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Brain tumours

Altaf Ali Laghari, Syed Ijlal Ahmed, Adnan Jabbar, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim
Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare and aggressive brain tumour that is uniformly fatal. The rarity of the disease and the poor response to treatment makes it difficult to reach a consensus with regards to treatment options. In this review, the authors have discussed different treatment modalities used in the management of PCNSL including chemotherapy, surgery and radiation, as well as the results of recent clinical trials on treatment options for PCNSL.
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Go Eun Choi, Byung Hyun Moon, Sung Do Lee, Eu Jen Jeung, Dong Hun Lee, Yong Soo Cho, Byeong Kook Lee, Yang Jun Kang, Seong Min Choi, Seung Han Lee, Hyun Ho Ryu, Jeong Moon, Byeong Jo Chun, Tag Heo, Yong Il Min
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of brain magnetic resonance imaging in excluding neurological causes in patients with syncope. METHODS: This retrospective, observational, cohort study was conducted at the Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, South Korea, and comprised medical record of patients with syncope from January 2011 to February 2016. The ratio of abnormal findings, the characteristics of the patients who showed abnormal findings and the relationships between the presence of neurological problem and other clinical factors were analysed...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Aimilia Exarchakou, Bernard Rachet, Aurélien Belot, Camille Maringe, Michel P Coleman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of the NHS Cancer Plan (2000) and subsequent national cancer policy initiatives in improving cancer survival and reducing socioeconomic inequalities in survival in England. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: England. POPULATION: More than 3.5 million registered patients aged 15-99 with a diagnosis of one of the 24 most common primary, malignant, invasive neoplasms between 1996 and 2013...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Miranda Smit, Haike E Van Stralen, Bart Van den Munckhof, Tom J Snijders, Hendrik Christiaan Dijkerman
Reports on patients who lack ownership over their entire body are extremely rare. Here, we present patient SA who suffered from complete body disownership after a tumour resection in the right temporoparietal cortex. Neuropsychological assessment disclosed selective bilateral ownership problems, despite intact primary visual and somatosensory senses. SA's disownership seems to stem from a suboptimal multimodal integration, as shown by the rubber hand illusion and the beneficial effect during and after simple exercises aiming at multisensory recalibration...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Melissa Milan, Silvia Benvenuti, Alice Maria Balderacchi, Anna Rita Virzì, Alessandra Gentile, Rebecca Senetta, Paola Cassoni, Paolo Maria Comoglio, Giulia Maria Stella
RON mutations might identify actionable targets in highly aggressive lung tumours
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
Julie A Morgan, Andrew T Olagunju, Frances Corrigan, Bernhard T Baune
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise in adults improves depressive symptoms (DS) and major depressive disorder (MDD), however the clinical effects of ceasing exercise are largely unknown. METHODS: Seven databases were searched from inception to December 2017. Eligibility criteria included English language studies investigating the effects of ceasing exercise on DS or MDD in regularly active adults with or without prior DS or MDD. Blood based markers related to exercise cessation (EC) were assessed, if recorded...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Trevor W Stone, Megan McPherson, L Gail Darlington
Existing explanations of obesity-associated cancer emphasise direct mutagenic effects of dietary components or hormonal imbalance. Some of these hypotheses are reviewed briefly, but recent evidence suggests a major role for chronic inflammation in cancer risk, possibly involving dietary content. These ideas include the inflammation-induced activation of the kynurenine pathway and its role in feeding and metabolism by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and by modulating synaptic transmission in the brain...
February 27, 2018: EBioMedicine
Takeshi Kotake, Masakazu Toi
There have been numerous clinical trials of CDK4/6 inhibitors performed on various carcinomas including breast cancer. One such inhibitor tested and which has ongoing clinical trials for breast cancer is abemaciclib. Abemaciclib is a molecular-targeted agent that targets basic cell cycle regulatory mechanisms. Areas covered: This review discusses the available clinical data and ongoing clinical trials of abemaciclib in breast cancer. Expert opinion: Abemaciclib has demonstrated a clear anti-tumour effect and manageable toxicity against HR-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer in many clinical trials and is expected to be an important standard therapy...
