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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910738/burst-suppression-on-eeg-not-always-an-ominous-sign
#1
Egidio Spinelli, Sandra Penney, Sharon Carline, Adam Romanovsky, Syed Nizamuddin Ahmed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898171/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-a-literature-review-and-case-study
#2
Kristy Fox, Mary Ellen Wells, Michael Tennison, Bradley Vaughn
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a catastrophic epileptic syndrome that strikes previously healthy children aged 3-15 years and has an unknown pathogenesis and few treatments. These children experience a nonspecific febrile illness that is followed by prolonged refractory status epilepticus. Although the etiology is unknown, FIRES has a biphasic presentation, with the acute phase beginning as seizure activity lasting 1-12 weeks, then followed by the chronic phase, which is characterized by refractory seizures that cluster every 2-4 weeks, and may continue to be multifocal and independent...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877954/suppression-of-toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-proinflammatory-responses-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-protein-rv3529c
#3
Upasana Bandyopadhyay, Attinder Chadha, Priya Gupta, Brijendra Tiwari, Kausik Bhattacharyya, Sonam Popli, Rajagopal Raman, Vani Brahamachari, Yogendra Singh, Pawan Malhotra, Krishnamurthy Natarajan
Microorganisms are known to devise various strategies to thwart protective responses by the host. One such strategy is to incorporate sequences and domains in their genes/proteins that have similarity to various domains of the host proteins. In this study, we report that Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv3529c exhibits significant similarity to the death domain of the TLR pathway adaptor protein MyD88. Incubation of macrophages with Rv3529c specifically inhibited TLR2-mediated proinflammatory responses. This included attenuated oxidative burst, reduced phosphorylation of MAPK-ERK, reduced activation of transcription factor NF-κB and reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-17A with a concomitant increased secretion of suppressor cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871712/some-quantitative-eeg-features-in-default-mode-resting-state-network-under-general-anaesthesia
#4
Peter Jombík, Michal Drobny, Beata Saniova, Martin Fischer, Petra Kaderjaková, Marianna Lajčiaková, Erika Bakosova, Eva Drobna, Petr Bob, Vladimír Nosáľ
OBJECTIVES: The default mode resting state network (DMRSN) constitutes a circuit which is active in conditions when the subject is at rest. We tested the hypothesis that its function will be altered during unconsciousness. METHODS: Changes in the mean squared coherences in five conventional frequency bands (delta to gamma) in DMRSN during general anaesthesia (GA) were investigated in 39 patients. They were compared with the normal EEG of 86 alert subjects, severely abnormal EEG of 112 patients with dementia and/or encephalopathy, and the mathematical model of brain death...
August 5, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866380/mitochondrial-transition-ros-spike-mtrs-results-from-coordinated-activities-of-complex-i-and-nicotinamide-nucleotide-transhydrogenase
#5
Mahmoud S Sharaf, Don Stevens, Collins Kamunde
Mitochondria exhibit suppressed ATP production, membrane potential (∆Ψmt) polarization and reactive oxygen species (ROS) bursts during some cellular metabolic transitions. Although mitochondrial ROS release is influenced by ∆Ψmt and respiratory state, the relationship between these properties remains controversial primarily because they have not been measured simultaneously. We developed a multiparametric method for probing mitochondrial function that allowed precise characterization of the temporal relationship between ROS, ∆Ψmt and respiration...
August 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865483/suppression-of-cortical-seizures-by-optic-stimulation-of-the-reticular-thalamus-in-pv-mhchr2-yfp-bac-transgenic-mice
#6
Wei Jen Chang, Wei Pang Chang, Bai Chuang Shyu
Deep brain stimulation in thalamic regions has been proposed as a treatment for epilepsy. The electrical current excites thalamocortical activity which is controlled by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons in the reticular thalamic nucleus (nRT). Previous studies showed that enhancing GABAergic inhibitory strength in the nRT reduces the duration and power of seizures, indicating that the thalamus plays an important role in modulating cortical seizures. The aim of the present study was to apply optogenetics to study the role of the nRT in modulating cortical seizures...
