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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145463/the-chicken-or-the-egg-exploring-bi-directional-associations-between-newcastle-disease-vaccination-and-village-chicken-flock-size-in-rural-tanzania
#1
Julia de Bruyn, Peter C Thomson, Brigitte Bagnol, Wende Maulaga, Elpidius Rukambile, Robyn G Alders
Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145025/coupling-of-on-column-trypsin-digestion-peptide-mapping-and-principal-component-analysis-for-stability-and-biosimilarity-assessment-of-recombinant-human-growth-hormone
#2
Sara M Shatat, Basma M Eltanany, Abeer A Mohamed, Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Faten A Fathalla, Samah S Abbas
Peptide mapping (PM) is a vital technique in biopharmaceutical industry. The fingerprint obtained helps to qualitatively confirm host stability as well as verify primary structure, purity and integrity of the target protein. Yet, in-solution digestion followed by tandem mass spectrometry is not suitable as a routine quality control test. It is time consuming and requires sophisticated, expensive instruments and highly skilled operators. In an attempt to enhance the fuctionality of PM and extract multi-dimentional data about various critical quality attributes and comparability of biosimilars, coupling of PM generated using immobilized trypsin followed by HPLC-UV to principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144973/orbitofrontal-cortex-a-neural-circuit-for-economic-decisions
#3
REVIEW
Camillo Padoa-Schioppa, Katherine E Conen
Economic choice behavior entails the computation and comparison of subjective values. A central contribution of neuroeconomics has been to show that subjective values are represented explicitly at the neuronal level. With this result at hand, the field has increasingly focused on the difficult question of where in the brain and how exactly subjective values are compared to make a decision. Here, we review a broad range of experimental and theoretical results suggesting that good-based decisions are generated in a neural circuit within the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144720/cost-effectiveness-of-gammacore-non-invasive-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-acute-treatment-of-episodic-cluster-headache
#4
Mkaya Mwamburi, Eric J Liebler, Andrew T Tenaglia
Cluster headache is a debilitating disease characterized by excruciatingly painful attacks that affects 0.15% to 0.4% of the US population. Episodic cluster headache manifests as circadian and circannual seasonal bouts of attacks, each lasting 15 to 180 minutes, with periods of remission. In chronic cluster headache, the attacks occur throughout the year with no periods of remission. While existing treatments are effective for some patients, many patients continue to suffer. There are only 2 FDA-approved medications for episodic cluster headache in the United States, while others, such as high-flow oxygen, are used off-label...
November 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144416/environmental-risks-associated-with-symptoms-of-acute-respiratory-infection-among-preschool-children-in-north-western-and-south-southern-nigeria-communities
#5
Oluwafunmilade A Adesanya, Chi Chiao
The exposure-disease-stress model places young children in their physical and social contexts and considers the extent and intensity of associational links to symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), taking in to account a range of biological, social, and environment components. This study uses the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey to assess the individual and environmental risks present in the North-Western and South-Southern Nigerian communities and examines their associations with ARI symptoms...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144284/integrated-assessment-and-scenarios-simulation-of-urban-water-security-system-in-the-southwest-of-china-with-system-dynamics-analysis
#6
Su Yin, Guan Dongjie, Su Weici, Gao Weijun
The demand for global freshwater is growing, while global freshwater available for human use is limited within a certain time and space. Its security has significant impacts on both the socio-economic system and ecological system. Recently, studies have focused on the urban water security system (UWSS) in terms of either water quantity or water quality. In this study, water resources, water environment, and water disaster issues in the UWSS were combined to establish an evaluation index system with system dynamics (SD) and geographic information systems (GIS)...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144222/child-language-and-parenting-antecedents-and-externalizing-outcomes-of-emotion-regulation-pathways-across-early-childhood-a-person-centered-approach
#7
Jason José Bendezú, Pamela M Cole, Patricia Z Tan, Laura Marie Armstrong, Elizabeth B Reitz, Rachel M Wolf
Decreases in children's anger reactivity because of the onset of their autonomous use of strategies characterizes the prevailing model of the development of emotion regulation in early childhood (Kopp, 1989). There is, however, limited evidence of the varied pathways that mark this development and their proposed antecedents and consequences. This study used a person-centered approach to identify such pathways, antecedents, and outcomes. A sample of 120 children from economically strained rural and semirural households were observed while waiting to open a gift at ages 24, 36, and 48 months...
