In total, 44 PMS patients (26 primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), 18 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS)) and 29 healthy controls (HCs) were studied at baseline and 12 months...
May 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507800/formyl-peptide-receptor-1-suppresses-gastric-cancer-angiogenesis-and-growth-by-exploiting-inflammation-resolution-pathways
#4
Nella Prevete, Federica Liotti, Anna Illiano, Angela Amoresano, Piero Pucci, Amato de Paulis, Rosa Marina Melillo
Chronic inflammation can result from inadequate engagement of resolution mechanisms, mainly accomplished by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) arising from the metabolic activity of lipoxygenases (ALOX5/15) on ω-6 or ω-3 essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We previously demonstrated that formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) suppresses gastric cancer (GC) by inhibiting its inflammatory/angiogenic potential. In this study, we asked whether FPR1 exploits inflammation resolution pathways to suppress GC angiogenesis and growth...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500069/b-cell-activity-is-impaired-in-human-and-mouse-obesity-and-is-responsive-to-an-essential-fatty-acid-upon-murine-influenza-infection
#5
Rasagna Kosaraju, William Guesdon, Miranda J Crouch, Heather L Teague, E Madison Sullivan, Erik A Karlsson, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Kymberly Gowdy, Lance C Bridges, Lauren R Reese, P Darrell Neufer, Michael Armstrong, Nichole Reisdorph, J Justin Milner, Melinda Beck, Saame Raza Shaikh
Obesity is associated with increased risk for infections and poor responses to vaccinations, which may be due to compromised B cell function. However, there is limited information about the influence of obesity on B cell function and underlying factors that modulate B cell responses. Therefore, we studied B cell cytokine secretion and/or Ab production across obesity models. In obese humans, B cell IL-6 secretion was lowered and IgM levels were elevated upon ex vivo anti-BCR/TLR9 stimulation. In murine obesity induced by a high fat diet, ex vivo IgM and IgG were elevated with unstimulated B cells...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487188/poly-acrylic-acid-microspheres-loaded-with-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-for-transcatheter-arterial-embolization-and-mri-detectability-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#6
Zi-Yuan Li, Xiao-Ya Qin, Li-Ying Guo, Huan Wang, Xiao-Xin Liu, Zhuo-Zhao Zheng, Hai-Tao Guan, Li Song, Ying-Hua Zou, Tian-Yuan Fan
To develop embolic microspheres with MRI detectability, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized and mixed with monomer of acrylic acid to prepare SPIONs-loaded polymerized microspheres (SPMs) by inverse suspension polymerization method. The SPMs were evaluated for the ability of embolization by investigating the morphology, particle size, elasticity and renal arterial embolization to rabbits. Meanwhile, the loading of SPIONs was verified by optical microscope, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the content of SPIONs in SPMs was measured quantitatively...
May 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485361/second-primary-malignancy-a-retrospective-analysis-report-from-a-tertiary-cancer-center-of-north-india
#7
D Sharma, G Singh, N Kakkar, S Raj
AIM OF STUDY: We analyzed the data of second primary malignancy (SPM) from one of the tertiary cancer centers of North India, and the basic aim was to retrieve incidence, prognosis, and outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Radiation Oncology in a tertiary cancer center between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2015. A total of 6000 cases of cancer were analyzed, out of which cases who presented with histological proven synchronous SPM were included in this study...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479307/specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-in-renal-fibrosis
#8
REVIEW
Eoin P Brennan, Antonino Cacace, Catherine Godson
Inflammation and its timely resolution play a critical role in effective host defence and wound healing. Unresolved inflammatory responses underlie the pathology of many prevalent diseases resulting in tissue fibrosis and eventual organ failure as typified by kidney, lung and liver fibrosis. The role of autocrine and paracrine mediators including cytokines, prostaglandins and leukotrienes in initiating and sustaining inflammation is well established. More recently a physiological role for specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators [SPMs] in modulating inflammatory responses and promoting the resolution of inflammation has been appreciated...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467982/adenosine-triphosphate-metabolism-measured-by-phosphorus-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-potential-biomarker-for-multiple-sclerosis-severity
#9
Paul Kauv, Samar S Ayache, Alain Créange, Moussa A Chalah, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Jérôme Hodel, Pierre Brugières
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) has previously shown abnormal changes in energy metabolites in the brain of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, the relationship between these energy metabolites - particularly adenosine triphosphate (ATP) - and the disease severity remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether measuring ATP metabolites can help to predict disease severity in MS patients. METHODS: 31P-MRS at 3 tesla was performed in 9 relapsing remitting (RRMS), 9 secondary progressive MS patients (SPMS), and 10 age-matched healthy controls...
