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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935819/a-novel-brain-tumour-model-in-zebrafish-reveals-the-role-of-yap-activation-in-mapk-pi3k-induced-malignant-growth
#1
Marie Mayrhofer, Victor Gourain, Markus Reischl, Pierre Affaticati, Arnim Jenett, Jean-Stephane Joly, Matteo Benelli, Francesca Demichelis, Pietro Luigi Poliani, Dirk Sieger, Marina Mione
Somatic mutations activating MAPK/PI3K signalling play a pivotal role in both tumours and brain developmental disorders. We developed a zebrafish model of brain tumour based on somatic expression of oncogenes that activate MAPK/PI3K signalling in neural progenitor cells. HRAS(V12) was the most effective in inducing both heterotopia and invasive tumours. Tumours, but not heterotopias, require persistent activation of phospho‑(p)ERK and express a gene signature similar to the mesenchymal glioblastoma subtype, with a strong YAP component...
November 24, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933170/growth-of-a-progesterone-receptor-positive-meningioma-in-a-female-patient-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#2
T O'Shea, R K Crowley, M Farrell, S MacNally, P Govender, J Feeney, J Gibney, M Sherlock
: Meningioma growth has been previously described in patients receiving oestrogen/progestogen therapy. We describe the clinical, radiological, biochemical and pathologic findings in a 45-year-old woman with congenital adrenal hyperplasia secondary to a defect in the 21-hydroxylase enzyme who had chronic poor adherence to glucocorticoid therapy with consequent virilisation. The patient presented with a frontal headache and marked right-sided proptosis. Laboratory findings demonstrated androgen excess with a testosterone of 18...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928415/bilateral-internuclear-ophthalmoplegia-as-a-presenting-manifestation-of-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#3
K S Natsis, E Boura, O Kyriazis, A Iliadis, S-A Syntila, I Kostopoulos, T Afrantou
Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia has been linked with various pathological conditions of the central nervous system (CNS), such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, tumours, and brainstem inflammatory processes. Herein the authors report a case of a 45-year-old female patient who presented with diplopia due to bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia, with no evidence of brainstem lesion in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and was diagnosed with primary Sjögren's syndrome.
October 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925467/low-grade-glioma-an-update-for-radiologists
#4
Jennifer Larsen, Steve B Wharton, Charles Romanowski, Fiona M McKevitt, Caroline Bridgewater, Hesham Zaki, Nigel Hoggard
With the recent publication of a new World Health Organization (WHO) brain tumour classification that reflects increased understanding of glioma tumour genetics there is a need for radiologists to understand the changes and their implications for patient management. There has also been an increasing trend for adopting earlier, more aggressive surgical approaches to low grade glioma treatment. We will summarise these changes, give some context to the increased role of tumour genetics and discuss the associated implications for radiologists of their adoption...
December 7, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924154/early-diagnosis-of-brain-metastases-using-a-biofluids-metabolomics-approach-in-mice
#5
James R Larkin, Alex M Dickens, Timothy D W Claridge, Claire Bristow, Kleopatra Andreou, Daniel C Anthony, Nicola R Sibson
Over 20% of cancer patients will develop brain metastases. Prognosis is currently extremely poor, largely owing to late-stage diagnosis. We hypothesized that biofluid metabolomics could detect tumours at the micrometastatic stage, prior to the current clinical gold-standard of blood-brain barrier breakdown. Metastatic mammary carcinoma cells (4T1-GFP) were injected into BALB/c mice via intracerebral, intracardiac or intravenous routes to induce differing cerebral and systemic tumour burdens. B16F10 melanoma and MDA231BR-GFP human breast carcinoma cells were used for additional modelling...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923479/immune-cell-infiltration-in-feline-meningioma
#6
R McBride, E A Sloma, H N Erb, A D Miller
Meningioma is the most common primary brain tumour in the cat. Although most of these tumours are considered to be benign based on histological characteristics, little is known regarding microenvironmental changes associated with the tumour. The characterization of the immune-cell infiltrate in human and canine meningiomas has been described; however, there are no data regarding the cat equivalent. Seventeen formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded samples of feline meningioma were evaluated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for expression of CD3, Pax5, Iba-1, HLA-DR, MAC387, CD163 and Ki67...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915035/hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-in-children-and-adults
#7
REVIEW
Pratik Shah, Sofia A Rahman, Huseyin Demirbilek, Maria Güemes, Khalid Hussain
Pancreatic β cells are functionally programmed to release insulin in response to changes in plasma glucose concentration. Insulin secretion is precisely regulated so that, under normal physiological conditions, fasting plasma glucose concentrations are kept within a narrow range of 3·5-5·5 mmol/L. In hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia, insulin secretion becomes dysregulated (ie, uncoupled from glucose metabolism) so that insulin secretion persists in the presence of low plasma glucose concentrations. Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia is the most common cause of severe and persistent hypoglycaemia in neonates and children...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913914/tragedy-in-moral-case-deliberation
#8
Benita Spronk, Margreet Stolper, Guy Widdershoven
In healthcare practice, care providers are confronted with tragic situations, in which they are expected to make choices and decisions that can have far-reaching consequences. This article investigates the role of moral case deliberation (MCD) in dealing with tragic situations. It focuses on experiences of care givers involved in the treatment of a pregnant woman with a brain tumour, and their evaluation of a series of MCD meetings in which the dilemmas around care were discussed. The study was qualitative, focusing on the views and experiences of the participants...
