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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054043/systematic-approaches-for-targeting-an-atom-probe-tomography-sample-fabricated-in-a-thin-tem-specimen-correlative-structural-chemical-and-3-d-reconstruction-analyses
#1
Sung-Il Baik, Dieter Isheim, David N Seidman
Atom-probe tomography (APT) is a unique analysis tool that enables true three-dimensional (3-D) analyses with sub-nano scale spatial resolution. Recent implementations of the local-electrode atom-probe (LEAP) tomograph with ultraviolet laser pulsing have significantly expanded the research applications of APT. The small field-of-view of a needle-shaped specimen with a less than 100 nm diam. is, however, a major limitation for analyzing materials. The systematic approaches for site-specific targeting of an APT nanotip in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) of a thin sample are introduced to solve the geometrical limitations of a sharpened APT nanotip...
October 12, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053732/body-typing-of-children-and-adolescents-using-3d-body-scanning
#2
Henry Loeffler-Wirth, Mandy Vogel, Toralf Kirsten, Fabian Glock, Tanja Poulain, Antje Körner, Markus Loeffler, Wieland Kiess, Hans Binder
Three-dimensional (3D-) body scanning of children and adolescents allows the detailed study of physiological development in terms of anthropometrical alterations which potentially provide early onset markers for obesity. Here, we present a systematic analysis of body scanning data of 2,700 urban children and adolescents in the age range between 5 and 18 years with the special aim to stratify the participants into distinct body shape types and to describe their change upon development. In a first step, we extracted a set of eight representative meta-measures from the data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053691/quantitative-whole-mount-immunofluorescence-analysis-of-cardiac-progenitor-populations-in-mouse-embryos
#3
Evan Bardot, Nikos Tzavaras, Deanna L Benson, Nicole C Dubois
The use of ever-advancing imaging techniques has contributed broadly to our increased understanding of embryonic development. Pre-implantation development and organogenesis are two areas of research that have benefitted greatly from these advances, due to the high quality of data that can be obtained directly from imaging pre-implantation embryos or ex vivo organs. While pre-implantation embryos have yielded data with especially high spatial resolution, later stages have been less amenable to three-dimensional reconstruction...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053606/lung-toxicity-of-condensed-aerosol-from-e-cig-liquids-influence-of-the-flavor-and-the-in-vitro-model-used
#4
Rossella Bengalli, Emanuele Ferri, Massimo Labra, Paride Mantecca
The diffusion of e-cigarette (e-CIG) opens a great scientific and regulatory debate about its safety. The huge number of commercialized devices, e-liquids with almost infinite chemical formulations and the growing market demand for a rapid and efficient toxicity screen system that is able to test all of these references and related aerosols. A consensus on the best protocols for the e-CIG safety assessment is still far to be achieved, since the huge number of variables characterizing these products (e.g., flavoring type and concentration, nicotine concentration, type of the device, including the battery and the atomizer)...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053545/three-dimensional-deformities-of-nonoperative-midshaft-clavicle-fractures-a-surface-matching-analysis
#5
Satoshi Oki, Noboru Matsumura, Yoshimori Kiriyama, Takuji Iwamoto, Kazuki Sato, Takeo Nagura
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the 3-dimensional deformities of midshaft clavicle fractures, which had been treated nonoperatively, using computed tomography (CT) surface matching. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with unilateral midshaft clavicle fracture, who had been treated nonoperatively, were enrolled and evaluated retrospectively. The 3-dimensional deformity of the fractured clavicle was evaluated by CT surface matching. CT scans of 21 age- and sex-matched patients with initial traumatic shoulder dislocation or proximal humeral fracture were enrolled as a control group, and the differences in 3-dimensional deformities and lengths of the clavicles between the fracture group and the control group were evaluated...
November 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053363/toward-a-periodic-table-of-niches-or-exploring-the-lizard-niche-hypervolume
#6
Eric R Pianka, Laurie J Vitt, Nicolás Pelegrin, Daniel B Fitzgerald, Kirk O Winemiller
Widespread niche convergence suggests that species can be organized according to functional trait combinations to create a framework analogous to a periodic table. We compiled ecological data for lizards to examine patterns of global and regional niche diversification, and we used multivariate statistical approaches to develop the beginnings for a periodic table of niches. Data (50+ variables) for five major niche dimensions (habitat, diet, life history, metabolism, defense) were compiled for 134 species of lizards representing 24 of the 38 extant families...
November 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053279/reduced-graphene-oxide-lii-composite-lithium-ion-battery-cathodes
#7
Sanghyeon Kim, Sung-Kon Kim, Pengcheng Sun, Nuri Oh, Paul V Braun
Li-iodine chemistry is of interest for electrochemical energy storage because it has been shown to provide both high power and high energy density. However, Li-iodine batteries are typically formed using Li metal and elemental iodine, which presents safety and fabrication challenges (e.g., the high vapor pressure of iodine). These disadvantages could be circumvented by using LiI as a starting cathode. Here, we present fabrication of a reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/LiI composite cathode, enabling for the first time the use of LiI as the Li-ion battery cathode...
