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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323250/a-biofilm-and-organomineralisation-model-for-the-growth-and-limiting-size-of-ooids
#1
Murray T Batchelor, Robert V Burne, Bruce I Henry, Fei Li, Josef Paul
Ooids are typically spherical sediment grains characterised by concentric layers encapsulating a core. There is no universally accepted explanation for ooid genesis, though factors such as agitation, abiotic and/or microbial mineralisation and size limitation have been variously invoked. Here we examine the possible influence of microbial organomineralisation on the formation of some naturally occurring ooids. We develop a mathematical model for ooid growth, inspired by work on avascular brain tumours, that assumes mineralisation in a biofilm to form a central core which then nucleates the progressive growth of concentric laminations...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322326/heparan-sulfate-accumulation-and-perlecan-hspg2-up-regulation-in-tumour-tissue-predict-low-relapse-free-survival-for-patients-with-glioblastoma
#2
Galina M Kazanskaya, Alexandra Y Tsidulko, Alexander M Volkov, Roman S Kiselev, Anastasia V Suhovskih, Vyacheslav V Kobozev, Alexei S Gaytan, Svetlana V Aidagulova, Alexei L Krivoshapkin, Elvira V Grigorieva
Glycosaminoglycans are major components of brain extracellular matrix (ECM), although heparan sulfate (HS) contribution in brain physiology and carcinogenesis remains underinvestigated. This study examined HS content and distribution in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tissues in the context of potential molecular mechanisms underlying its deregulation in brain tumours. Totally, 42 tissue samples and paraffin-embedded tissues for 31 patients with different prognosis were investigated. HS expression was demonstrated in 50-55% of the GBM tumours by immunohistochemistry (IHC), while almost no HS content was detected in the surrounding paratumourous brain tissues...
January 10, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316969/proton-and-helium-ion-radiotherapy-for-meningioma-tumors-a-monte-carlo-based-treatment-planning-comparison
#3
Thomas Tessonnier, Andrea Mairani, Wenjing Chen, Paola Sala, Francesco Cerutti, Alfredo Ferrari, Thomas Haberer, Jürgen Debus, Katia Parodi
BACKGROUND: Due to their favorable physical and biological properties, helium ion beams are increasingly considered a promising alternative to proton beams for radiation therapy. Hence, this work aims at comparing in-silico the treatment of brain and ocular meningiomas with protons and helium ions, using for the first time a dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) based treatment planning engine (MCTP) thoroughly validated both in terms of physical and biological models. METHODS: Starting from clinical treatment plans of four patients undergoing proton therapy with a fixed relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1...
January 9, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316219/characterization-of-a-foxg1-tle1-transcriptional-network-in-glioblastoma-initiating-cells
#4
Rola Dali, Federica Verginelli, Albena Pramatarova, Robert Sladek, Stefano Stifani
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadly malignant brain cancer of glial cell origin, with a median patient survival of less than 20 months. Transcription factors FOXG1 and TLE1 promote GBM propagation by supporting maintenance of brain tumour initiating cells with stem-like properties. Here, we characterize FOXG1 and TLE1 target genes in glioblastoma patient-derived brain tumour initiating cells using ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq approaches. These studies identify 150 direct FOXG1 targets, several of which are also TLE1 targets, involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, chemotaxis and angiogenesis...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315734/molecular-characteristics-of-long-term-epilepsy-associated-tumours-leats-and-mechanisms-for-tumour-related-epilepsy-tre
#5
Thomas J Stone, Rachel Rowell, Bodiabaduge Ashan Prasanna Jayasekera, Mark O Cunningham, Thomas S Jacques
Brain tumours are the second most common cause of seizures identified in epilepsy surgical series. While any tumour involving the brain has the potential to cause seizures, specific subtypes are more frequently associated with epilepsy. Tumour-related epilepsy has a profound impact on patients with brain tumours and these seizures are often refractory to anti-epileptic treatments, resulting in long-term disability and patient morbidity. Despite the drastic impact epilepsy-associated tumours have on patients, they have not traditionally enjoyed as much attention as more malignant neoplasms...
