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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905560/increased-emr2-expression-on-neutrophils-correlates-with-disease-severity-and-predicts-overall-mortality-in-cirrhotic-patients
#1
Chien-Hao Huang, Wen-Juei Jeng, Yu-Pin Ho, Wei- Teng, Yi-Chung Hsieh, Wei-Ting Chen, Yi-Cheng Chen, Hsi-Hsien Lin, I-Shyan Sheen, Chun-Yen Lin
Patients with liver cirrhosis are susceptible to infections with high short-term mortalities. One CD97-related EGF-TM7 molecule, EMR2 (EGF-like molecule containing mucin-like hormone receptor 2), had been shown to regulate human neutrophil function, potentiate systemic inflammation. Nevertheless, EMR2 could also suppress neutrophil survival. Studying the role of EMR2 on neutrophil would be intriguing. 48 healthy volunteers and 100 cirrhotic patients were enrolled. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral blood and cell surface markers were measured by flow cytometry...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891080/enhanced-burst-suppression-and-disruption-of-local-field-potential-synchrony-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-exhibiting-spike-wave-seizures
#2
Anthony J Williams, Chen Zhou, Qian-Quan Sun
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs) to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1). Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5-13 months old) followed by 24 h cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890828/alterations-of-motor-cortical-microcircuit-in-a-depressive-like-mouse-model-produced-by-light-deprivation
#3
Yun-Feng Zhang, Qi-Qin Li, Jia Qu, Cui-Min Sun, Yun Wang
Depression is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening forms of mental illness. The heavy social burden imposed by this disorder calls for a better understanding of its pathogenesis. Light deficiency is an important factor potentially leading to depression. However, how the light deficiency affects neural microcircuit underlying depression remains largely unknown. This study investigated the properties of morphology, electrophysiology, and synaptology of layer V pyramidal cells (L5PCs) in the motor cortex of a mouse model with depressive behavioral phenotype that was produced by light deprivation (LD)...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876397/efficacy-of-sodium-channel-blockers-in-scn2a-early-infantile-epileptic-encephalopathy
#4
Robertino Dilena, Pasquale Striano, Elena Gennaro, Laura Bassi, Sara Olivotto, Laura Tadini, Fabio Mosca, Sergio Barbieri, Federico Zara, Monica Fumagalli
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical evidence supports a targeted therapeutic approach for genetic epileptic encephalopathies based on the molecular dysfunction. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: A 2-day-old male infant presented with epileptic encephalopathy characterized by burst-suppression EEG background and tonic-clonic migrating partial seizures. The condition was refractory to phenobarbital, pyridoxine, pyridoxal phosphate and levetiracetam, but a dramatic response to an intravenous loading dose of phenytoin was documented by video-EEG monitoring...
November 19, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872655/novel-burst-suppression-segmentation-in-the-joint-time-frequency-domain-for-eeg-in-treatment-of-status-epilepticus
#5
Jaeyun Lee, Woo-Jin Song, Hyang Woon Lee, Hyun-Chool Shin
We developed a method to distinguish bursts and suppressions for EEG burst suppression from the treatments of status epilepticus, employing the joint time-frequency domain. We obtained the feature used in the proposed method from the joint use of the time and frequency domains, and we estimated the decision as to whether the measured EEG was a burst segment or suppression segment by the maximum likelihood estimation. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method in terms of its accordance with the visual scores and estimation of the burst suppression ratio...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871800/zymosan-induced-immune-challenge-modifies-the-stress-response-of-hypoxic-air-breathing-fish-anabas-testudineus-bloch-evidence-for-reversed-patterns-of-cortisol-and-thyroid-hormone-interaction-differential-ion-transporter-functions-and-non-specific-immune-response
#6
S Simi, Valsa S Peter, M C Subhash Peter
Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish...
