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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445470/the-credibility-crisis-in-research-can-economics-tools-help
#1
Thomas Gall, John P A Ioannidis, Zacharias Maniadis
The issue of nonreplicable evidence has attracted considerable attention across biomedical and other sciences. This concern is accompanied by an increasing interest in reforming research incentives and practices. How to optimally perform these reforms is a scientific problem in itself, and economics has several scientific methods that can help evaluate research reforms. Here, we review these methods and show their potential. Prominent among them are mathematical modeling and laboratory experiments that constitute affordable ways to approximate the effects of policies with wide-ranging implications...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445256/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-ultrasonography-screening-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-metabolic-syndrome-patients
#2
Pochamana Phisalprapa, Siripen Supakankunti, Phunchai Charatcharoenwitthaya, Piyaporn Apisarnthanarak, Aphinya Charoensak, Chaiwat Washirasaksiri, Weerachai Srivanichakorn, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can be diagnosed early by noninvasive ultrasonography; however, the cost-effectiveness of ultrasonography screening with intensive weight reduction program in metabolic syndrome patients is not clear. This study aims to estimate economic and clinical outcomes of ultrasonography in Thailand. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness analysis used decision tree and Markov models to estimate lifetime costs and health benefits from societal perspective, based on a cohort of 509 metabolic syndrome patients in Thailand...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445253/micro-rna-screening-and-prediction-model-construction-for-diagnosis-of-salt-sensitive-essential-hypertension
#3
Han Qi, Zheng Liu, Bin Liu, Han Cao, Weiping Sun, Yuxiang Yan, Ling Zhang
Commonly used tests for diagnosis of salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH) are complex and time-consuming, so new methods are required. Many studies have demonstrated roles for miRNAs in hypertension; however, the diagnostic value of miRNAs has yet to be determined for human SSH. In this study, we examined miRNA expression profiles by initial high-throughput miRNA sequencing of samples from patients with salt-sensitive and salt-resistant hypertension (SSH and SRH, respectively; n = 6, both groups), followed by validation by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in a larger cohort (n = 91)...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445024/an-economic-evaluation-of-the-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-eras-multisite-implementation-program-for-colorectal-surgery-in-alberta
#4
Nguyen X. Thanh, Anderson W. Chuck, Tracy Wasylak, Jeannette Lawrence, Peter Faris, Olle Ljungqvist, Gregg Nelson, Leah M. Gramlich
BACKGROUND: In February 2013, Alberta Health Services established an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) implementation program for adopting the ERAS Society colorectal guidelines into 6 sites (initial phase) that perform more than 75% of all colorectal surgeries in the province. We conducted an economic evaluation of this initiative to not only determine its cost-effectiveness, but also to inform strategy for the spread and scale of ERAS to other surgical protocols and sites. METHODS: We assessed the impact of ERAS on patients’ health services utilization (HSU; length of stay [LOS], readmissions, emergency department visits, general practitioner and specialist visits) within 30 days of discharge by comparing pre- and post-ERAS groups using multilevel negative binomial regressions...
December 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444552/income-and-health-related-quality-of-life-among-prostate-cancer-patients-over-a-one-year-period-after-radical-prostatectomy-a-linear-mixed-model-analysis
#5
Jens Klein, Daniel Lüdecke, Kerstin Hofreuter-Gätgens, Margit Fisch, Markus Graefen, Olaf von dem Knesebeck
PURPOSE: To examine income-related disparities in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over a one-year period after surgery (radical prostatectomy) and its contributory factors in a longitudinal perspective. Evidence of associations between income and HRQOL among patients with prostate cancer (PCa) is sparse and their explanations still remain unclear. METHODS: 246 males of two German hospitals filled out a questionnaire at the time of acute treatment, 6 and 12 months later...
April 25, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444036/theoretical-reflections-on-governance-in-health-regions
#6
Nilo Bretas, Helena Eri Shimizu
This article analyzes governance in health regions, through the contributions of two studies: one on a governance model and the other on duties in the management of public policies networks. The former conducted a meta-analysis of 137 case studies in the literature on collaborative governance aimed at preparing an explanatory and analytical model. Authors identified critical variables that will influence the results: a previous history of conflict or cooperation, incentives for participation, power imbalances, leadership and institutional design...
April 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444002/-analysis-of-proximate-determinants-and-impact-of-type-of-employment-on-fertility-in-peruvian-women
#7
Yordanis Enríquez-Canto, Katherine Ortiz-Romaní, Yonathan Ortiz-Montalvo
Objective: To estimate the predictive capacity of proximate determinants and type of employment with respect to reduced fertility in Peruvian women of childbearing age. Methods: Secondary analysis of Peru's Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES) for 2014. The sample consisted of 20 396 women aged 15 to 49 years who had been sexually active during the four-week period immediately before the interview. The dependent variable was the total number of live births, and the main independent variables were type of employment, ideal number of offspring, highest educational level attained, and wealth quintile...