January 6, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313975/near-infrared-photoimmunotherapy-targeting-egfr-shedding-new-light-on-glioblastoma-treatment
#6
Thomas A Burley, Justyna Mączyńska, Anant Shah, Wojciech Szopa, Kevin J Harrington, Jessica K R Boult, Anna Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Maria Vinci, Jeffrey C Bamber, Wojciech Kaspera, Gabriela Kramer-Marek
Glioblastomas (GBM) are high-grade brain tumours, differentially driven by alterations (amplification, deletion, or missense mutations) in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), that carry a poor prognosis of just 12-15 months following standard therapy. A combination of interventions targeting tumor-specific cell surface regulators along with convergent downstream signalling pathways may enhance treatment efficacy. Against this background, we investigated a novel photoimmunotherapy approach combining the cytotoxicity of photodynamic therapy with the specificity of immunotherapy...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310810/radiological-features-and-metastatic-patterns-of-thymic-neuroendocrine-tumours
#7
T Araki, L M Sholl, H Hatabu, M Nishino
AIM: To investigate the clinical and image features of thymic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), and characterise the radiological patterns of recurrence and metastasis on serial imaging studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 14 patients (11 males) with a histopathological diagnosis of thymic NETs (one typical carcinoid, eight atypical carcinoid, and five large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma). Preoperative images were assessed for features of primary tumours...
January 5, 2018: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307027/does-restricted-diffusion-in-the-splenium-indicate-an-acute-infarct
#8
Zeynep Ezgi Balcik, Songül Senadim, Aslı Keskek, Ayşe Ozudogru, Ayhan Koksal, Aysun Soysal, Dilek Atakli
OBJECTIVE: Although splenial lesions are rare, they are frequently associated with ischemic infarcts, antiepileptic drug toxicity or abrupt discontinuation, viral encephalitis, and metabolic disturbances. In this study, we evaluated clinical and imaging findings and aetiology in 16 patients with splenium lesions. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2017, patients with splenium lesions were examined. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 1.5-T unit with fluid attenuation inversion recovery sequences...
January 6, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304360/clinical-trial-design-for-local-therapies-for-brain-metastases-a-guideline-by-the-response-assessment-in-neuro-oncology-brain-metastases-working-group
#9
REVIEW
Brian M Alexander, Paul D Brown, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, Hidefumi Aoyama, Brigitta G Baumert, Susan M Chang, Laurie E Gaspar, Steven N Kalkanis, David R Macdonald, Minesh P Mehta, Riccardo Soffietti, John H Suh, Martin J van den Bent, Michael A Vogelbaum, Jeffrey S Wefel, Eudocia Q Lee, Patrick Y Wen
The goals of therapeutic and biomarker development form the foundation of clinical trial design, and change considerably from early-phase to late-phase trials. From these goals, decisions on specific clinical trial design elements, such as endpoint selection and statistical approaches, are formed. Whereas early-phase trials might focus on finding a therapeutic signal to make decisions on further development, late-phase trials focus on the confirmation of therapeutic impact by considering clinically meaningful endpoints...
January 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304358/clinical-trial-design-for-systemic-agents-in-patients-with-brain-metastases-from-solid-tumours-a-guideline-by-the-response-assessment-in-neuro-oncology-brain-metastases-working-group
#10
REVIEW
D Ross Camidge, Eudocia Q Lee, Nancy U Lin, Kim Margolin, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, Martin Bendszus, Susan M Chang, Janet Dancey, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Gordon J Harris, F Stephen Hodi, Andrew B Lassman, David R Macdonald, David M Peereboom, David Schiff, Ricardo Soffietti, Martin J van den Bent, Jeffrey S Wefel, Patrick Y Wen
Patients with active CNS disease are often excluded from clinical trials, and data regarding the CNS efficacy of systemic agents are usually obtained late in the drug development process or not at all. In this guideline from the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Brain Metastases (RANO-BM) working group, we provide detailed recommendations on when patients with brain metastases from solid tumours should be included or excluded in clinical trials of systemic agents. We also discuss the limitations of retrospective studies in determining the CNS efficacy of systemic drugs...