May 4, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455709/f4-80-as-a-major-macrophage-marker-the-case-of-the-peritoneum-and-spleen
#10
Alexandra Dos Anjos Cassado
Tissue macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population residing in all body tissues that contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis and trigger immune activation in response to injurious stimuli. This heterogeneity may be associated with tissue-specific functions; however, the presence of distinct macrophage populations within the same microenvironment indicates that macrophage heterogeneity may also be influenced outside of tissue specialization. The F4/80 molecule was established as a unique marker of murine macrophages when a monoclonal antibody was found to recognize an antigen exclusively expressed by these cells...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455109/bronchoprotective-mechanisms-for-specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-in-the-resolution-of-lung-inflammation
#11
REVIEW
Melody G Duvall, Thayse R Bruggemann, Bruce D Levy
Bronchi are exposed daily to irritants, microbes and allergens as well as extremes of temperature and acid. The airway mucosal epithelium plays a pivotal role as a sentinel, releasing alarmins when danger is encountered. To maintain homeostasis, an elaborate counter-regulatory network of signals and cellular effector mechanisms are needed. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) are chemical mediators that enact resolution programs in response to injury, infection or allergy. SPMs are enzymatically derived from essential polyunsaturated fatty acids with potent cell-type specific immunoresolvent properties...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450270/pro-resolution-therapeutics-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Justin Heinz, Michael Marinello, Gabrielle Fredman
Studies over the last couple of decades suggest that failed resolution of a chronic inflammatory response is an important driving force in the progression of atherosclerosis. Resolution of inflammation is mediated in part by lipid-derived specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) such as lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins. The major functions of SPMs are to quell inflammation and repair tissue damage in a manner that does not compromise host defense. An imbalance between SPMs and pro-inflammatory mediators like leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are associated with several prevalent human diseases, including atherosclerosis...
April 24, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442547/biosynthesis-of-proresolving-lipid-mediators-by-vascular-cells-and-tissues
#13
Anuran Chatterjee, Sevan Komshian, Brian E Sansbury, Bian Wu, Giorgio Mottola, Mian Chen, Matthew Spite, Michael S Conte
Recent evidence suggests that specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs) generated from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can modulate the vascular injury response. However, cellular sources for these autacoids within the vessel wall remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether isolated vascular cells and tissues can produce SPMs and assessed expression and subcellular localization of the key SPM biosynthetic enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) in vascular cells. Intact human arteries incubated with DHA ex vivo produced 17-hydroxy DHA (17-HDHA) and D-series resolvins, as assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
April 25, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429241/pharmacological-approaches-to-the-management-of-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#14
REVIEW
A Nandoskar, J Raffel, A S Scalfari, T Friede, R S Nicholas
It is well recognised that the majority of the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS), both personal and societal, arises in the progressive phase where disability accumulates inexorably. As such, progressive MS (PMS) has been the target of pharmacological therapies for many years. However, there are no current licensed treatments for PMS. This stands in marked contrast to relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) where trials have resulted in numerous licensed therapies. PMS has proven to be a more difficult challenge compared to RRMS and this review focuses on secondary progressive MS (SPMS), where relapses occur before the onset of gradual, irreversible disability, and not primary progressive MS where disability accumulation occurs without prior relapses...
May 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426850/second-primary-malignant-neoplasms-and-survival-in-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-survivors
#15
Theresa H M Keegan, Archie Bleyer, Aaron S Rosenberg, Qian Li, Melanie Goldfarb
Importance: Although the increased incidence of second primary malignant neoplasms (SPMs) is a well-known late effect after cancer, few studies have compared survival after an SPM to survival of the same cancer occurring as first primary malignant neoplasm (PM) by age. Objective: To assess the survival impact of SPMs in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) (15-39 years) compared with that of pediatric (<15 years) and older adult (≥40 years) patients with the same SPMs...