March 9, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Sergio Rivas, Carla Gómez-Oro, Inés M Antón, Francisco Wandosell
The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that tumours are maintained by a subpopulation of cells with stem cell properties. Although the existence of CSCs was initially described in human leukaemia, less evidence exists for CSCs in solid tumours. Recently, a CD133+ cell subpopulation was isolated from human brain tumoursexhibiting stem cell properties in vitro as well as the capacity to initiate tumours in vivo. In the present work, we try to summarize the data showing that some elements of the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Class I (PI3K)/ Thymoma viral oncogene protein kinase (Akt) pathway, such the activity of PI3K Class I or Akt2, are necessary to maintain the CSC-like phenotype as well as survival of CSCs (also denoted as tumour-initiating cells (TICs))...
March 7, 2018: Biomedicines
Justyna O Ekert, Rebecca L Gould, Gemma Reynolds, Robert J Howard
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors (TNF-αI) on Alzheimer's disease-associated pathology. DESIGN: A literature search of PubMed, Embase, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases for human and animal studies that evaluated the use of TNF-αI was performed on 26 October 2016. RESULTS: The main outcomes assessed were cognition and behaviour, reduction in brain tissue mass, presence of plaques and tangles, and synaptic function...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Christiane Reinert, Katharina Rathberger, Monika Klinkhammer-Schalke, Oliver Kölbl, Martin Proescholdt, Markus J Riemenschneider, Gerhard Schuierer, Markus Hutterer, Michael Gerken, Peter Hau
Patients with brain tumours face a number of medical and social challenges. Previous studies have shown that these patients and their relatives need a high level of patient-oriented information and counselling. However, these needs are often underestimated. In this single-centre cross-sectional study, we evaluated, for the first time, the information needs of patients with brain tumours and their relatives depending on diagnosis, age and level of education. The participants were interviewed using pre-specified questionnaires...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Zhen Ni Zhou, Chelsea Canon, Cathleen Matrai, Eloise Chapman-Davis
The patient is a 42-year-old woman with metastatic primary peritoneal carcinoma and known brain metastases, who subsequently developed cauda equina syndrome after presenting with ataxia, lower extremity weakness, and bowel and bladder incontinence secondary to leptomeningeal metastasis after treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgical debulking, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) and leptomeninges are rare events in epithelial ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinomas as these tumours do not have a predilection for the CNS...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
Flavio Nigri, Jucilana Dos Santos Viana, Pedro Henrique da Costa Ferreira Pinto, Elington Lannes Simões, Carlos Roberto Telles Ribeiro
Microsurgery remains the gold standard treatment for intraventricular lesions, but it is not without limitations. The cerebral ventricles approach is considered a challenge for neurosurgeons because of their deep location and their intimate association with critical areas of the brain. It has been shown that direct endoscopic view is superior to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying intraventricular structures and lesions. Also, during neuroendoscopy, there is no cerebrospinal fluid leak causing brain collapse as seen in microsurgery...
January 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
Eduardo Ov Curvo, Roberto R Ferreira, Fabiana S Madeira, Gabriel F Alves, Mayara C Chambela, Veronica G Mendes, Luiz Henrique C Sangenis, Mariana C Waghabi, Roberto M Saraiva
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) have been implicated in Chagas disease pathophysiology and may correlate with left ventricular (LV) function. OBJECTIVES: We determined whether TGF-β1 and TNF serum levels correlate with LV systolic and diastolic functions and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) serum levels in chronic Chagas disease. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 152 patients with Chagas disease (43% men; 57 ± 12 years old), classified as 53 patients with indeterminate form and 99 patients with cardiac form (stage A: 24, stage B: 25, stage C: 44, stage D: 6)...
