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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418377/the-magnaporthe-oryzae-nitrooxidative-stress-response-suppresses-rice-innate-immunity-during-blast-disease
#1
Margarita Marroquin-Guzman, David Hartline, Janet D Wright, Christian Elowsky, Travis J Bourret, Richard A Wilson
Understanding how microorganisms manipulate plant innate immunity and colonize host cells is a major goal of plant pathology. Here, we report that the fungal nitrooxidative stress response suppresses host defences to facilitate the growth and development of the important rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae in leaf cells. Nitronate monooxygenases encoded by NMO genes catalyse the oxidative denitrification of nitroalkanes. We show that the M. oryzae NMO2 gene is required for mitigating damaging lipid nitration under nitrooxidative stress conditions and, consequently, for using nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen sources...
April 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416516/semaphorin-4d-inhibits-neutrophil-activation-and-is-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-neutrophil-mediated-autoimmune-vasculitis
#2
Masayuki Nishide, Satoshi Nojima, Daisuke Ito, Hyota Takamatsu, Shohei Koyama, Sujin Kang, Tetsuya Kimura, Keiko Morimoto, Takashi Hosokawa, Yoshitomo Hayama, Yuhei Kinehara, Yasuhiro Kato, Takeshi Nakatani, Yoshimitsu Nakanishi, Takeshi Tsuda, Jeong Hoon Park, Toru Hirano, Yoshihito Shima, Masashi Narazaki, Eiichi Morii, Atsushi Kumanogoh
OBJECTIVES: Inappropriate activation of neutrophils plays a pathological role in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D) in regulation of neutrophil activation, and its involvement in AAV pathogenesis. METHODS: Serum levels of soluble SEMA4D were evaluated by ELISA. Blood cell-surface expression of membrane SEMA4D was evaluated by flow cytometry. To determine the functional interactions between neutrophil membrane SEMA4D and endothelial plexin B2, wild-type and SEMA4D(-/-) mice neutrophils were cultured with an endothelial cell line (MS1) stained with SYTOX green, and subjected to neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation assays...
April 17, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416510/erythrocyte-sialoglycoproteins-engage-siglec-9-on-neutrophils-to-suppress-activation
#3
Anel Lizcano, Ismael Secundino, Simon Döhrmann, Ross Corriden, Cristina Rohena, Sandra Diaz, Pradipta Ghosh, Lingquan Deng, Victor Nizet, Ajit Varki
Healthy blood neutrophils are functionally quiescent in the bloodstream, have a short lifespan, and exit the circulation to carry out innate immune functions, or undergo rapid apoptosis and macrophage-mediated clearance to mitigate host tissue damage. Limitation of unnecessary intravascular neutrophil activation is also important to prevent serious inflammatory pathologies. Since neutrophils become easily activated after purification, we carried out ex vivo comparisons with neutrophils maintained in whole blood...
April 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412471/surface-modification-of-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-for-oral-delivery-of-curcumin-improvement-of-bioavailability-through-enhanced-cellular-uptake-and-lymphatic-uptake
#4
Jong-Suep Baek, Cheong-Weon Cho
Curcumin has been reported to exhibit potent anticancer effects. However, poor solubility, bioavailability and stability of curcumin limit its in vivo efficacy for the cancer treatment. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are a promising delivery system for the enhancement of bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. However, burst release of drug from SLN in acidic environment limits its usage as oral delivery system. Hence, we prepared N-carboxymethyl chitosan (NCC) coated curcumin-loaded SLN (NCC-SLN) to inhibit the rapid release of curcumin in acidic environment and enhance the bioavailability...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411234/phenotype-of-gaba-transaminase-deficiency
#5
Mary Kay Koenig, Ryan Hodgeman, James J Riviello, Wendy Chung, Jennifer Bain, Claudia A Chiriboga, Kazushi Ichikawa, Hitoshi Osaka, Megumi Tsuji, K Michael Gibson, Penelope E Bonnen, Phillip L Pearl
OBJECTIVE: We report a case series of 10 patients with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-transaminase deficiency including a novel therapeutic trial and an expanded phenotype. METHODS: Case ascertainment, literature review, comprehensive evaluations, and long-term treatment with flumazenil. RESULTS: All patients presented with neonatal or early infantile-onset encephalopathy; other features were hypotonia, hypersomnolence, epilepsy, choreoathetosis, and accelerated linear growth...
