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three dimensional

Seul Ki Hong, Jae Hoon Bong, Byung Jin Cho, Wan Sik Hwang
A 100-nm wide, vertically formed graphene stripe (GS) is demonstrated for three-dimensional (3D) electronic applications. The GS forms along the sidewall of a thin nickel film. It is possible to further scale down the GS width by engineering the deposited thickness of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) Ni film. Unlike a conventional GS or graphene nanoribbon (GNR), the vertically formed GS is made without a graphene transfer and etching process. The process integration of the proposed GS FETs resembles that of currently commercialized vertical NAND flash memory with a design rule of less than 20 nm, implying practical usage of this formed GS for 3D advanced FET applications...
October 26, 2016: Small
Isabel Benavente-Fernandez, Manuel Lubián-Gutierrez, Gema Jimenez-Gomez, Alfonso M Lechuga-Sancho, Simon P Lubián-López
AIM: Post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation is monitored by conventional two-dimensional ultrasound. The aims of this study were to determine the volume of the lateral ventricles using three-dimensional ultrasound in preterm infants with post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation and evaluate the relationship between volume and linear measurements. METHODS: Serial two-dimensional ultrasounds and three-dimensional ultrasounds were performed on preterm infants with post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Puerta del Mar Hospital, Cádiz, Spain, from January 2013 to December 2014...
October 26, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Taisuke Murata, Kenta Miwa, Noriaki Miyaji, Kei Wagatsuma, Tomoyuki Hasegawa, Keiichi Oda, Takuro Umeda, Takashi Iimori, Yoshitada Masuda, Takashi Terauchi, Mitsuru Koizumi
BACKGROUND: The point spread function (PSF) of positron emission tomography (PET) depends on the position across the field of view (FOV). Reconstruction based on PSF improves spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy. The present study aimed to quantify the effects of PSF correction as a function of the position of a traceable point-like (22)Na source over the FOV on two PET scanners with a different detector design. METHODS: We used Discovery 600 and Discovery 710 (GE Healthcare) PET scanners and traceable point-like (22)Na sources (<1 MBq) with a spherical absorber design that assures uniform angular distribution of the emitted annihilation photons...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Nasreen A Vohra, Swapnil D Kachare, Paul Vos, Bruce F Schroeder, Olga Schuth, Dylan Suttle, Timothy L Fitzgerald, Jan H Wong, Kathryn M Verbanac
PURPOSE: Obesity and breast density are both associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and are potentially modifiable. Weight loss surgery (WLS) causes a significant reduction in the amount of body fat and a decrease in breast cancer risk. The effect of WLS on breast density and its components has not been documented. Here, we analyze the impact of WLS on volumetric breast density (VBD) and on each of its components (fibroglandular volume and breast volume) by using three-dimensional methods...
October 26, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Masateru Kawakubo, Hiroshi Akamine, Yuzo Yamasaki, Atsushi Takemura, Kohtaro Abe, Kazuya Hosokawa, Junji Morishita, Michinobu Nagao
In this study, three-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (3D-PC MRI), a novel technique, was validated to assess pulmonary artery (PA) flow in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The MR data of PAs from 3D-PC and two-dimensional PC (2D-PC) from before and after treatment for 3 patients with CTEPH were retrospectively analyzed. Additionally, 3D- and 2D-PC MR scans of PA were performed in 5 healthy volunteers. Correlation of stroke volumes (SVs) obtained by 3D-PC and 2D-PC was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients...
