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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549927/molecular-classification-of-adult-diffuse-gliomas-conflicting-idh1-idh2-atrx-and-1p-19q-results
#1
Leomar Y Ballester, Jason T Huse, Guilin Tang, Gregory N Fuller
Until recently, the diagnosis of brain tumors was primarily based on microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections. The updated World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) incorporates genetic alterations into the classification system, with the goal of creating more homogenous disease categories with greater prognostic value. Hence, under the new classification system the diagnosis of diffuse gliomas incorporates the evaluation of mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes and simultaneous deletion of chromosomes 1p and 19...
May 23, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549082/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-propofol-changes-in-patients-with-frontal-brain-tumours
#2
M M Sahinovic, D J Eleveld, T Miyabe-Nishiwaki, M M R F Struys, A R Absalom
Background: Models of propofol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics developed in patients without brain pathology are widely used for target-controlled infusion (TCI) during brain tumour excision operations. The goal of this study was to determine if the presence of a frontal brain tumour influences propofol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and existing PK-PD model performance. Methods: Twenty patients with a frontal brain tumour and 20 control patients received a propofol infusion to achieve an induction-emergence-induction anaesthetic sequence...
May 26, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546414/diagnosing-adult-primary-brain-tumours-can-we-do-better
#3
Clarissa Penfold, Alexis J Joannides, Joyce Bell, Fiona M Walter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545823/novel-molecular-subgroups-for-clinical-classification-and-outcome-prediction-in-childhood-medulloblastoma-a-cohort-study
#4
Edward C Schwalbe, Janet C Lindsey, Sirintra Nakjang, Stephen Crosier, Amanda J Smith, Debbie Hicks, Gholamreza Rafiee, Rebecca M Hill, Alice Iliasova, Thomas Stone, Barry Pizer, Antony Michalski, Abhijit Joshi, Stephen B Wharton, Thomas S Jacques, Simon Bailey, Daniel Williamson, Steven C Clifford
BACKGROUND: International consensus recognises four medulloblastoma molecular subgroups: WNT (MBWNT), SHH (MBSHH), group 3 (MBGrp3), and group 4 (MBGrp4), each defined by their characteristic genome-wide transcriptomic and DNA methylomic profiles. These subgroups have distinct clinicopathological and molecular features, and underpin current disease subclassification and initial subgroup-directed therapies that are underway in clinical trials. However, substantial biological heterogeneity and differences in survival are apparent within each subgroup, which remain to be resolved...
May 22, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545686/radiological-diagnosis-of-drop-metastases-from%C3%A2-paediatric-brain-tumours-using-combination%C3%A2-of-2d-and-3d-mri-sequences
#5
S F Kralik, D P O'Neill, A P Kamer, E Rodriguez, C Y Ho
AIM: To evaluate spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations using a combination of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) MRI sequences for diagnosis of drop metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-five paediatric patients with primary brain tumours were evaluated for drop metastases at initial presentation using spinal MRI including sagittal 2D T1-weighted (W) contrast-enhanced (+C), axial 3D T1W+C volumetric interpolated breath-hold (VIBE), and sagittal 3D T2W SPACE (Sampling Perfection with Application optimised Contrasts using different flip angle Evolutions)...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544764/the-effectiveness-of-interventions-to-treat-hypothalamic-obesity-in-survivors-of-childhood-brain-tumours-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
K-W Wang, R Chau, A Fleming, L Banfield, S K Singh, D L Johnston, S M Zelcer, S R Rassekh, S Burrow, M Valencia, R J de Souza, L Thabane, M C Samaan
BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood brain tumours (SCBT) are at risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity is a major driver of cardiometabolic diseases in the general population, and interventions that tackle obesity may lower the risk of these chronic diseases. The goal of this systematic review was to summarize current evidence for the presence of interventions to manage obesity, including hypothalamic obesity, in SCBT. METHODS: The primary outcome of this review was the body mass index z-score change from baseline to the end of the intervention and/or follow-up...
May 22, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538229/treatment-outcome-in-patients-with-primary-central-nervous-system-germ-cell-tumour-clinical-experience-from-a-regional-cancer-centre-in-north-india
#7
Ahitagni Biswas, Pramod Kumar Julka, Sameer Bakhshi, Manmohan Singh, Goura Kishor Rath
BACKGROUND: Primary intracranial germ cell tumour is a rare entity and constitutes 2-3% of all paediatric brain tumours in Western countries. We herein intend to report the clinical features and treatment outcome of patients with primary central nervous system germ cell tumour treated at our institute. METHODS: Clinical data were collected by retrospective chart review from 2006 to 2012. Histopathology slides were reviewed and relevant immunohistochemistry stains were done...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534162/applying-protein-based-amide-proton-transfer-mr-imaging-to-distinguish-solitary-brain-metastases-from-glioblastoma
#8
Hao Yu, Huiling Lou, Tianyu Zou, Xianlong Wang, Shanshan Jiang, Zhongqing Huang, Yongxing Du, Chunxiu Jiang, Ling Ma, Jianbin Zhu, Wen He, Qihong Rui, Jianyuan Zhou, Zhibo Wen
OBJECTIVES: To determine the utility of amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) MR imaging in distinguishing solitary brain metastases (SBMs) from glioblastomas (GBMs). METHODS: Forty-five patients with SBMs and 43 patients with GBMs underwent conventional and APT-weighted sequences before clinical intervention. The APTw parameters and relative APTw (rAPTw) parameters in the tumour core and the peritumoral brain zone (PBZ) were obtained and compared between SBMs and GBMs...