September 2, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862828/a-smart-h2o2-responsive-drug-delivery-system-made-by-halloysite-nanotubes-and-carbohydrate-polymers
#7
Feng Liu, Libin Bai, Hailei Zhang, Hongzan Song, Liandong Hu, Yonggang Wu, Xinwu Ba
A novel chemical hydrogel was facilely achieved by coupling 1,4-phenylenebisdiboronic acid-modified halloysite nanotubes (HNTs-BO) with compressible starch. The modified HNTs and prepared hydrogel were characterized by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The linkage of B-C in the hydrogel can be degraded into B-OH and C-OH units in the presence of H2O2, and result into the degradation of the hydrogel...
September 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861701/heat-stress-differentially-modifies-ethylene-biosynthesis-and-signaling-in-pea-floral-and-fruit-tissues
#8
Raghavendra P Savada, Jocelyn A Ozga, Charitha P A Jayasinghege, Kosala D Waduthanthri, Dennis M Reinecke
Ethylene biosynthesis is regulated in reproductive tissues in response to heat stress in a manner to optimize resource allocation to pollinated fruits with developing seeds. High temperatures during reproductive development are particularly detrimental to crop fruit/seed production. Ethylene plays vital roles in plant development and abiotic stress responses; however, little is known about ethylene's role in reproductive tissues during development under heat stress. We assessed ethylene biosynthesis and signaling regulation within the reproductive and associated tissues of pea during the developmental phase that sets the stage for fruit-set and seed development under normal and heat-stress conditions...
August 31, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860087/pro-excitatory-alterations-in-sodium-channel-activity-facilitate-subiculum-neuron-hyperexcitability-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Bryan S Barker, Aradhya Nigam, Matteo Ottolini, Ronald P Gaykema, Nicholas J Hargus, Manoj K Patel
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common form of adult epilepsy involving the limbic structures of the temporal lobe. Subiculum neurons act to provide a major output from the hippocampus and consist of a large population of endogenously bursting excitatory neurons. In TLE, subiculum neurons are largely spared, become hyperexcitable and show spontaneous epileptiform activity. The basis for this hyperexcitability is unclear, but is likely to involve alterations in the expression levels and function of various ion channels...
August 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853768/systemic-treatment-with-a-mir-146a-mimic-suppresses-endotoxin-sensitivity-and-partially-protects-mice-from-the-progression-of-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#10
John G Gartner, Melanie M Durston, Stephanie A Booth, Cynthia A Ellison
Acute GVHD (aGVHD) is driven by interactions between the allogenic T cell response, inflammation, tissue injury and microbial products that enter the circulation when protective barriers such as the intestinal epithelium become compromised. Mice with aGVHD become hypersensitive to LPS, secreting large quantities of inflammatory mediators that exacerbate tissue injury. We hypothesized that microRNA (miR) modulators could be used in vivo to mitigate LPS hypersensitivity, altering the course of aGVHD. Using the C57BL/6 → (C57BL/6 x DBA/2)F1-hybrid model of aGVHD, we measured intestinal permeability over time and used a qPCR array to detect concomitant changes in the expression levels of certain microRNAs (miRs) in the intestine...
August 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852582/term-neonate-with-atypical-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-presentation-a-case-report
#11
Nick Townley, Emily McNellis, Venkatesh Sampath
We describe a case of atypical hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in a neonate following a normal pregnancy and delivery who was found to have an umbilical vein thrombosis. The infant arrived to our center with continuous bicycling movement of her lower extremities. She had a continuous electroencephalogram that showed burst suppression and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed diffusely abnormal cerebral cortical/subcortical diffusion restriction which may be secondary hypoxic-ischemic injury. Interestingly, a pathology report noted a focal umbilical vein thrombosis appearing to have compressed an umbilical artery with associated arterial dissection and hematoma...