April 20, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396953/autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-comparison-with-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Bonaventura Casanova, Isidro Jarque, Francisco Gascón, Juan Carlos Hernández-Boluda, Francisco Pérez-Miralles, Javier de la Rubia, Carmen Alcalá, Jaime Sanz, Javier Mallada, Angeles Cervelló, Arantxa Navarré, María Carcelén-Gadea, Isabel Boscá, Sara Gil-Perotin, Carlos Solano, Miguel Angel Sanz, Francisco Coret
The main objective of our work is to describe the long-term results of myeloablative autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHSCT) in multiple sclerosis patients. Patients that failed to conventional therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) underwent an approved protocol for AHSCT, which consisted of peripheral blood stem cell mobilization with cyclophosphamide and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), followed by a conditioning regimen of BCNU, Etoposide, Ara-C, Melphalan IV, plus Rabbit Thymoglobulin...
April 10, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396625/cd133-positive-membrane-particles-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-inflammatory-and-degenerative-neurological-diseases
#17
Tobias Bobinger, Lisa May, Hannes Lücking, Stephan P Kloska, Petra Burkardt, Philipp Spitzer, Juan M Maler, Denis Corbeil, Hagen B Huttner
Background: Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a frequently used diagnostic tool in a variety of neurological diseases. Recent studies suggested that investigating membrane particles enriched with the stem cell marker CD133 may offer new avenues for studying neurological disease. In this study, we evaluated the amount of membrane particle-associated CD133 in human CSF in neuroinflammatory and degenerative diseases. Methods: We compared the amount of membrane particle-associated CD133 in CSF samples collected from 45 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus, parkinsonism, dementia, and cognitive impairment, chronic inflammatory diseases and 10 healthy adult individuals as controls...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384363/risk-of-second-primary-malignancies-among-patients-with-prostate-cancer-a-population-based-cohort-study
#18
Chao-Yueh Fan, Wen-Yen Huang, Chun-Shu Lin, Yu-Fu Su, Cheng-Hsiang Lo, Chih-Cheng Tsao, Ming-Yueh Liu, Cheng-Li Lin, Chia-Hung Kao
PURPOSE: The rising incidence and life expectancy associated with prostate cancer (PCa) has led to increasing interest in predicting the risk of second primary malignancies (SPMs) among PCa survivors, although data regarding SPMs after PCa are controversial. METHODS: We identified 30,964 patients from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan who had newly diagnosed PCa between 2000 and 2010. Each patient was randomly frequency-matched with an individual without PCa, based on age, comorbidity, and index year...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381130/pilot-trial-of-intravenous-autologous-culture-expanded-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Jeffrey A Cohen, Peter B Imrey, Sarah M Planchon, Robert A Bermel, Elizabeth Fisher, Robert J Fox, Amit Bar-Or, Susan L Sharp, Thomai T Skaramagas, Patricia Jagodnik, Matt Karafa, Shannon Morrison, Jane Reese Koc, Stanton L Gerson, Hillard M Lazarus
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit immunomodulatory, tissue-protective, and repair-promoting properties in vitro and in animals. Clinical trials in several human conditions support the safety and efficacy of MSC transplantation. Published experience in multiple sclerosis (MS) is modest. OBJECTIVE: To assess feasibility, safety, and tolerability and explore efficacy of autologous MSC transplantation in MS. METHODS: Participants with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), Expanded Disability Status Scale score 3...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373478/second-primary-malignancy-in-bladder-carcinoma-a-population-based-study
#20
Amit Khanal, Nibash Budhathoki, Vijay Pal Singh, Binay K Shah
BACKGROUND: A second primary malignancy is a serious long-term complication in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of second primary malignancies (SPM) in adult patients with bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected patients ≥18 years diagnosed with bladder cancer from National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 13 database. We calculated the risk of second primary malignancies in the bladder cancer patients using the MP-SIR session of SEER*stat software...
April 2017: Anticancer Research
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