May 22, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532604/validation-of-dwi-pre-processing-procedures-for-reliable-differentiation-between-human-brain-gliomas
#9
Sebastian Vellmer, Aram S Tonoyan, Dieter Suter, Igor N Pronin, Ivan I Maximov
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is a powerful tool in clinical applications, in particular, in oncology screening. dMRI demonstrated its benefit and efficiency in the localisation and detection of different types of human brain tumours. Clinical dMRI data suffer from multiple artefacts such as motion and eddy-current distortions, contamination by noise, outliers etc. In order to increase the image quality of the derived diffusion scalar metrics and the accuracy of the subsequent data analysis, various pre-processing approaches are actively developed and used...
May 19, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532322/the-overt-behaviour-scale-self-report-obs-sr-for-acquired-brain-injury-exploratory-analysis-of-reliability-and-validity
#10
Glenn Kelly, Grahame K Simpson, Suzanne Brown, Peter Kremer, Lauren Gillett
The objectives were to test the properties, via a psychometric study, of the Overt Behaviour Scale-Self-Report (OBS-SR), a version of the OBS-Adult Scale developed to provide a client perspective on challenging behaviours after acquired brain injury. Study sample 1 consisted of 37 patients with primary brain tumour (PBT) and a family-member informant. Sample 2 consisted of 34 clients with other acquired brain injury (mixed brain injury, MBI) and a service-provider informant. Participants completed the OBS-SR (at two time points), and the Awareness Questionnaire (AQ) and Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-III (MPAI-III) once; informants completed the OBS-Adult and AQ once only...
May 23, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526854/induction-of-senescence-in-primary-glioblastoma-cells-by-serum-and-tgf%C3%AE
#11
Ritesh Kumar, Alexander Gont, Theodore J Perkins, Jennifer E L Hanson, Ian A J Lorimer
Glioblastoma is the most common type of adult brain tumour and has a median survival after diagnosis of a little more than a year. Glioblastomas have a high frequency of mutations in the TERT promoter and CDKN2A locus that are expected to render them resistant to both replicative and oncogene-induced senescence. However, exposure of PriGO8A primary glioblastoma cells to media with 10% serum induced a senescence-like phenotype characterized by increased senescence-associated β galactosidase activity, PML bodies and p21 and morphological changes typical of senescence...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526761/a-retrospective-chart-review-of-the-features-of-pten-hamartoma-tumour-syndrome-in-children
#12
Emily Hansen-Kiss, Sarah Beinkampen, Brent Adler, Thomas Frazier, Thomas Prior, Steven Erdman, Charis Eng, Gail Herman
OBJECTIVE: It is recognised that 5% - 10 % of children with macrocephaly and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or intellectual disability (ID) have a heterozygous pathogenic mutation in the PTEN tumour suppressor gene that is associated with PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome. However, the clinical features and course in children with a pathogenic PTEN mutation are unclear and have not been well documented. STUDY OBJECTIVES: We undertook a retrospective chart review of children (< 18  years) with pathogenic PTEN mutations to ascertain clinical findings, clinical course and possible outcomes...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512506/case-of-primary-leptomeningeal-lymphoma-presenting-with-papilloedema-and-characteristics-of-pseudotumor-syndrome
#13
Mai Takagi, Hidehiro Oku, Teruyo Kida, Toshikazu Akioka, Tsunehiko Ikeda
The authors describe an immunocompetent, 50-year-old man who complained of a daily transient blurring of his vision with bilateral papilloedema. His visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and the blind spot was enlarged bilaterally. There was intracranial hypertension, but imaging for systemic and brain tumours were negative. These findings suggested a diagnosis of the pseudotumor syndrome. However, MRI showed leptomeningeal enhancement, and acetazolamide successfully resolved his visual symptoms and papilloedema. Cytology and flow cytometry of the CSF led to the final diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal lymphoma (PLML)...
June 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511952/lithium-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neurotoxicity-in-the-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-the-adult-rat-brain
#14
Muhammad Sohail Khan, Tahir Ali, Muhammad Noman Abid, Myeung Hoon Jo, Amjad Khan, Min Woo Kim, Gwang Ho Yoon, Eun Woo Cheon, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Myeong Ok Kim
Lithium an effective mood stabilizer, primary used in the treatment of bipolar disorders, has been reported as a protective agent in various neurological disorders. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective role of lithium chloride (LiCl) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the cortex and hippocampus of the adult rat brain. We determined that LiCl -attenuated LPS-induced activated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling and significantly reduced the nuclear factor-kB (NF-KB) translation factor and various other inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)...