February 19, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Linda Dirven, Terri S Armstrong, Jaishri O Blakeley, Paul D Brown, Robin Grant, Rakesh Jalali, Heather Leeper, Tito Mendoza, Lakshmi Nayak, Jaap C Reijneveld, Emilie Le Rhun, Tobias Walbert, Michael Weller, Patrick Y Wen, Martin J B Taphoorn
The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology-Patient-Reported Outcome (RANO-PRO) working group is an international multidisciplinary collaboration that provides guidance on the use of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures in clinical trials and practice for adult patients with brain tumours. Findings from both PROs and traditional outcome measures, such as survival, and clinical or radiological response, are essential to inform the research community, policy makers, physicians, and patients in the treatment decision-making process...
March 2018: Lancet Oncology
Mario Muto, Giulia Frauenfelder, Rossana Senese, Fabio Zeccolini, Emiliano Schena, Francesco Giurazza, Rolf Jager
INTRODUCTION: Distinction between treatment-related changes and tumour recurrence in patients who have received radiation treatment for brain metastases can be difficult on conventional MRI. In this study, we investigated the ability of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion in differentiating necrotic changes from pathological angiogenesis and compared measurements of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and K2, using a dedicated software...
March 5, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
Hailin Zhao, Qian Chen, Azeem Alam, Jiang Cui, Ka Chun Suen, Aurelie Pac Soo, Shiori Eguchi, Jianteng Gu, Daqing Ma
Osteopontin (OPN) is a bone sialoprotein involved in osteoclast attachment to mineralised bone matrix, as well as being a bone matrix protein, OPN is also a versatile protein that acts on various receptors which are associated with different signalling pathways implicated in cancer. OPN mediates various biological events involving the immune system and the vascular system; the protein plays a role in processes such as immune response, cell adhesion and migration, and tumorigenesis. This review discusses the potential role of OPN in tumour cell proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes in different cancers, including brain, lung, kidney, liver, bladder, breast, oesophageal, gastric, colon, pancreatic, prostate and ovarian cancers...
March 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
James R Larkin, Manon A Simard, Alexandre A Khrapitchev, James A Meakin, Thomas W Okell, Martin Craig, Kevin J Ray, Peter Jezzard, Michael A Chappell, Nicola R Sibson
Cerebral blood flow is an important parameter in many diseases and functional studies that can be accurately measured in humans using arterial spin labelling (ASL) MRI. However, although rat models are frequently used for preclinical studies of both human disease and brain function, rat CBF measurements show poor consistency between studies. This lack of reproducibility is due, partly, to the smaller size and differing head geometry of rats compared to humans, as well as the differing analysis methodologies employed and higher field strengths used for preclinical MRI...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Eroje M Ahmed, Gagori Bandopadhyay, Beth Coyle, Anna Grabowska
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the commonest brain tumour in adults. A sub-population of cells within these tumours, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), is thought to mediate their chemo-/radiotherapy resistance. CD133 is a cell surface marker that is used to identify and isolate GBM CSCs. However, its functional significance, as well as the relevant microenvironment in which to study CD133, have so far remained unknown. Here, we examined the effect of hypoxia on the expression of CD133 and on that of the hypoxia-related factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α, and the potential functional significance of CD133 expression on the acquisition of chemo-resistance by GBM cells...
February 28, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Maria Tsoli, Jie Liu, Laura Franshaw, Han Shen, Cecilia Cheng, MoonSun Jung, Swapna Joshi, Anahid Ehteda, Aaminah Khan, Angel Montero-Carcabosso, Pierre J Dilda, Philip Hogg, David S Ziegler
Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPG) are the most devastating of all pediatric brain tumors. They mostly affect young children and, as there are no effective treatments, almost all patients with DIPG will die of their tumor within 12 months of diagnosis. A key feature of this devastating tumor is its intrinsic resistance to all clinically available therapies. It has been shown that glioma development is associated with metabolic reprogramming, redox state disruption and resistance to apoptotic pathways...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
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