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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735376/the-socio-economic-impact-of-bariatric-surgery
#1
Arendse Tange Larsen, Betina Højgaard, Rikke Ibsen, Jakob Kjellberg
INTRODUCTION: A recurring argument for bariatric surgery is cost savings due to sustained weight loss and reductions in comorbidities. However, studies prompting this argument tend to focus only on health care costs, and in some of them, cost changes after surgery have been modelled. The aim of this study was to generate real-world evidence on the socio-economic impact of bariatric surgery, by evaluating the effect on both direct and indirect costs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using real-world data from national registries, predictions of health care costs, social transfer payments and income were performed for a surgically treated individual and compared to those for a similar but non-surgically treated individual 3 years before and after surgery...
July 22, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735163/multidimensional-human-capital-formation-in-a-developing-country-health-cognition-and-locus-of-control-in-the-philippines
#2
Kira M Villa
Economic success depends on multiple human capital stocks whose production is interrelated and occurs over many life stages. Yet, much empirical work fails to account for human capital's multidimensional nature and limits its focus to specific childhood stages. Using longitudinal data from the Philippines, I estimate a model of multidimensional human capital formation from birth through adulthood where health, cognitive, and noncognitive dimensions are jointly produced. I examine during which developmental stages parental investment is most influential and address the endogeneity of investment using a policy function where investment depends on child characteristics, exogenous conditions at birth and local prices...
July 8, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734126/german-estsmoke-estimating-adult-smoking-related-costs-and-consequences-of-smoking-cessation-for-germany
#3
Diana Sonntag, Simon Gilbody, Winkler Volker, Shehzad Ali
AIMS: We compared predicted lifetime health care costs for current, never and ex-smokers in Germany under the current set of tobacco control polices. We compared these economic consequences of the current situation with an alternative in which Germany were to implement more comprehensive tobacco control policies consistent with the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) guidelines. DESIGN: German EstSmoke, an adapted version of the UK EstSmoke simulation model, applies the Markov modelling approach...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734057/major-life-events-and-risk-of-alcohol-use-disorders-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Emilie Just-Østergaard, Erik L Mortensen, Trine Flensborg-Madsen
AIMS: To estimate associations of individual major life events as well as accumulated major life events in childhood, adult private life and adult work life with risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with baseline examination in 1991-93 and linkage to national registers to identify AUD at follow-up. SETTING: Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals (aged 21 to 93 years) who participated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1991-93 (n=8,758)...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734037/setting-up-a-pediatric-robotic-urology-program-a-usa-institution-experience
#5
REVIEW
Prithvi B Murthy, Eric D Schadler, Marcelo Orvieto, Gregory Zagaja, Arieh L Shalhav, Mohan S Gundeti
Implementing a robotic urological surgery program requires institutional support, and necessitates a comprehensive, detail-oriented plan that accounts for training, oversight, cost and case volume. Given the prevalence of robotic surgery in adult urology, in many instances it might be feasible to implement a pediatric robotic urology program within the greater context of adult urology. This involves, from an institutional standpoint, proportional distribution of equipment cost and operating room time. However, the pediatric urology team primarily determines goals for volume expansion, operative case selection, resident training and surgical innovation within the specialty...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733919/substance-use-violence-and-antiretroviral-adherence-a-latent-class-analysis-of-women-living-with-hiv-in-canada
#6
Allison Carter, Eric Abella Roth, Erin Ding, M-J Milloy, Mary Kestler, Shahab Jabbari, Kath Webster, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Mona Loutfy, Angela Kaida
We used latent class analysis to identify substance use patterns for 1363 women living with HIV in Canada and assessed associations with socio-economic marginalization, violence, and sub-optimal adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). A six-class model was identified consisting of: abstainers (26.3%), Tobacco Users (8.81%), Alcohol Users (31.9%), 'Socially Acceptable' Poly-substance Users (13.9%), Illicit Poly-substance Users (9.81%) and Illicit Poly-substance Users of All Types (9.27%). Multinomial logistic regression showed that women experiencing recent violence had significantly higher odds of membership in all substance use latent classes, relative to Abstainers, while those reporting sub-optimal cART adherence had higher odds of being members of the poly-substance use classes only...