December 2, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910829/optimization-of-photon-beam-energies-in-gold-nanoparticle-enhanced-arc-radiation-therapy-using-monte-carlo-methods
#9
B Koger, C Kirkby
As a recent area of development in radiation therapy, gold nanoparticle (GNP) enhanced radiation therapy has shown potential to increase tumour dose while maintaining acceptable levels of healthy tissue toxicity. In this study, the effect of varying photon beam energy in GNP enhanced arc radiation therapy (GEART) is quantified through the introduction of a dose scoring metric, and GEART is compared to a conventional radiotherapy treatment. The PENELOPE Monte Carlo code was used to model several simple phantoms consisting of a spherical tumour containing GNPs (concentration: 15 mg Au g(-1) tumour, 0...
December 2, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909268/ten-year-review-of-survival-and-management-of-malignant-glioma-in-hong-kong
#10
D Tm Chan, S Yp Hsieh, C Ky Lau, M Km Kam, H Hf Loong, W K Tsang, D Mc Poon, W S Poon
INTRODUCTION: Surgical resection used to be the mainstay of treatment for glioma. In the last decade, however, opinion has changed about the goal of surgical resection in treating glioma. Ample evidence shows that maximum safe resection in glioblastoma improves survival. Neurosurgeons have therefore revised their objective of surgery from diagnostic biopsy or limited debulking to maximum safe resection. Given these changes in the management of glioma, we compared the survival of local Chinese patients with glioblastoma multiforme over a period of 10 years...
December 2, 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903792/clinical-effectiveness-of-bevacizumab-in-patients-with-recurrent-brain-tumours-a-population-based-evaluation
#11
REVIEW
Mário L de Lemos, Adeline Markarian, Esther Chan, Kimberly Schaff, Susan Walisser
BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab is an antiangiogenic agent active in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. However, evidence for its clinical efficacy is relatively limited so that bevacizumab is approved for this indication in Canada and the United States, but not in the European Union. We reviewed the effectiveness of bevacizumab in patients with recurrent brain tumour using a large population database. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicentre, study conducted at the BC Cancer Agency, a public cancer care organisation for the residents of the Canadian province of British Columbia...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900589/intrinsic-her2-v777l-mutation-mediates-resistance-to-trastuzumab-in-a-breast-cancer-patient
#12
Yosuke Hirotsu, Hiroshi Nakagomi, Kenji Amemiya, Toshio Oyama, Masayuki Inoue, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Masao Omata
HER2 (ERBB2) is an oncogene and 20% of breast cancers display HER2 amplification. The HER2 monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, is used to treat breast cancers that display HER2 amplification, with good responses in 80-90% of cases; however, 10% of tumours develop resistance to trastuzumab. In this study, we collected data of primary breast cancer patients who treated at hospital during 2004-2014. In our cohort, 205 of 1497 primary breast cancer patients showed HER2-amplification, and 20 experienced recurrence after trastuzumab therapy...