October 20, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053074/clinical-improvement-associated-with-targeted-interruption-of-the-cerebellothalamic-tract-following-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound-for-essential-tremor
#8
J Levi Chazen, Harini Sarva, Philip E Stieg, Robert J Min, Douglas J Ballon, Kane O Pryor, Paul M Riegelhaupt, Michael G Kaplitt
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography-based targeting of the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRT) for magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy in patients with essential tremor (ET) and correlate postprocedural tract disruption with clinical outcomes. METHODS Four patients received preprocedural and immediate postprocedural DTI in addition to traditional anatomical MRI sequences for MRgFUS thalamotomy. Optimal ablation sites were selected based on the patient-specific location of the DRT as demonstrated by DTI (direct targeting) and correlated with traditional atlas-based measurements for thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) lesioning (indirect targeting)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052787/pentapeptide-insertion-scanning-mutational-analysis-of-turkey-herpesvirus-hvt063-reveals-residues-important-for-its-rna-silencing-suppression-activity
#9
Gang Jia, Wenjing Li, Meina Fan, Ru Yu, Yang Xu, Liwei Geng, Jiedao Zhang, Changxiang Zhu, Hongmei Liu
HVT063, an RNA-binding protein encoded by turkey herpesvirus, has been shown previously to suppress RNA silencing. Here, a scanning library produced by pentapeptide-insertion scanning mutagenesis was used to identify key residues associated with its RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) activity. Forty-two in-frame insertion mutants of HVT063 protein were evaluated for their RSS activity using the dual-luciferase transient expressing assay system. Sixteen mutations resulted in a loss of RSS activity, 20 mutations resulted in decreased RSS activity, and six mutations exhibited high RSS activity similar to wild-type HVT063...
October 20, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052755/validation-of-an-easily-applicable-three-dimensional-immunohistochemical-imaging-method-for-a-mouse-brain-using-conventional-confocal-microscopy
#10
Tetsuhiro Kakimoto
Histological analysis has been largely confined to two-dimensional analysis of thin tissue sections, hampering detailed understanding of three-dimensional cellular distribution in biological tissues. Tissue optical clearing methods enable three-dimensional histological analysis by rendering tissues transparent and suitable for microscopic detection of the fluorescent signals inside. Despite their great potential in histological research, the tissue clearing methods are not readily accessible to many researchers because of hazardous chemicals, complicated protocols and advanced microscopy...
October 20, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052565/factors-predicting-late-rectal-disorders-after-radiation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer
#11
Toshiya Maebayashi, Naoya Ishibashi, Takuya Aizawa, Masakuni Sakaguchi, Hideki Sato, Katsuhiko Sato, Tsuyoshi Matsui, Kenya Yamaguchi, Satoru Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Although various studies have been conducted on the effects of radiation therapy for prostate cancer, rectal toxicity after radiation therapy for prostate cancer, which is an important late adverse event associated with radiation therapy, has not been sufficiently examined. This study aimed to assess the associations of late rectal disorder (LRD) with dosimetric, anatomic, and clinical factors in patients with prostate cancer who underwent three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT)...
October 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052412/co-ii-doped-cd-mof-as-an-efficient-water-oxidation-catalyst-doubly-interpenetrated-boron-nitride-network-with-the-encapsulation-of-free-ligand-containing-pyridine-moieties
#12
Kartik Maity, Kousik Bhunia, Debabrata Pradhan, Kumar Biradha
Development of an efficient and inexpensive water oxidation electrocatalyst using the earth-abundant elements is still far to go. Herein, a novel strategy has been demonstrated for developing the OER electrocatalyst by doping Co(II) in to a three dimensional Cd-based MOF that contains a naked pyridine moieties in the form of uncoordinated ligand. Electrochemically active CoCd-MOF was resulted through the doping of Co(II) into the inactive Cd-MOF. CoCd-MOF exhibited very high catalytic activity in water oxidation reaction...
October 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052279/combining-protein-sequence-structure-and-dynamics-a-novel-approach-for-functional-evolution-analysis-of-pas-domain-superfamily
#13
Zheng Dong, Hongyu Zhou, Peng Tao
OBJECTIVES: PAS domains are widespread in archaea, bacteria and eukaryota, and play important roles in various functions. In this study, we aim to explore functional evolutionary relationship among proteins in the PAS domain superfamily in view of the sequence-structure-dynamics-function relationship. METHODS: We collected protein sequences and crystal structures data from RCSB Protein Data Bank of the PAS domain superfamily belonging to three biological functions (nucleotide binding, photoreceptor activity and transferase activity)...