July 21, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733844/polyamine-binding-protein-potd2-is-required-for-stress-tolerance-and-virulence-in-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#7
Zhuang Zhu, Qin Zhao, Yu Zhao, Fei Zhang, Xintian Wen, Xiaobo Huang, Yiping Wen, Rui Wu, Qigui Yan, Yong Huang, Xiaoping Ma, Xinfeng Han, Sanjie Cao
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the cause of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, which is one of the most important respiratory diseases in swine and causes huge economic losses in the swine industry. PotD, a polyamine-binding protein, has been well characterised in many pathogens of humans and animals. In this study, a ΔpotD2 mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae strain MS71 (serovar 1) was constructed successfully by homologous recombination. Growth curves of different strains showed that the growth of the ΔpotD2 mutant was affected greatly in the logarithmic phase compared with that of parental strain...
July 21, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733280/construction-and-optimization-of-a-heterologous-pathway-for-protocatechuate-catabolism-in-escherichia-coli-enables-bioconversion-of-model-aromatic-compounds
#8
Sonya M Clarkson, Richard J Giannone, Donna M Kridelbaugh, James G Elkins, Adam M Guss, Joshua K Michener
The production of biofuels from lignocellulose yields a substantial lignin byproduct stream that currently has few applications. Biological conversion of lignin-derived compounds into chemicals and fuels has the potential to improve the economics of lignocellulose-derived biofuels, but few microbes are able both to catabolize lignin-derived aromatic compounds and generate valuable products. While Escherichia coli has been engineered to produce a variety of fuels and chemicals, it is incapable of catabolizing most aromatic compounds...
July 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732033/spatial-and-simultaneous-representative-seroprevalence-of-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-owners-and-their-domiciled-dogs-in-a-major-city-of-southern-brazil
#9
Aline do Nascimento Benitez, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Marcelle Mareze, Nelson Jessé Rodrigues Santos, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Camila Marinelli Martins, João Luis Garcia, Regina Mitsuka-Breganó, Roberta Lemos Freire, Alexander Welker Biondo, Italmar Teodorico Navarro
Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has traditionally been considered an important water and foodborne protozoonosis with important public health considerations. Although felids play a well-established role as definitive hosts, canine epidemiological involvement in the parasite's life cycle remains questionable and controversial. The increasing closeness of the human-dog bond, particularly seen in urban settings, has been recognized as a historically unprecedented worldwide movement. Sharing daily lives in the same households, dogs may be exposed to similar associated risks of T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732032/individual-and-area-level-characteristics-associated-with-alcohol-related-mortality-among-adult-lithuanian-males-a-multilevel-analysis-based-on-census-linked-data
#10
Pavel Grigoriev, Domantas Jasilionis, Daumantas Stumbrys, Vladislava Stankūnienė, Vladimir M Shkolnikov
BACKGROUND: Although excessive alcohol-related mortality in the post-Soviet countries remains the major public health threat, determinants of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. AIMS: We assess simultaneously individual- and area-level factors associated with an elevated risk of alcohol-related mortality among Lithuanian males aged 30-64. METHODS: Our analysis is based on a census-linked dataset containing information on individual- and area-level characteristics and death events which occurred between March 1st, 2011 and December 31st, 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731146/aberrant-expression-of-rsk4-in-breast-cancer-and-its-role-in-the-regulation-of-tumorigenicity
#11
Yi Jiang, Xinqing Ye, Yinan Ji, Xiao Zhou, Huawei Yang, Wei Wei, Qiuyun Li
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in both more and less economically developed countries and remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. In this study, to explore the expression and pathological role of RSK4 in breast cancer progression, we demonstrated that RSK4 expression was significantly decreased in breast cancer cells and tissues, and the overexpression of RSK4 in MDA‑MB‑231 cells inhibited cell migration and invasion. In a mouse model experiment, overexpression of RSK4 in mice further confirmed its critical role in regulating breast cancer tumorigenicity...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730890/the-biopsychosocial-model-of-illness-a-model-whose-time-has-come
#12
Derick T Wade, Peter W Halligan
The biopsychosocial model outlined in Engel's classic Science paper four decades ago emerged from dissatisfaction with the biomedical model of illness, which remains the dominant healthcare model. Engel's call to arms for a biopsychosocial model has been taken up in several healthcare fields, but it has not been accepted in the more economically dominant and politically powerful acute medical and surgical domains. It is widely used in research into complex healthcare interventions, it is the basis of the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning (WHO ICF), it is used clinically, and it is used to structure clinical guidelines...