January 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899997/testin-tes-as-a-candidate-tumour-suppressor-and-prognostic-marker-in-human-astrocytoma
#13
Giedrius Steponaitis, Arunas Kazlauskas, Daina Skiriute, Indre Valiulyte, Kestutis Skauminas, Arimantas Tamasauskas, Paulina Vaitkiene
Astrocytomas are one of the most common brain tumours; however, the current methods used to characterize these tumours are inadequate. The establishment of molecular markers may identify variables required to improve tumour characterization and subtyping, and may aid to specify targets for improved treatment with essential prognostic value for patient survival. One such candidate is testin (TES), which was reported to have prognostic value for glioblastoma patients. However, the role of TES protein in gliomagenesis is currently unknown...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899174/concurrent-gliosarcoma-and-choroid-plexus-carcinoma-in-a-cow
#14
A Ortloff, J Neumann, O Illanes
Brain tumours in cattle are uncommon and the spontaneous development of primary brain tumours of different histological types is rare in both man and animals. In man, multiple concurrent primary tumours of different types are occasionally described. We report the rare simultaneous occurrence of two different primary brain tumours, gliosarcoma and choroid plexus carcinoma, diagnosed by microscopical and immunofluorescence evaluation in an 8-year-old cow with a 2-month history of neurological disease. Gliosarcoma is a rare variant of glioblastoma multiforme, characterized by the presence of malignant glial cells and mesenchymal tissue...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895360/paediatric-external-ventricular-drains-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-a-developing-country
#15
Abbas Qalab, Rayaan Asad, Mahnaz Hakeem, Maria Ahmed, Haque Anwar, Aneela Darbar
The aim of the study was to describe indications and complications of external ventricular drain (EVD) placement in children aged between 1 month and 16 years. This retrospective chart review was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised all children who underwent EVD placement from January 2007 to December 2014. Of the 177 patients identified, 117(66%) were males 60(34%) were girls. The overall mean age was 5.4±5.2 years. The median Glasgow Coma Scale score on presentation and discharge was 13 (interquartile range [IQR]: 7) and 15 (IQR: 4), respectively...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895359/awake-craniotomy-for-brain-tumours-in-pakistan-an-initial-case-series-from-a-developing-country
#16
Saad Akhtar Khan, Karim Rizwan Nathani, Badar Uddin Ujjan, Muhammad Danish Barakzai, Syed Ather Enam, Faraz Shafiq
Awake craniotomy offers safe resection of brain tumours in eloquent area. Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, recently started the programme in Pakistan, and the current study was planned to assess our experience of the first 16 procedures. The retrospective study comprised all such procedures done from November 2015 to May 2016. Pre-operative and post-operative variables were analysed. Of the 16 patients, 11(68.75%) were males and 5(31.25%) were females. The overall median age was 37 years (interquartile range[IQR]: 23-62 years)...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890797/3-bromopyruvate-treatment-induces-alterations-of-metabolic-and-stress-related-pathways-in-glioblastoma-cells
#17
Davide Chiasserini, Magdalena Davidescu, Pier Luigi Orvietani, Federica Susta, Lara Macchioni, Maya Petricciuolo, Emilia Castigli, Rita Roberti, Luciano Binaglia, Lanfranco Corazzi
: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumours of adults. The metabolic phenotype of GBM cells is highly dependent on glycolysis; therefore, therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with glycolytic pathways are under consideration. 3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) is a potent antiglycolytic agent, with a variety of targets and possible effects on global cell metabolism. Here we analyzed the changes in protein expression on a GBM cell line (GL15 cells) caused by 3BP treatment using a global proteomic approach...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886714/classification-of-ct-brain-images-based-on-deep-learning-networks
#18
Xiaohong W Gao, Rui Hui, Zengmin Tian
While computerised tomography (CT) may have been the first imaging tool to study human brain, it has not yet been implemented into clinical decision making process for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the other hand, with the nature of being prevalent, inexpensive and non-invasive, CT does present diagnostic features of AD to a great extent. This study explores the significance and impact on the application of the burgeoning deep learning techniques to the task of classification of CT brain images, in particular utilising convolutional neural network (CNN), aiming at providing supplementary information for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease...
January 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884882/lymphomatosis-cerebri-diagnostic-challenges-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Paul J Lee, Idanis Berrios, Carolina Ionete, Thomas Smith
Lymphomatosis cerebri (LC) is a rare variant of a primary central nervous system non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (PCNSL) characterised by diffuse infiltration of tumour cells throughout the brain parenchyma. We present a 68-year-old immunocompetent woman with headaches, dizziness, blurred vision, localised right leg weakness and rapidly progressive dementia. A brain MRI demonstrated diffuse T2 hyperintense white matter lesions that did not enhance with contrast. The clinical differential diagnosis of these lesions included metastatic disease, infectious or inflammatory process such as sarcoidosis, lymphoma, demyelinating disease and less likely vascular aetiology, such as vasculitis or ischaemic stroke...
November 24, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878437/neurosarcoidosis-a-clinical-approach-to-diagnosis-and-management
#20
Richard T Ibitoye, A Wilkins, N J Scolding
Sarcoidosis is a rare but important cause of neurological morbidity, and neurological symptoms often herald the diagnosis. Our understanding of neurosarcoidosis has evolved from early descriptions of a uveoparotid fever to include presentations involving every part of the neural axis. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients with sarcoidosis who develop new neurological symptoms, those presenting with syndromes highly suggestive of neurosarcoidosis, or neuro-inflammatory disease where more common causes have been excluded...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neurology
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