November 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143932/forecasting-carbon-dioxide-emissions-based-on-a-hybrid-of-mixed-data-sampling-regression-model-and-back-propagation-neural-network-in-the-usa
#8
Xin Zhao, Meng Han, Lili Ding, Adrian Cantemir Calin
The accurate forecast of carbon dioxide emissions is critical for policy makers to take proper measures to establish a low carbon society. This paper discusses a hybrid of the mixed data sampling (MIDAS) regression model and BP (back propagation) neural network (MIDAS-BP model) to forecast carbon dioxide emissions. Such analysis uses mixed frequency data to study the effects of quarterly economic growth on annual carbon dioxide emissions. The forecasting ability of MIDAS-BP is remarkably better than MIDAS, ordinary least square (OLS), polynomial distributed lags (PDL), autoregressive distributed lags (ADL), and auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) models...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143711/defining-the-breeding-goal-for-a-sheep-breed-including-production-and-functional-traits-using-market-data
#9
A Theodoridis, A Ragkos, G Rose, D Roustemis, G Arsenos
In this study, the economic values for production and functional traits of dairy sheep are estimated through the application of a profit function model using farm-level technical and economic data. The traits incorporated in the model were milk production, prolificacy, fertility, milking speed, longevity and mastitis occurrence. The economic values for these traits were derived as the approximate partial derivative of the specified profit function. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted in order to examine how potential changes in input and output prices would affect the breeding goal...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143703/dose-response-evaluation-of-the-standardized-ileal-digestible-tryptophan-lysine-ratio-to-maximize-growth-performance-of-growing-finishing-gilts-under-commercial-conditions
#10
M A D Gonçalves, M D Tokach, N M Bello, K J Touchette, R D Goodband, J M DeRouchey, J C Woodworth, S S Dritz
Environmental regulations as well as economic incentives have resulted in greater use of synthetic amino acids in swine diets. Tryptophan is typically the second limiting amino acid in corn-soybean meal-based diets. However, using corn-based co-products emphasizes the need to evaluate the pig's response to increasing Trp concentrations. Therefore, the objective of these studies was to evaluate the dose-response to increasing standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp : Lys on growth performance of growing-finishing gilts housed under large-scale commercial conditions...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143701/modelling-interactions-between-farmer-practices-and-fattening-pig-performances-with-an-individual-based-model
#11
A Cadéro, A Aubry, L Brossard, J Y Dourmad, Y Salaün, F Garcia-Launay
European pig production continues to encounter economic and environmental challenges. To address these issues, methods have been developed to assess performances of pig production systems. Recent studies indicate that considering variability in performances among pigs improves the accuracy and reliability of results compared with modelling an average animal. Our objective was to develop a pig fattening unit model able to (i) simulate individual pig performances, including their variability in interaction with farmers' practices and management, and (ii) assess their effects on technical, economic and environmental performances...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143675/economic-evaluations-of-hbv-testing-and-treatment-strategies-and-applicability-to-low-and-middle-income-countries
#12
REVIEW
Shevanthi Nayagam, Elisa Sicuri, Maud Lemoine, Philippa Easterbrook, Lesong Conteh, Timothy B Hallett, Mark Thursz
BACKGROUND: Many people living with chronic HBV infection remain undiagnosed until later stages of disease. Increasing testing and treatment rates form part of the strategy to respond to the WHO goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. However, achieving these ambitious targets is dependent on finding effective and cost-effective methods of scale up strategies. The aim of this study was to undertake a narrative review of the literature on economic evaluations of testing and treatment for HBV infection, to help inform the development of the 2017 WHO Hepatitis Testing Guidelines...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143627/conceptualizing-pathways-linking-women-s-empowerment-and-prematurity-in-developing-countries
#13
Patience A Afulani, Molly Altman, Joseph Musana, May Sudhinaraset
BACKGROUND: Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5. Many efforts have focused on clinical approaches to improve the survival of premature babies. There is a need, however, to explore psychosocial, sociocultural, economic, and other factors as potential mechanisms to reduce the burden of prematurity. Women's empowerment may be a catalyst for moving the needle in this direction. The goal of this paper is to examine links between women's empowerment and prematurity in developing settings...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143531/the-population-mean-mood-predicts-the-prevalence-of-depression-in-an-australian-context
#14
Aaron D Sia, Lana J Williams, Julie A Pasco, Felice N Jacka, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, J Lennert Veerman
BACKGROUND: The mean population mood has been demonstrated to strongly correlate with the prevalence of depression in European populations. Mean population mood has, therefore, been proposed as both a metric to measure the impact of population-level interventions to prevent depression and a target for public health policy. AIM: To demonstrate the relationship between mean population mood and the prevalence of depression using Australian data in order to broaden the applicability of this finding to the Australian population...