November 18, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867719/monitoring-cerebral-oxygenation-and-local-field-potential-with-a-variation-of-isoflurane-concentration-in-a-rat-model
#7
Dong-Hyuk Choi, Teo Jeon Shin, Seonghyun Kim, Jayyoung Bae, Dongrae Cho, Jinsil Ham, Ji-Young Park, Hyoung-Ihl Kim, Seongwook Jeong, Boreom Lee, Jae Gwan Kim
We aimed to investigate experimentally how anesthetic levels affect cerebral metabolism measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and to identify a robust marker among NIRS parameters to discriminate various stages of anesthetic depth in rats under isoflurane anesthesia. In order to record the hemodynamic changes and local field potential (LFP) in the brain, fiber-optic cannulae and custom-made microelectrodes were implanted in the frontal cortex of the skull. The NIRS and LFP signals were continuously monitored before, during and after isoflurane anesthesia...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856400/methodological-issues-in-the-use-of-individual-brain-measures-to-index-trait-liabilities-the-example-of-noise-probe-p3
#8
Emily R Perkins, James R Yancey, Laura E Drislane, Noah C Venables, Steve Balsis, Christopher J Patrick
Recent research initiatives have called for an increased use of biological concepts and measures in defining and studying mental health problems, but important measurement-related challenges confront efforts in this direction. This article highlights some of these challenges with reference to an intriguing measure of neural reactivity: the probe P3 response, a mid-latency brain potential evoked by an intense, unexpected acoustic-probe stimulus. Using data for a large adult sample (N=418), we report evidence that amplitude of probe P3 response to unwarned noise bursts occurring in a picture-viewing task exhibits robust, independent associations with two distinct trait constructs: weak inhibitory control (or disinhibition; DIS) and threat sensitivity (THT)...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852771/reduced-efficacy-of-the-kcc2-cotransporter-promotes-epileptic-oscillations-in-a-subiculum-network-model
#9
Anatoly Buchin, Anton Chizhov, Gilles Huberfeld, Richard Miles, Boris S Gutkin
: Pharmacoresistant epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition in which a basal brain hyperexcitability results in paroxysmal hypersynchronous neuronal discharges. Human temporal lobe epilepsy has been associated with dysfunction or loss of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 in a subset of pyramidal cells in the subiculum, a key structure generating epileptic activities. KCC2 regulates intraneuronal chloride and extracellular potassium levels by extruding both ions. Absence of effective KCC2 may alter the dynamics of chloride and potassium levels during repeated activation of GABAergic synapses due to interneuron activity...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828957/plasticity-in-single-axon-glutamatergic-connection-to-gabaergic-interneurons-regulates-complex-events-in-the-human-neocortex
#10
Viktor Szegedi, Melinda Paizs, Eszter Csakvari, Gabor Molnar, Pal Barzo, Gabor Tamas, Karri Lamsa
In the human neocortex, single excitatory pyramidal cells can elicit very large glutamatergic EPSPs (VLEs) in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons capable of triggering their firing with short (3-5 ms) delay. Similar strong excitatory connections between two individual neurons have not been found in nonhuman cortices, suggesting that these synapses are specific to human interneurons. The VLEs are crucial for generating neocortical complex events, observed as single pyramidal cell spike-evoked discharge of cell assemblies in the frontal and temporal cortices...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825865/development-of-near-zero-order-release-plga-based-microspheres-of-a-novel-antipsychotic
#11
Jinlong Zhao, Lexi Wang, Chunyu Fan, Kongtong Yu, Ximing Liu, Xiaolei Zhao, Dan Wang, Wenhua Liu, Zhengxing Su, Fengying Sun, Youxin Li
The novel antipsychotic isoperidone, a prodrug of paliperidone, was designed to improve liposolubility for the development of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based microspheres to achieve near zero-order release behaviour in vivo. Microspheres with a smooth surface were obtained using the oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method and yielded a high encapsulation efficiency of 92%. Pharmacokinetic studies in beagle dogs showed a one-week plateau phase followed by a two-week quasi-zero-order release with no burst release...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819255/an-adaptive-and-generalizable-closed-loop-system-for-control-of-medically-induced-coma-and-other-states-of-anesthesia
#12
Yuxiao Yang, Maryam M Shanechi
OBJECTIVE: Design of closed-loop anesthetic delivery (CLAD) systems is an important topic, particularly for medically induced coma, which needs to be maintained for long periods. Current CLADs for medically induced coma require a separate offline experiment for model parameter estimation, which causes interruption in treatment and is difficult to perform. Also, CLADs may exhibit bias due to inherent time-variation and non-stationarity, and may have large infusion rate variations at steady state...
December 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789573/a-de-novo-missense-mutation-of-gabrb2-causes-early-myoclonic-encephalopathy
#13
Atsushi Ishii, Jing-Qiong Kang, Cara C Schornak, Ciria C Hernandez, Wangzhen Shen, Joseph C Watkins, Robert L Macdonald, Shinichi Hirose
BACKGROUND: Early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME), a disease with a devastating prognosis, is characterised by neonatal onset of seizures and massive myoclonus accompanied by a continuous suppression-burst EEG pattern. Three genes are associated with EMEs that have metabolic features. Here, we report a pathogenic mutation of an ion channel as a cause of EME for the first time. METHODS: Sequencing was performed for 214 patients with epileptic seizures using a gene panel with 109 genes that are known or suspected to cause epileptic seizures...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760816/thalamic-state-control-of-cortical-paired-pulse-dynamics
#14
Clarissa J Whitmire, Daniel C Millard, Garrett B Stanley