October 20, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052213/automated-3d-gene-position-analysis-using-a-customized-imaris-plugin-xtfishinsidenucleus
#14
Mariamawit S Ashenafi, Célia Baroux
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is commonly used to visualize chromosomal regions or genomic loci within the nucleus, and can largely contribute to unraveling the link between structure and function in the nucleus. Three-dimensional (3D) analyses are required to best capture the nucleus' organizing principles, but the experimental setup and computational analyses are far from trivial. Here, we present a robust workflow for 3D FISH against repeats and single copy loci in embedded intact nuclei from Arabidopsis leaves...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052210/a-method-for-testing-random-spatial-models-on-nuclear-object-distributions
#15
Javier Arpòn, Valérie Gaudin, Philippe Andrey
The cell nucleus is a structurally complex and dynamic organelle ensuring key biological functions. Complex relationships between nuclear structure and functions require a better understanding of the three-dimensional organization of the genome and of the subnuclear compartments. Quantitative image analysis coupled with spatial statistics and modeling is a relevant approach to address these questions. In this chapter, we describe a step-by-step procedure to process images and to test a spatial random model for the distribution of nuclear objects using chromocenters as an example...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052204/a-compendium-of-methods-to-analyze-the-spatial-organization-of-plant-chromatin
#16
Aline V Probst
The long linear chromosomes of eukaryotic organisms are tightly packed into the nucleus of the cell. Beyond a first organization into nucleosomes and higher-order chromatin fibers, the positioning of nuclear DNA within the three-dimensional space of the nucleus plays a critical role in genome function and gene expression. Different techniques have been developed to assess nanoscale chromatin organization, nuclear position of genomic regions or specific chromatin features and binding proteins as well as higher-order chromatin organization...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051943/thermal-and-electronic-transport-characteristics-of-highly-stretchable-graphene-kirigami
#17
Bohayra Mortazavi, Aurélien Lherbier, Zheyong Fan, Ari Harju, Timon Rabczuk, Jean-Christophe Charlier
For centuries, cutting and folding papers with special patterns have been used to build beautiful, flexible and complex three-dimensional structures. Inspired by the old idea of kirigami (paper cutting), and the outstanding properties of graphene, recently graphene kirigami structures were fabricated to enhance the stretchability of graphene. However, the possibility of further tuning the electronic and thermal transport along the 2D kirigami structures has remained original to investigate. We therefore performed extensive atomistic simulations to explore the electronic, heat and load transfer along various graphene kirigami structures...
October 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051862/recent-advances-in-designing-and-fabricating-self-supported-nanoelectrodes-for-supercapacitors
#18
REVIEW
Huaping Zhao, Long Liu, Ranjith Vellacheri, Yong Lei
Owing to the outstanding advantages as electrical energy storage system, supercapacitors have attracted tremendous research interests over the past decade. Current research efforts are being devoted to improve the energy storage capabilities of supercapacitors through either discovering novel electroactive materials or nanostructuring existing electroactive materials. From the device point of view, the energy storage performance of supercapacitor not only depends on the electroactive materials themselves, but importantly, relies on the structure of electrode whether it allows the electroactive materials to reach their full potentials for energy storage...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051809/impact-of-expansion-and-redifferentiation-under-hypothermia-on-chondrogenic-capacity-of-cultured-human-septal-chondrocytes
#19
Achim von Bomhard, Joseph Faust, Alexander F Elsaesser, Silke Schwarz, Katharina Pippich, Nicole Rotter
A critical limitation in the cultivation of cartilage for tissue engineering is the dedifferentiation in chondrocytes, mainly during in vitro amplification. Despite many previous studies investigating the influence of various conditions, no data exist concerning the effects of hypothermia. Our aim has been to influence chondrocyte dedifferentiation in vitro by hypothermic conditions. Chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage biopsies and seeded in monolayer and in three-dimensional pellet-cultures. Each cell culture was either performed at 32...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051729/negative-influence-of-motor-impairments-on-upper-limb-movement-patterns-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy-a-statistical-parametric-mapping-study
#20
Cristina Simon-Martinez, Ellen Jaspers, Lisa Mailleux, Kaat Desloovere, Jos Vanrenterghem, Els Ortibus, Guy Molenaers, Hilde Feys, Katrijn Klingels
Upper limb three-dimensional movement analysis (UL-3DMA) offers a reliable and valid tool to evaluate movement patterns in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (uCP). However, it remains unknown to what extent the underlying motor impairments explain deviant movement patterns. Such understanding is key to develop efficient rehabilitation programs. Although UL-3DMA has been shown to be a useful tool to assess movement patterns, it results in a multitude of data, challenging the clinical interpretation and consequently its implementation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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