November 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141814/the-impact-of-treatment-adherence-on-clinical-and-economic-outcomes-in-multiple-sclerosis-real-world-evidence-from-alberta-canada
#15
Brittany Gerber, Tara Cowling, Guanmin Chen, Michael Yeung, Pierre Duquette, Paola Haddad
BACKGROUND: Approximately 1 in 400 Albertans has multiple sclerosis (MS). The current study objective was to determine the real-world impact of adherence to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) on healthcare utilization and costs among MS patients utilizing administrative data from the Alberta health system in Canada. METHODS: MS patients were identified using a validated case definition (≥ 1 inpatient record or ≥ 5 practitioner claims within 2 years) and the study index DMT was defined as the first claim for a DMT between 1 April 2011 and 31 March 2014...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141680/applying-a-community-based-participatory-research-approach-to-improve-access-to-healthcare-for-eritrean-asylum-seekers-in-israel-a-pilot-study
#16
Nora Gottlieb, Tomer Weinstein, Jonah Mink, Habtom M Ghebrezghiabher, Zebib Sultan, Rachel Reichlin
BACKGROUND: Israel hosts approximately 50,000 asylum seekers, most of them from Eritrea. Exclusive policies restrict their access to healthcare. In 2013, local activists partnered with Eritrean asylum seekers to assess health needs as well as willingness to pay for health insurance among the Eritrean communities. This initiative was meant as a step towards jointly advocating access to Israel's public healthcare system and towards strengthening collective efficacy among the asylum-seeking communities, as well as a first attempt to apply a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to migrant health research in Israel...
November 15, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141675/delayed-initiation-of-antenatal-care-and-associated-factors-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Gezahegn Tesfaye, Deborah Loxton, Catherine Chojenta, Agumasie Semahegn, Roger Smith
BACKGROUND: Antenatal care uptake is among the key indicators for monitoring the progress of maternal outcomes. Early initiation of antenatal care facilitates the timely management and treatment of pregnancy complications to reduce maternal deaths. In Ethiopia, antenatal care utilization is generally low, and delayed initiation of care is very common. We aimed to systematically identify and synthesize available evidence on delayed initiation of antenatal care and the associated factors in Ethiopia...
November 15, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141327/-gender-differences-in-stressful-life-events-and-depression-in-chinese-adults-aged-30-79-years
#18
M Wu, J C Li, C Q Yu, Y P Chen, J Lyu, Y Guo, Z Bian, Y L Tan, P Pei, J S Chen, Z M Chen, L M Li
Objective: To investigate gender specific differences in the association between stressful life events (SLEs) and depression in Chinese adults aged 30-79 years. Methods: In the baseline survey during 2004-2008, the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) recruited 512 891 men and women aged 30-79 years from 10 areas of China. Detailed information on SLEs, including demographic and socio-economic status, smoking, alcohol drinking and history of chronic disease, as well as depression symptoms and major depressive episodes (MDEs) in preceding 12 months, was collected by using standardized questionnaire...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140987/dating-the-beginning-of-the-roman-viticultural-model-in-the-western-mediterranean-the-case-study-of-chianti-central-italy
#19
Riccardo Aversano, Boris Basile, Mauro Paolo Buonincontri, Francesca Carucci, Domenico Carputo, Luigi Frusciante, Gaetano Di Pasquale
Although domestication of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has been extensively documented, the history of genotype selection and evolution of vineyard management remain relatively neglected fields of study. The find of 454 waterlogged grapevine pips from a well-dated Etrusco-Roman site in the Chianti district (Tuscany, Central Italy) is an extraordinary chance to gain insights into the progress of viticulture occurring in a key historical period in one of the world's most famous wine regions. The molecular and geometrical analyses of grape seeds showed (a) the presence in the site of different grapevine individuals and (b) a sudden increase in pip size, occurring at around 200 BC, whic explainable by the selection and introduction of new varieties...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140945/a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-the-incidence-health-care-resource-utilization-and-costs-of-international-classification-of-diseases-clinical-modification-9th-revision-diagnosed-influenza-and-related-complications-in-us-children
#20
Philip O Buck, David M Smith, Rahul Shenolikar, Debra E Irwin
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on the clinical and economic impact of seasonal influenza in children. This study estimated the incidence of diagnosed influenza and related complications and associated health care resource utilization and costs in US children. METHODS: Children ≥6 months and <18 years old diagnosed with influenza using International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification, 9th revision codes and enrolled in a health plan during at least one influenza season between 2010 and 2014 were matched to similar patients without diagnosed influenza (GSK study identifier: HO-15-15728)...
December 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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