January 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302064/advances-in-meningioma-genetics-novel-therapeutic-opportunities
#11
REVIEW
Matthias Preusser, Priscilla K Brastianos, Christian Mawrin
Meningiomas currently are among the most frequent intracranial tumours. Although the majority of meningiomas can be cured by surgical resection, ∼20% of patients have an aggressive clinical course with tumour recurrence or progressive disease, resulting in substantial morbidity and increased mortality of affected patients. During the past 3 years, exciting new data have been published that provide insights into the molecular background of meningiomas and link sites of tumour development with characteristic histopathological and molecular features, opening a new road to novel and promising treatment options for aggressive meningiomas...
January 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295736/re-irradiation-in-the-brain-primary-gliomas
#12
A L K Ho, R Jena
Recurrence of gliomas is a challenging clinical scenario to treat. There has historically been reluctance among neuro-oncologists to consider re-irradiation owing to concerns regarding toxicity, including the risk of radionecrosis. This overview examines the evidence behind re-irradiation, which is predominately from single institution case series. The development, validation and modification of the Combs prognostic score are outlined. Published data on both fractionated radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery suggest that it has an acceptable safety profile as long as the cumulative total dose normalised to 2 Gy/fraction (NTDcumulative) is limited to 100 Gy...
February 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290197/primary-cns-lymphoma-vs-tumefactive-multiple-sclerosis-a-diagnostic-challenge
#13
Sameen Bin Naeem, Farheen Niazi, Atif Baig, Hina Sadiq, Mubbasher Sattar
Primary CNS (central nervous system) lymphoma is a rare condition with the incidence of less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) and approximately 2% of all primary brain tumours. Diagnosis can be challenging and necessitates brain biopsy for definitive diagnosis. A 41-year male presented with history of impaired cognition, facial asymmetry, visual impairment and left sided body weakness. MRI brain demonstrated multiple enhancing lesions with one larger lesion in right basal ganglia with surrounding oedema and mass effect...
January 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288226/progressive-delayed-hemidystonia-following-clinically-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Swaleha N Nadaf, Rahul T Chakor, Kaumil Vipul Kothari, Haresh Bharote
A 16-year-old boy presented with progressive left hemidystonia over 3 years. The possibilities of symptomatic hemidystonia due to focal lesions such as infarct (vasculitis), tumours, tuberculoma, arteriovenous malformations or heredodegenerative disorders such as Wilson disease were considered. Imaging showed a peculiar scar involving right basifrontal region extending upto anterior, centromedian and dorsomedial nuclei of thalamus due to blowout fracture of roof of orbit. This scar was responsible for progressive left hemidystonia...
December 28, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287892/-neurocognition-impact-of-radiotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Antoni Delphine
The cognitive evaluation is essential to arrest the impact of brain tumours on brain functions. Radiation therapy on the brain has side effects, which can impact on the cognitive functioning. The cognitive disorders constitute a predictive factor of the quality of life of the patients impacting on their autonomy, as well as on their social and professional life. This problem thus takes a more and more important place in the reflection on the cancer care. A better detection of these cognitive disorders requires a better cognitive evaluation from the diagnosis...
December 26, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286221/prognostic-significance-of-indicators-of-systemic-inflammatory-responses-in-glioblastoma-patients
#16
Vildan Kaya, Mustafa Yıldırım, Gözde Yazıcı, Ayşen Yeşim Yalçın, Nuri Orhan, Aslan Güzel
Background: High-grade gliomas, with glioblastomas as the most frequently observed histologic subtype, are the most common primary brain tumours in adults. It is considered that inflammatory responses play a major role in malignancies, including tumour progression. This study aimed to determine the prognostic significance of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the thrombocyte to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as indicators of systemic inflammatory response (SIR) in glioblastoma patients. Methods: A total of 90 patients treated for glioblastoma were retrospectively evaluated...