Sensory stimulation drives complex interactions across neural circuits as information is encoded and then transmitted from one brain region to the next. In the highly interconnected thalamocortical circuit, these complex interactions elicit repeatable neural dynamics in response to temporal patterns of stimuli that provide insight into the circuit properties that generated them. Here, using a combination of in-vivo voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging of cortex, single unit recording in thalamus, and optogenetics to manipulate thalamic state in the rodent vibrissa pathway, we probed the thalamocortical circuit with simple temporal patterns of stimuli delivered either to the whiskers on the face (sensory stimulation) or to the thalamus directly via electrical or optogenetic inputs (artificial stimulation)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756752/tsc2-deficiency-unmasks-a-novel-necrosis-pathway-that-is-suppressed-by-the-rip1-rip3-mlkl-signaling-cascade
#15
Piotr T Filipczak, Cynthia L Thomas, Wenshu Chen, Andrew Salzman, Jacob D McDonald, Yong Lin, Steven A Belinsky
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic multi-organ disorder characterized by the development of neoplastic lesions in kidney, lung, brain, heart and skin. It is caused by an inactivating mutation in tumor suppressor genes coding the TSC1/TSC2 complex, resulting in hyperactivation of mTOR- and Raf/MEK/MAPK-dependent signaling that stimulates tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Despite its oncogenic effect, cells with TSC deficiency were more sensitive to oxidative stress and dependent on mitochondrial metabolism, providing a rationale for a new therapeutic approach...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751957/repertoire-of-mesoscopic-cortical-activity-is-not-reduced-during-anesthesia
#16
Anthony G Hudetz, Jeannette A Vizuete, Siveshigan Pillay, George A Mashour
Consciousness has been linked to the repertoire of brain states at various spatiotemporal scales. Anesthesia is thought to modify consciousness by altering information integration in cortical and thalamocortical circuits. At a mesoscopic scale, neuronal populations in the cortex form synchronized ensembles whose characteristics are presumably state-dependent but this has not been rigorously tested. In this study, spontaneous neuronal activity was recorded with 64-contact microelectrode arrays in primary visual cortex of chronically instrumented, unrestrained rats under stepwise decreasing levels of desflurane anesthesia (8%, 6%, 4%, and 2% inhaled concentrations) and wakefulness (0% concentration)...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723836/suppression-of-protective-responses-upon-activation-of-l-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-in-macrophages-during-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-infection
#17
Deepika Sharma, Brijendra Kumar Tiwari, Subhash Mehto, Cecil Antony, Gunjan Kak, Yogendra Singh, Krishnamurthy Natarajan
The prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) strains eliciting drug resistance has necessitated the need for understanding the complexities of host pathogen interactions. The regulation of calcium homeostasis by Voltage Gated Calcium Channel (VGCCs) upon M. tb infection has recently assumed importance in this area. We previously showed a suppressor role of VGCC during M. tb infections and recently reported the mechanisms of its regulation by M. tb. Here in this report, we further characterize the role of VGCC in mediating defence responses of macrophages during mycobacterial infection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722113/bone-marrow-hematopoietic-stem-cells-behavior-with-or-without-growth-factors-in-trauma-hemorrhagic-shock
#18
Manoj Kumar, Sanjeev Bhoi, Sujata Mohanty, Vineet Kumar Kamal, D N Rao, Pravas Mishra, Sagar Galwankar
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is the major leading cause of death after trauma. Up to 50% of early deaths are due to massive hemorrhage. Excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokine and hypercatecholamine induces hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) apoptosis, leading to multiorgan failure and death. However, still, result remains elusive for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) behavior in trauma HS (T/HS). OBJECTIVES: Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the in vitro HSCs behavior with or without recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), recombinant human granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF), recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3) alone, and combination with rhEPO + rhGM-CSF + rhIL-3 (EG3) in T/HS patients...
July 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713428/sensory-feedback-synchronizes-motor-and-sensory-neuronal-networks-in-the-neonatal-rat-spinal-cord
#19
Ana R Inácio, Azat Nasretdinov, Julia Lebedeva, Roustem Khazipov
Early stages of sensorimotor system development in mammals are characterized by the occurrence of spontaneous movements. Whether and how these movements support correlated activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits remains unknown. Here we show highly correlated activity in sensory and motor zones in the spinal cord of neonatal rats in vivo. Both during twitches and complex movements, movement-generating bursts in motor zones are followed by bursts in sensory zones. Deafferentation does not affect activity in motor zones and movements, but profoundly suppresses activity bursts in sensory laminae and results in sensorimotor uncoupling, implying a primary role of sensory feedback in sensorimotor synchronization...
October 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711985/dysfunction-of-arabidopsis-macpf-domain-protein-activates-programmed-cell-death-via-tryptophan-metabolism-in-mamp-triggered-immunity
#20
Satoshi Fukunaga, Miho Sogame, Masaki Hata, Suthitar Singkaravanit-Ogawa, Mariola Piślewska-Bednarek, Mariko Onozawa-Komori, Takumi Nishiuchi, Kei Hiruma, Hiromasa Saitoh, Ryohei Terauchi, Saeko Kitakura, Yoshihiro Inoue, Paweł Bednarek, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Yoshitaka Takano
Plant immune responses triggered upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) typically restrict pathogen growth without a host cell death response. We isolated two Arabidopsis mutants, derived from accession Col-0, that activate cell death upon inoculation with nonadapted fungal pathogens. Notably, the mutants trigger cell death also when treated with bacterial MAMPs such as flg22. Positional cloning identified NSL1 (Necrotic Spotted Lesion 1) as a responsible gene for the phenotype of the two mutants, whereas nsl1 mutations of the accession No-0 result in necrotic lesion formation without pathogen inoculation...
October 6, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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