April 20, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443789/teaching-physiotherapy-students-to-be-content-with-a-body-that-refuses-to-hold-still
#8
Helen Macdonald, David A Nicholls
In recent decades, physiotherapists have become concerned with cultural, economic, philosophical, political, and social questions and have been exploring more flexible ways of speaking about and practicing physiotherapy. While recognizing the need to embrace a broader range of perspectives, physiotherapy educators and other medical educators have been at a loss as to how to best achieve this. Drawing on two examples from South Africa and New Zealand, we seek to illustrate possibilities and barriers to teaching social sciences to physiotherapy students, specifically theories of embodiment as an alternative to the biopsychosocial model...
April 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443488/socioeconomic-status-social-capital-and-self-reported-unmet-health-care-needs-a-population-based-study
#9
Christine Lindstrӧm, Maria Rosvall, Martin Lindstrӧm
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and self-reported unmet health care needs, taking economic stress, generalized trust in other people and trust in the health care system into account. METHODS: The 2012 public health survey in Scania was conducted using a postal questionnaire and included 28,029 participants aged 18-80 years. The study was cross-sectional. Associations between SES and unmet health care needs were investigated, adjusting for economic stress and trust in logistic regressions...
May 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443369/electro-activation-of-persulfate-using-iron-sheet-as-low-cost-electrode-the-role-of-the-operating-conditions
#10
Jefferson E Silveira, Tais O Cardoso, Marcio Barreto-Rodrigues, Juan A Zazo, José A Casas
This work assesses the role of the operational conditions upon the electro-activation of persulfate (PS) using sacrificed iron electrode as a continuous low-cost Fe(2+) source. An aqueous phenol solution (100 mg L(-1)) was selected as model effluent. The studied variables include current density (1-10mA cm(-2)), persulfate concentration (0.7-2.85 g L(-1)), temperature (30-90°C>) and the solution conductivity (2.7 to 20.7 mS cm(-1)) using Na2SO4 and NaCl as supporting electrolyte. A mineralization degree around 80% with Na2SO4 and 92% in presence of NaCl was achieved at 30°C using 2...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443125/viral-vectors-for-plant-genome-engineering
#11
REVIEW
Syed Shan-E-Ali Zaidi, Shahid Mansoor
Recent advances in genome engineering (GE) has made it possible to precisely alter DNA sequences in plant cells, providing specifically engineered plants with traits of interest. Gene targeting efficiency depends on the delivery-method of both sequence-specific nucleases and repair templates, to plant cells. Typically, this is achieved using Agrobacterium mediated transformation or particle bombardment, both of which transform only a subset of cells in treated tissues. The alternate in planta approaches, stably integrating nuclease-encoding cassettes and repair templates into the plant genome, are time consuming, expensive and require extra regulations...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442744/biomimetic-antimicrobial-cloak-by-graphene-oxide-agar-hydrogel
#12
Massimiliano Papi, Valentina Palmieri, Francesca Bugli, Marco De Spirito, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Carlotta Ciancico, Maria Chiara Braidotti, Silvia Gentilini, Luca Angelani, Claudio Conti
Antibacterial surfaces have an enormous economic and social impact on the worldwide technological fight against diseases. However, bacteria develop resistance and coatings are often not uniform and not stable in time. The challenge is finding an antibacterial coating that is biocompatible, cost-effective, not toxic, and spreadable over large and irregular surfaces. Here we demonstrate an antibacterial cloak by laser printing of graphene oxide hydrogels mimicking the Cancer Pagurus carapace. We observe up to 90% reduction of bacteria cells...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442543/effect-of-informal-employment-on-the-relationship-between-psychosocial-work-risk-factors-and-musculoskeletal-pain-in-central-american-workers
#13
David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, Marianela Rojas Garbanzo, Aurora Aragón, Lino Carmenate-Milián, Fernando G Benavides
INTRODUCTION: The constant increase on the psychosocial demands experienced at work seems to contribute to the increase in health problems such as musculoskeletal pain (MSP). This association may be especially important in low-income and middle-income countries, where there is a large proportion of informal workers among whom there is little research. We analysed the association between psychosocial work risk factors and MSP among formal and informal workers using the First Central American Survey of Working Conditions and Health...
April 25, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442239/roadmap-to-control-hbv-and-hdv-epidemics-in-china
#14
Ashish Goyal, John M Murray
PURPOSE: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic in China. Almost 10% of HBV infected individuals are also infected with hepatitis D virus (HDV) which has a 5-10 times higher mortality rate than HBV mono-infection. The aim of this manuscript is to devise strategies that can not only control HBV infections but also HDV infections in China under the current health care budget in an optimal manner. METHODS: Using a mathematical model, an annual budget of $10 billion was optimally allocated among five interventions namely, testing and HBV adult vaccination, treatment for mono-infected and dually-infected individuals, second line treatment for HBV mono-infections, and awareness programs...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441697/hypertension-management-in-a-population-of-older-adults-in-rural-south-africa
#15
Thiago Veiga Jardim, Sheridan Reiger, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, F Xavier Gomez-Olive, Ryan G Wagner, Alisha Wade, Till W Bärnighausen, Joshua Salomon, Stephen Tollman, Thomas A Gaziano
OBJECTIVE: Assess awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, as an indication of its management, in rural South Africa, especially regarding modifiers of these variables. METHODS: A population-representative sample of adults aged at least 40 years residing in the rural Agincourt subdistrict (Mpumalanga Province) covered by a long-term health and sociodemographic surveillance system was recruited. In-person interviews, physical exams, and dried blood spots were collected...