October 25, 2016: Radiological Physics and Technology
Sheila Cardeña-Núñez, Luis Óscar Sánchez-Guardado, Rubén Corral-San-Miguel, Lucía Rodríguez-Gallardo, Faustino Marín, Luis Puelles, Pilar Aroca, Matías Hidalgo-Sánchez
The vertebrate inner ear is a complex three-dimensional sensorial structure with auditory and vestibular functions. The molecular patterning of the developing otic epithelium creates various positional identities, consequently leading to the stereotyped specification of each neurosensory and non-sensory element of the membranous labyrinth. The Iroquois (Iro/Irx) genes, clustered in two groups (A: Irx1, Irx2, and Irx4; and B: Irx3, Irx5, and Irx6), encode for transcriptional factors involved directly in numerous patterning processes of embryonic tissues in many phyla...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Masaki Takao, Takashi Nishii, Takashi Sakai, Nobuhiko Sugano
PURPOSE: Rotational acetabular osteotomy (RAO) is used to treat developmental hip dysplasia (DDH). It requires detailed anatomical knowledge of the pelvic anatomy and three-dimensional cognitive skills. We addressed whether a computer navigation system combined with a preoperative computed tomography-based plan enabled surgeons to perform RAO safely and reliably through a mini-incision regardless of their level of experience with performing osteotomies. METHODS: We enrolled 24 patients (25 hips) with DDH (radiographic grade 0 or 1 osteoarthritic changes: Tönnis classification)...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Pinar Cagimni, Figen Govsa, Mehmet Asim Ozer, Zuhal Kazak
OBJECTIVE: Different clinical problems may require a surgical approach to the dental arch, such as dentofacial orthopedics, implant-supported dental prothesis, maxillary orthodontics protraction, removable appliances, and posttraumatic dental reconstruction. The aim of this study is to analyze the dental arch size and type for supporting individual dental protheses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the reference measurements on the length of the bony palate, maxillary intercanine width, maxillary intermolar width, and the ratio of the maxillary to the palatinal surface were studied in 120 bony palates using a computer software program...
October 25, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Jeffrey G Trost, Lawrence O Lin, Sarah Jane Clark, David Y Khechoyan, Larry H Hollier, Edward P Buchanan
BACKGROUND: Conjoined twins are a rare medical phenomenon that offers a unique challenge for medical professionals. The complex anatomy of conjoined twins dictates their survival and amenability to separation, making each case different in terms of medical management, surgical planning, and patient outcomes. Thoraco-omphalo-ischiopagus twins, joined from the thorax to the pelvis, are one of the rarest orientations recorded in the medical literature, and successful separation of this subset of conjoined twins has not been documented...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Nick A van Alphen, Mohamed Morsy, Alexis T Laungani, Assaf Kadar, Andrew J Vercnocke, Nirusha Lachman, Erik L Ritman, Steven L Moran
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to use micro-computed tomography to demonstrate the intraosseous vascularity of the lunate within a three-dimensional orientation to identify areas of greatest perfusion and define vascular "safe zones" for surgical intervention. METHODS: Fourteen upper extremities were injected with a lead-based contrast agent. The lunates were harvested and scanned using a micro-computed tomography scanner. The intraosseous vascularity was incorporated into a three-dimensional image...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Ulrike Pilsl, Friedrich Anderhuber
BACKGROUND: The blood supply to the external nose is poorly described. The aim of this study was to identify the different types of blood supply to the external nose and the course of the arteries in relation to the nasolabial fold and groove and to the facial muscles. METHODS: With 96 facial halves of 48 adult specimens, the arteries of the outer nose were dissected, and three-dimensional computed tomographic reconstructions and horizontal sections were made. RESULTS: Three main types of blood supply to the external nose were identified, associated with the different types of facial arteries...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
William P Adams, Daniel Mckee
BACKGROUND: For primary breast augmentation, several implant selection systems have been described to guide the surgeon with choosing from a variety of manufactured implant dimensions and properties. Controversy exists regarding the most efficacious method of selecting an appropriate implant size that best matches the patient's breast. METHODS: The goal of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive list of documented implant size selection systems, and to critically evaluate them...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Kimberly Howard-Quijano, Ali Salem, Charles Barkulis, Einat Mazor, Jennifer C Scovotti, Jonathan K Ho, Richard J Shemin, Tristan Grogan, David Elashoff, Aman Mahajan
BACKGROUND: Echocardiography-based speckle-tracking strain imaging is an emerging modality to assess left ventricular function. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in left ventricular systolic function after cardiac surgery with 3-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking strain imaging and to determine whether preoperative 3D strain is an independent predictor of acute and long-term clinical outcomes after aortic valve, mitral valve, and coronary artery bypass grafting operations...