December 29, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277879/trigonelline-insulates-against-oxidative-stress-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-restores-bdnf-levels-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-adult-mice
#17
Amrita A Chowdhury, Nitin B Gawali, Renuka Munshi, Archana R Juvekar
Neuroinflammation is said to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Trigonelline (TRG) is a naturally occurring alkaloid, commonly isolated from fenugreek and coffee beans. In the present study, we investigated whether TRG exerts neuroprotective action against LPS mediated cognitive impairment. Mice pretreated with TRG (50 and 100 mg/kg po) were administered with LPS (250 μg/kg ip) for 7 days. Memory was assessed in the Morris water maze (MWM) and Y maze...
December 26, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277434/retinoblastoma-and-optic-nerve-enhancement-in-a-brain-magnetic-resonance-scan-is-it-always-a-metastasis
#18
A Correa-Acosta, M E González-Alviar, M L Gaviria-Bravo
CASE REPORT: The case is presented on a girl with a unilateral retinoblastoma that required treatment with intra-arterial chemotherapy. In the nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the brain performed 1 month after intra-arterial chemotherapy treatment, post-laminar optic nerve (ON) enhancement was observed, leading to the suspicion of an ON tumour infiltration. Additional examinations were requested by which a probable optic neuropathy was diagnosed. DISCUSSION: The ON enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in retinoblastoma generally corresponds to tumour invasion of the ON...
December 22, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274437/convection-enhanced-delivery-of-chemotherapeutic-drugs-into-brain-tumour
#19
Wenbo Zhan, Chi-Hwa Wang
Convection enhanced delivery (CED) of chemotherapeutic drugs can successfully bypass the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, the treatment efficacy is significantly variable in clinic owing to the absence of proper drugs and the lack of understanding on the local drug transport. In this study, mathematical modelling is employed to investigate the suitability of six chemotherapeutic drugs from the perspective of intratumoural transport, including fluorouracil, carmustine, cisplatin, methotrexate, doxorubicin and paclitaxel...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258295/therapeutic-targeting-of-ependymoma-as-informed-by-oncogenic-enhancer-profiling
#20
Stephen C Mack, Kristian W Pajtler, Lukas Chavez, Konstantin Okonechnikov, Kelsey C Bertrand, Xiuxing Wang, Serap Erkek, Alexander Federation, Anne Song, Christine Lee, Xin Wang, Laura McDonald, James J Morrow, Alina Saiakhova, Patrick Sin-Chan, Qiulian Wu, Kulandaimanuvel Antony Michaelraj, Tyler E Miller, Christopher G Hubert, Marina Ryzhova, Livia Garzia, Laura Donovan, Stephen Dombrowski, Daniel C Factor, Betty Luu, Claudia L L Valentim, Ryan C Gimple, Andrew Morton, Leo Kim, Briana C Prager, John J Y Lee, Xiaochong Wu, Jennifer Zuccaro, Yuan Thompson, Borja L Holgado, Jüri Reimand, Susan Q Ke, Adam Tropper, Sisi Lai, Senthuran Vijayarajah, Sylvia Doan, Vaidehi Mahadev, Ana Fernandez Miñan, Susanne N Gröbner, Matthias Lienhard, Marc Zapatka, Zhiqin Huang, Kenneth D Aldape, Angel M Carcaboso, Peter J Houghton, Stephen T Keir, Till Milde, Hendrik Witt, Yan Li, Chao-Jun Li, Xiu-Wu Bian, David T W Jones, Ian Scott, Sheila K Singh, Annie Huang, Peter B Dirks, Eric Bouffet, James E Bradner, Vijay Ramaswamy, Nada Jabado, James T Rutka, Paul A Northcott, Mathieu Lupien, Peter Lichter, Andrey Korshunov, Peter C Scacheri, Stefan M Pfister, Marcel Kool, Michael D Taylor, Jeremy N Rich
Genomic sequencing has driven precision-based oncology therapy; however, the genetic drivers of many malignancies remain unknown or non-targetable, so alternative approaches to the identification of therapeutic leads are necessary. Ependymomas are chemotherapy-resistant brain tumours, which, despite genomic sequencing, lack effective molecular targets. Intracranial ependymomas are segregated on the basis of anatomical location (supratentorial region or posterior fossa) and further divided into distinct molecular subgroups that reflect differences in the age of onset, gender predominance and response to therapy...
December 20, 2017: Nature
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