July 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842332/tumor-acidity-activatable-manganese-phosphate-nanoplatform-for-amplification-of-photodynamic-cancer-therapy-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Yongwei Hao, Cuixia Zheng, Lei Wang, Jinjie Zhang, Xiuxiu Niu, Qingling Song, Qianhua Feng, Hongjuan Zhao, Li Li, Hongling Zhang, Zhenzhong Zhang, Yun Zhang
Amorphous biodegradable metal phosphate nanomaterials are considered to possess great potential in cancer theranostic application due to their promise in providing ultra-sensitive pH-responsive therapeutic benefits and diagnostic functions simultaneously. Here we report the synthesis of photosensitising and acriflavine-carrying amorphous porous manganese phosphate (PMP) nanoparticles with ultra-sensitive pH-responsive degradability and their applications for a photoactivable synergistic nanosystem that imparts reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cytotoxicity in synchrony with hypoxia-inducible factor 1α/vascular endothelial growth factor (HIF1α/VEGF) inhibitor that suppresses tumor growth and treatment escape signalling pathway...
August 22, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832002/pointed-rhythmic-theta-waves-a-unique-eeg-pattern-in-kcnq2-related-neonatal-epileptic-encephalopathy
#13
Sarah Grace Buttle, Erick Sell, David Dyment, Srinivas Bulusu, Daniela Pohl
We report the case of an infant with KCNQ2-related neonatal epileptic encephalopathy presenting with intractable seizures beginning on the second day of life, which were resistant to multiple antiepileptic drugs. Continuous EEG recordings starting on the sixth day of life demonstrated a unique pattern of inter-and postictal focal rhythmic pointed theta waves of lambdoid morphology in the immediate postictal period, localizing to the side of the antecedent seizure. Interictal EEG exhibited discontinuous background, including patterns of burst suppression and multifocal discharges, predominantly in the centrotemporal regions, which were aggravated during sleep...
August 23, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821672/audio-visual-modulation-in-mouse-v1-depends-on-cross-modal-stimulus-configuration-and-congruency
#14
Guido T Meijer, Jorrit S Montijn, Cyriel M A Pennartz, Carien S Lansink
The sensory neocortex is a highly connected associative network, in which information from multiple senses is integrated, even at the level of the primary sensory areas. Although this view is supported by a growing body of empirical evidence, the neural mechanisms of cross-modal integration in primary sensory areas, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), are still largely unknown. Using two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice, we show that the encoding of audio-visual stimuli in V1 neuronal populations is highly dependent on the features of the stimulus constituents...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798343/isoflurane-produces-antidepressant-effects-and-induces-trkb-signaling-in-rodents
#15
Hanna Antila, Maria Ryazantseva, Dina Popova, Pia Sipilä, Ramon Guirado, Samuel Kohtala, Ipek Yalcin, Jesse Lindholm, Liisa Vesa, Vinicius Sato, Joshua Cordeira, Henri Autio, Mikhail Kislin, Maribel Rios, Sâmia Joca, Plinio Casarotto, Leonard Khiroug, Sari Lauri, Tomi Taira, Eero Castrén, Tomi Rantamäki
A brief burst-suppressing isoflurane anesthesia has been shown to rapidly alleviate symptoms of depression in a subset of patients, but the neurobiological basis of these observations remains obscure. We show that a single isoflurane anesthesia produces antidepressant-like behavioural effects in the learned helplessness paradigm and regulates molecular events implicated in the mechanism of action of rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine: activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptor TrkB, facilitation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797637/temporal-changes-in-innate-immunity-parameters-epinecidin-gene-expression-and-mortality-in-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides-experimentally-infected-with-a-fish-pathogen-vibrio-harveyi-jml1
#16
Edgar C Amar, Joseph P Faisan, Mary Jane S Apines-Amar, Rolando V Pakingking
Changes in innate immunity parameters and epinecidin mRNA transcript levels were examined to characterize the non-specific immune response of E. coioides to pathogenic V. harveyi JML1 isolated from affected cage-cultured fish. After fish had been injected with bacteria at a dose causing 30% mortality, blood and tissue samples were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 240 h post-infection (hpi) for assessment of indices such as the oxidative burst (OB) and phagocytic index (PI) of head kidney cells, and lysozyme activity (LYS) and total immunoglobulin (Total Ig) levels of the plasma...