May 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509337/impact-of-induction-chemotherapy-hyperfractionated-accelerated-radiotherapy-and-high-dose-thiotepa-on-brain-volume-loss-and-functional-status-of-children-with-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumour
#15
Elwira Szychot, Kiran Seunarine, Kshitij Mankad, Steffi Thust, Chris Clark, Mark N Gaze, Antony Michalski
BACKGROUND: The introduction of aggressive chemo-radiotherapy regimens has improved overall survival in children with primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET). However, these combinations may result in neurotoxicity. Previously reported magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in children receiving intensive sequential chemotherapy, hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (HART) and high-dose thiotepa prompted us to investigate the degree of brain volume loss and patients' functional status after therapy...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507382/prognostic-significance-of-idh-1-mutation-in-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme
#16
Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Waqas, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim
Focus of brain tumour research is shifting towards tumour genesis and genetics, and possible development of individualized treatment plans. Genetic analysis shows recurrent mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1) gene in most Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. In this review we evaluated the prognostic significance of IDH 1 mutation on the basis of published evidence. Multiple retrospective clinical analyses correlate the presence of IDH1 mutation in GBM with good prognostic outcomes compared to wild-type IDH1...
May 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501939/dianthin-30-or-gelonin-versus-monomethyl-auristatin-e-each-configured-with-an-anti-calcitonin-receptor-antibody-are-differentially-potent-in-vitro-in-high-grade-glioma-cell-lines-derived-from-glioblastoma
#17
Roger Gilabert-Oriol, Sebastian G B Furness, Brett W Stringer, Alexander Weng, Hendrik Fuchs, Bryan W Day, Angela Kourakis, Andrew W Boyd, David L Hare, Mayank Thakur, Terrance G Johns, Peter J Wookey
We have reported that calcitonin receptor (CTR) is widely expressed in biopsies from the lethal brain tumour glioblastoma by malignant glioma and brain tumour-initiating cells (glioma stem cells) using anti-human CTR antibodies. A monoclonal antibody against an epitope within the extracellular domain of CTR was raised (mAb2C4) and chemically conjugated to either plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) dianthin-30 or gelonin, or the drug monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), and purified. In the high-grade glioma cell line (HGG, representing glioma stem cells) SB2b, in the presence of the triterpene glycoside SO1861, the EC50 for mAb2C4:dianthin was 10...
May 13, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501763/optimal-duration-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-for-high-risk-node-negative-n-breast-cancer-patients-6-year-results-of-the-prospective-randomised-multicentre-phase-iii-unicancer-pacs-05-trial-ucbg-0106
#18
Pierre Kerbrat, Isabelle Desmoulins, Lise Roca, Christelle Levy, Alain Lortholary, Alain Marre, Rémy Delva, Maria Rios, Patrice Viens, Étienne Brain, Daniel Serin, Magali Edel, Marc Debled, Mario Campone, Marie-Ange Mourret-Reynier, Thomas Bachelot, Marie-Josèphe Foucher-Goudier, Bernard Asselain, Jérôme Lemonnier, Anne-Laure Martin, Henri Roché
PURPOSE: Optimal duration of adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer remained to be investigated rigorously for the standard regimens in widespread use in North America (doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide, AC) and Europe (5-fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide, FEC). Whether six cycles of FEC 100 present an advantage, or not, compared with only four cycles was tested directly in a phase III prospective multicentre trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2002 and 2006, 1515 women between 18 and 65°years of age, with node negative N(-) high-risk early-stage breast cancer, were included in the study following breast surgery and axillary lymph node dissection or procedure by sentinel node technique...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497804/vaccine-based-immunotherapeutic-approaches-to-gliomas-and-beyond
#19
REVIEW
Michael Weller, Patrick Roth, Matthias Preusser, Wolfgang Wick, David A Reardon, Michael Platten, John H Sampson
Astrocytic and oligodendroglial gliomas are intrinsic brain tumours characterized by infiltrative growth and resistance to classic cancer therapies, which renders them inevitably lethal. Glioblastoma, the most common type of glioma, also exhibits neoangiogenesis and profound immunosuppressive properties. Accordingly, strategies to revert glioma-associated immunosuppression and promote tumour-directed immune responses have been extensively explored in rodent models and in large clinical trials of tumour immunotherapy...
May 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497778/pten-regulates-glioblastoma-oncogenesis-through-chromatin-associated-complexes-of-daxx-and-histone-h3-3
#20
Jorge A Benitez, Jianhui Ma, Matteo D'Antonio, Antonia Boyer, Maria Fernanda Camargo, Ciro Zanca, Stephen Kelly, Alireza Khodadadi-Jamayran, Nathan M Jameson, Michael Andersen, Hrvoje Miletic, Shahram Saberi, Kelly A Frazer, Webster K Cavenee, Frank B Furnari
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal type of human brain cancer, where deletions and mutations in the tumour suppressor gene PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) are frequent events and are associated with therapeutic resistance. Herein, we report a novel chromatin-associated function of PTEN in complex with the histone chaperone DAXX and the histone variant H3.3. We show that PTEN interacts with DAXX and, in turn PTEN directly regulates oncogene expression by modulating DAXX-H3.3 association on the chromatin, independently of PTEN enzymatic activity...
May 12, 2017: Nature Communications
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