August 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730671/many-faces-of-rationality-implications-of-the-great-rationality-debate-for-clinical-decision-making
#13
Benjamin Djulbegovic, Shira Elqayam
Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730077/proteomic-profiling-of-early-degenerative-retina-of-rcs-rats
#14
Zhi-Hong Zhu, Yan Fu, Chuan-Huang Weng, Cong-Jian Zhao, Zheng-Qin Yin
AIM: To identify the underlying cellular and molecular changes in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS: Label-free quantification-based proteomics analysis, with its advantages of being more economic and consisting of simpler procedures, has been used with increasing frequency in modern biological research. Dystrophic RCS rats, the first laboratory animal model for the study of RP, possess a similar pathological course as human beings with the diseases. Thus, we employed a comparative proteomics analysis approach for in-depth proteome profiling of retinas from dystrophic RCS rats and non-dystrophic congenic controls through Linear Trap Quadrupole - orbitrap MS/MS, to identify the significant differentially expressed proteins (DEPs)...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729843/is-a-transdisciplinary-theory-of-engagement-in-organized-settings-possible-a-concept-analysis-of-the-literature-on-employee-engagement-consumer-engagement-and-patient-engagement
#15
REVIEW
Guendalina Graffigna
Organizations are experiencing increased competition, disruptive innovation, and continuous changes in their social and economic context. Furthermore, the decrease of resources (economic and human) in such a demanding context make it imperative for organizations to find new models and strategies to make their service delivery more sustainable at the economic, environmental and psychological levels. In such a complex scenario the concept of engagement of the individuals involved in organized settings (either as service providers or as final receivers) is a promising lever for innovation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729825/dexmedetomidine-protects-mouse-brain-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-inhibiting-neuronal-autophagy-through-up-regulating-hif-1%C3%AE
#16
Cong Luo, Ming-Wen Ouyang, Ying-Ying Fang, Shu-Ji Li, Quan Zhou, Jun Fan, Zai-Sheng Qin, Tao Tao
Stroke is the leading cause of death in China and produces a heavy socio-economic burden in the past decades. Previous studies have shown that dexmedetomidine (DEX) is neuroprotective after cerebral ischemia. However, the role of autophagy during DEX-mediated neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia is still unknown. In this study, we found that post-conditioning with DEX and DEX+3-methyladenine (3-MA) (autophagy inhibitor) reduced brain infarct size and improved neurological deficits compared with DEX+RAPA (autophagy inducer) 24 h after transient middle cerebral artery artery occlusion (tMCAO) model in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729549/des-tomato-a-knowledge-exploration-system-focused-on-tomato-species
#17
Adil Salhi, Sónia Negrão, Magbubah Essack, Mitchell J L Morton, Salim Bougouffa, Rozaimi Razali, Aleksandar Radovanovic, Benoit Marchand, Maxat Kulmanov, Robert Hoehndorf, Mark Tester, Vladimir B Bajic
Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729321/economic-evaluation-of-a-brief-counselling-for-smoking-cessation-in-dentistry-a-case-study-comparing-two-health-economic-models
#18
Suvi Erika Virtanen, Maria R Galanti, Pia M Johansson, Inna Feldman
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness estimates of a brief counselling of smoking cessation in dentistry by using two different health economic models. DESIGN AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Intervention effectiveness was estimated in a cluster randomised controlled trial. The number of quitters was estimated based on 7-day abstinence and on smoking reduction at follow-up. Health economic evaluation was performed using two models: (1) a population-based model employing potential impact fractions and (2) a Markov model estimating the cost-effectiveness of the intervention for the actual participants...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728971/a-multi-objective-optimization-approach-for-the-selection-of-working-fluids-of-geothermal-facilities-economic-environmental-and-social-aspects
#19
Juan Martínez-Gomez, Javier Peña-Lamas, Mariano Martín, José María Ponce-Ortega
The selection of the working fluid for Organic Rankine Cycles has traditionally been addressed from systematic heuristic methods, which perform a characterization and prior selection considering mainly one objective, thus avoiding a selection considering simultaneously the objectives related to sustainability and safety. The objective of this work is to propose a methodology for the optimal selection of the working fluid for Organic Rankine Cycles. The model is presented as a multi-objective approach, which simultaneously considers the economic, environmental and safety aspects...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728918/financing-transformative-health-systems-towards-achievement-of-the-health-sustainable-development-goals-a-model-for-projected-resource-needs-in-67-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#20
Karin Stenberg, Odd Hanssen, Tessa Tan-Torres Edejer, Melanie Bertram, Callum Brindley, Andreia Meshreky, James E Rosen, John Stover, Paul Verboom, Rachel Sanders, Agnès Soucat
BACKGROUND: The ambitious development agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires substantial investments across several sectors, including for SDG 3 (healthy lives and wellbeing). No estimates of the additional resources needed to strengthen comprehensive health service delivery towards the attainment of SDG 3 and universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries have been published. METHODS: We developed a framework for health systems strengthening, within which population-level and individual-level health service coverage is gradually scaled up over time...
July 14, 2017: Lancet Global Health
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