October 24, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Vasileios Prymidis, Siddharth Paliwal, Marjolein Dijkstra, Laura Filion
We study a three-dimensional system of self-propelled Lennard-Jones particles using Brownian dynamics simulations. Using recent theoretical results for active matter, we calculate the pressure and report equations of state for the system. Additionally, we chart the vapour-liquid coexistence and show that the coexistence densities can be well described using simple power laws. Lastly, we demonstrate that our out-of-equilibrium system shows deviations from both the law of rectilinear diameters and the law of corresponding states...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
R Tiani, L Rongy
The nonlinear dynamics of A + B → C fronts is analyzed both numerically and theoretically in the presence of Marangoni flows, i.e., convective motions driven by surface tension gradients. We consider horizontal aqueous solutions where the three species A, B, and C can affect the surface tension of the solution, thereby driving Marangoni flows. The resulting dynamics is studied by numerically integrating the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled to reaction-diffusion-convection (RDC) equations for the three chemical species...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Luigi Cannavacciuolo, Jürg Hulliger
Stochastic formation of a bi-polar state in three dimensional arrays of polar molecules with full Coulomb interactions is reproduced by Monte Carlo simulation. The size of the system is comparable to that of a real crystal seed. The spatial decay of the average order parameter is significantly slowed down by the long range interactions and the exact representation of correlation effects in terms of a single characteristic length becomes impossible. Finite size effects and possible scale invariance symmetry of the order parameter are extensively discussed...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Eiji Arima, Huanfei Wen, Yoshitaka Naitoh, Yan Jun Li, Yasuhiro Sugawara
The atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a very important tool for imaging and investigating the complex force interactions on sample surfaces with high spatial resolution. In the AFM, two types of detection systems of the tip-sample interaction forces have been used: an optical detection system and an electrical detection system. In optical detection systems, such as optical beam deflection system or optical fiber interferometer system, both the lateral and the vertical tip-sample forces can be measured simultaneously...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Masato Hoshino, Kentaro Uesugi, Naoto Yagi
X-ray phase contrast tomography based on a grating interferometer was applied to fast and dynamic measurements of biological samples. To achieve this, the scanning procedure in the tomographic scan was improved. A triangle-shaped voltage signal from a waveform generator to a Piezo stage was used for the fast phase stepping in the grating interferometer. In addition, an optical fiber coupled x-ray scientific CMOS camera was used to achieve fast and highly efficient image acquisitions. These optimizations made it possible to perform an x-ray phase contrast tomographic measurement within an 8 min scan with density resolution of 2...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Daria Galimberti, Alberto Milani, Lorenzo Maschio, Chiara Castiglioni
Density functional theory calculations with periodic boundary conditions are exploited to study the infrared spectrum of crystalline polyethylene. Spectral changes lead by the intermolecular packing in the orthorhombic three-dimensional crystal are discussed by means of a careful comparison with calculations carried out for an isolated polymer chain in the all-trans conformation, described as an ideal one-dimensional crystal. The results are analyzed in the framework of the "oligomer approach" through the modelling of the IR spectrum of n-alkanes of different lengths...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Folarin Latinwo, Frank H Stillinger, Pablo G Debenedetti
Chirality is a hallmark feature for molecular recognition in biology and chemical physics. We present a three-dimensional continuum model for studying chirality phenomena in condensed phases using molecular simulations. Our model system is based upon a simple four-site molecule and incorporates non-trivial kinetic behavior, including the ability to switch chirality or racemize, as well as thermodynamics arising from an energetic preference for specific chiral interactions. In particular, we introduce a chiral renormalization parameter that can locally favor either homochiral or heterochiral configurations...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
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