June 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441462/transcriptomic-profiling-of-a-chicken-lung-epithelial-cell-line-clec213-reveals-a-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-activity-boost-during-influenza-virus-infection
#16
Léa Meyer, Olivier Leymarie, Christophe Chevalier, Evelyne Esnault, Marco Moroldo, Bruno Da Costa, Sonia Georgeault, Philippe Roingeard, Bernard Delmas, Pascale Quéré, Ronan Le Goffic
Avian Influenza virus (AIV) is a major concern for the global poultry industry. Since 2012, several countries have reported AIV outbreaks among domestic poultry. These outbreaks had tremendous impact on poultry production and socio-economic repercussion on farmers. In addition, the constant emergence of highly pathogenic AIV also poses a significant risk to human health. In this study, we used a chicken lung epithelial cell line (CLEC213) to gain a better understanding of the molecular consequences of low pathogenic AIV infection in their natural host...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441373/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-interventions-to-reduce-risk-of-aspiration-in-elderly-cancer-survivors-residing-in-skilled-nursing-facilities
#17
S Mantravadi
BACKGROUND: Aspiration can occur in patients of any age group, but it can be prevented. The primary population at risk is made up of survivors of cancer because of their increased risk of mucositis, mucosal atrophy, and dysphagia associated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and the disease process itself. The rate of incidence of aspiration cannot be quantified, because minor cases of aspiration often go unreported. Sequelae ensuing from aspirations can include pneumonia, end-stage kidney disease, dialysis, and death...
April 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440982/-intelligence-quotient-loss-in-mexican-pottery-artisan-s-children
#18
Daniel Estrada-Sánchez, Bret Ericson, Cuauhtémoc Arturo Juárez-Pérez, Guadalupe Aguilar-Madrid, Lina Hernández, Sandra Gualtero, Jack Caravanos
BACKGROUND: In Mexico, artisans frequently use lead oxide or greta in order to produce utensils, which are destined to preparation and storage of food and drinks. Additionally, the risk of lead poisoning of artisans and their families is greater than in general population, and within these families, children are the most susceptible to lead poisoning. The aim of this study was to estimate IQ loss in Mexican children from potter families exposed to lead. METHODS: Lead concentrations in soil were determined in 19 potter's homes that functioned as pottery workshops in seven Mexican states between 2009 and 2012...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440211/a-cluster-randomised-trial-cost-effectiveness-analysis-and-psychosocial-evaluation-of-insulin-pump-therapy-compared-with-multiple-injections-during-flexible-intensive-insulin-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes-the-repose-trial
#19
Simon Heller, David White, Ellen Lee, Julia Lawton, Daniel Pollard, Norman Waugh, Stephanie Amiel, Katharine Barnard, Anita Beckwith, Alan Brennan, Michael Campbell, Cindy Cooper, Munyaradzi Dimairo, Simon Dixon, Jackie Elliott, Mark Evans, Fiona Green, Gemma Hackney, Peter Hammond, Nina Hallowell, Alan Jaap, Brian Kennon, Jackie Kirkham, Robert Lindsay, Peter Mansell, Diana Papaioannou, David Rankin, Pamela Royle, W Henry Smithson, Carolin Taylor
BACKGROUND: Insulin is generally administered to people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using multiple daily injections (MDIs), but can also be delivered using infusion pumps. In the UK, pumps are recommended for patients with the greatest need and adult use is less than in comparable countries. Previous trials have been small, of short duration and have failed to control for training in insulin adjustment. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pump therapy compared with MDI for adults with T1DM, with both groups receiving equivalent structured training in flexible insulin therapy...
April 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439755/what-do-key-stakeholders-think-about-hiv-self-testing-in-canada-results-from-a-cross-sectional-survey
#20
N Pant Pai, M Smallwood, D Gulati, N Lapczak, A Musten, C Gaydos, C Johnston, M Steben, T Wong, N Engel, J Kim
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-testing presents an empowering alternative to facility-based testing for reaching undiagnosed HIV infected individuals, but is not currently available in Canada. We surveyed stakeholders (clinical providers, public health professionals, researchers) engaged in HIV testing initiatives nationwide to identify the concerns, opportunities and challenges to implementing HIV self-testing in Canada. An online cross-sectional survey was disseminated by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Centre for REACH 2...
April 24, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
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