August 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761775/real-time-monitoring-of-superoxide-anion-radical-generation-in-response-to-wounding-electrochemical-study
#17
Ankush Prasad, Aditya Kumar, Ryo Matsuoka, Akemi Takahashi, Ryo Fujii, Yamato Sugiura, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Shigeo Aoyagi, Tatsuo Aikawa, Takeshi Kondo, Makoto Yuasa, Pavel Pospíšil, Shigenobu Kasai
BACKGROUND: The growth and development of plants is deleteriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stress factors. Wounding in plants is caused by exposure to environmental stress, mechanical stress, and via herbivory. Typically, oxidative burst in response to wounding is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species, such as the superoxide anion radical (O2(•-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and singlet oxygen; however, few experimental studies have provided direct evidence of their detection in plants...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744923/the-role-of-t-type-calcium-channels-in-the-subiculum-to-burst-or-not-to-burst
#18
Srdjan M Joksimovic, Pierce Eggan, Yukitoshi Izumi, Sonja Lj Joksimovic, Vesna Tesic, Robert M Dietz, James E Orfila, Michael R DiGruccio, Paco S Herson, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Charles F Zorumski, Slobodan M Todorovic
KEY POINTS: Pharmacological, molecular and genetic data indicate a prominent role of low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels (T-channels) in the firing activity of both pyramidal and inhibitory interneurons in the subiculum. Pharmacological inhibition of T-channels switched burst firing with lower depolarizing stimuli to regular spiking, and fully abolished hyperpolarization-induced burst firing. Our molecular studies showed that CaV 3.1 is the most abundantly expressed isoform of T-channels in the rat subiculum...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742985/gabab-receptors-suppress-burst-firing-in-reticular-thalamic-neurons
#19
Stuart M Cain, Esperanza Garcia, Zeina Waheed, Karen L Jones, Trevor J Bushell, Terrance P Snutch
Burst-firing in thalamic neurons is known to play a key role in mediating thalamocortical (TC) oscillations that are associated with non-REM sleep and some types of epileptic seizure. Within the TC system the primary output of GABAergic neurons in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) is thought to induce the de-inactivation of T-type calcium channels in thalamic relay (TR) neurons, promoting burst-firing drive to the cortex and the propagation of TC network activity. However, RTN neurons also project back onto other neurons within the RTN...
July 25, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729926/coherence-of-bold-signal-and-electrical-activity-in-the-human-brain-during-deep-sevoflurane-anesthesia
#20
Daniel Golkowski, Andreas Ranft, Tobias Kiel, Valentin Riedl, Philipp Kohl, Guido Rohrer, Joachim Pientka, Sebastian Berger, Christine Preibisch, Claus Zimmer, George A Mashour, Gerhard Schneider, Eberhard F Kochs, Rüdiger Ilg, Denis Jordan
INTRODUCTION: Changes in neural activity induce changes in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal. Commonly, increases in BOLD signal are ascribed to cellular excitation. OBJECTIVE: The relationship between electrical activity and BOLD signal in the human brain was probed on the basis of burst suppression EEG. This condition includes two distinct states of high and low electrical activity. METHODS: Resting-state simultaneous EEG and BOLD measurements were acquired during deep sevoflurane anesthesia with burst suppression EEG in nineteen healthy volunteers...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
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