April 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391033/offline-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-over-right-inferior-frontal-gyrus-and-pre-supplementary-motor-area-impairs-inhibition-during-a-go-no-go-task
#6
Neil M Drummond, Erin K Cressman, Anthony N Carlsen
In a typical go/no-go task a single imperative stimulus is presented each trial, either a go or no-go stimulus. Participants are instructed to initiate a known response upon appearance of the go-signal and withhold the response if the no-go signal is presented. It is unclear whether the go-response is prepared in advance of the imperative stimulus in a go/no-go task. Moreover, it is unclear if inhibitory control processes suppress preparatory go-activation. The purpose of the present experiment was 1) to determine whether the go-response is prepared in advance of stimulus identification with the use of a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS), and 2) investigate the inhibitory role of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) during the performance of a go/no-go task with the use of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS)...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381640/early-b-cell-progenitors-deficient-for-gon4l-fail-to-differentiate-due-to-a-block-in-mitotic-cell-division
#7
Jennifer Y Barr, Renee X Goodfellow, Diana F Colgan, John D Colgan
B cell development in Justy mutant mice is blocked due to a precursor mRNA splicing defect that depletes the protein GON4-like (GON4L) in B cell progenitors. Genetic and biochemical studies have suggested that GON4L is a transcriptional regulator that coordinates cell division with differentiation, but its role in B cell development is unknown. To understand the function of GON4L, we characterized B cell differentiation, cell cycle control, and mitotic gene expression in GON4L-deficient B cell progenitors from Justy mice...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380395/equivocal-significance-of-post-ictal-generalized-eeg-suppression-as-a-marker-of-sudep-risk
#8
Joon Y Kang, Amin H Rabiei, Leslie Myint, Maromi Nei
PURPOSE: Our objective was to determine the significance of PGES as a possible EEG marker of increased risk for SUDEP and explore factors that influence PGES. METHODS: We identified 17 patients who died due to definite or probable SUDEP and 52 living control patients with drug resistant focal epilepsy who underwent EEG monitoring and least one seizure recorded on EEG. We reviewed 305 seizures on EEG and when available, on video, for presence or absence of PGES, the duration of PGES immediately after seizure end, seizure type, state seizure occurred (sleep vs...
March 27, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377699/computational-model-of-recurrent-subthalamo-pallidal-circuit-for-generation-of-parkinsonian-oscillations
#9
Osamu Shouno, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Atsushi Nambu, Kenji Doya
Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder caused by dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia. Abnormally synchronized neuronal oscillations between 8 and 15 Hz in the basal ganglia are implicated in motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, how these abnormal oscillations are generated and maintained in the dopamine-depleted state is unknown. Based on neural recordings in a primate model of Parkinson's disease and other experimental and computational evidence, we hypothesized that the recurrent circuit between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) generates and maintains parkinsonian oscillations, and that the cortical excitatory input to the STN amplifies them...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370079/brassinosteroids-act-as-a-positive-regulator-for-resistance-against-root-knot-nematode-involving-respiratory-burst-oxidase-homolog-dependent-activation-of-mapks-in-tomato
#10
Liu-Xia Song, Xue-Chen Xu, Fa-Nan Wang, Yu Wang, Xiao-Jian Xia, Kai Shi, Yan-Hong Zhou, Jie Zhou, Jing-Quan Yu
Interplay of hormones with reactive oxygen species (ROS) fine-tunes the response of plants to stress, however, the crosstalk between brassinosteroids (BRs) and ROS in nematode resistance is unclear. In this study, we found that low BR biosynthesis or lack of BR receptor increased whilst exogenous BR decreased the susceptibility of tomato plants to Meloidogyne incognita. Hormone quantification coupled with hormone mutant complementation experiments revealed that BR did not induce the defense response by triggering salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) or abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway...
March 29, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359802/low-level-arsenite-exposures-suppress-the-development-of-bone-marrow-erythroid-progenitors-and-result-in-anemia-in-adult-male-mice
#11
Sebastian Medina, Huan Xu, Shu Chun Wang, Fredine T Lauer, Ke Jian Liu, Scott W Burchiel
Epidemiological studies report an association between chronic arsenic (As) exposure and anemia in men, and women who are predisposed to anemia. The purpose of these studies was to determine whether a 60 d drinking water exposure of adult male C57BL/6J mice to 0, 100, and 500ppb arsenite (As(+3)) results in anemia due to alterations in erythroid progenitor cell development in the bone marrow. Exposure to 500ppb As(+3) for 60 d resulted in a reduction of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) levels, but did not significantly alter red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hgb) levels, mean corpuscular Hgb concentrations (MCHC), or mean corpuscular volumes (MCV)...
March 27, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359187/prediction-of-future-epilepsy-in-neonates-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-who-received-selective-head-cooling
#12
Tiffani L McDonough, Juliann M Paolicchi, Linda A Heier, Nikkan Das, Murray Engel, Jeffrey M Perlman, Zachary M Grinspan
Epilepsy outcomes after therapeutic hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are understudied. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to predict epilepsy in neonates after selective head cooling. Sensitivity analyses used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) interpretations by different clinicians. Fifty neonates had 2-year follow-up. Nine developed epilepsy. Predictors included pH ≤6.8 on day of birth (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 19 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1-371]), burst suppression on EEG on day 4 (8...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351990/an-nadph-oxidase-rboh-functions-in-rice-roots-during-lysigenous-aerenchyma-formation-under-oxygen-deficient-conditions
#13
Takaki Yamauchi, Miki Yoshioka, Aya Fukazawa, Hitoshi Mori, Naoko K Nishizawa, Nobuhiro Tsutsumi, Hirofumi Yoshioka, Mikio Nakazono
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the NADPH oxidase RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG (RBOH) trigger signal transduction in diverse biological processes in plants. However, the functions of RBOH homologues in rice (Oryza sativa) and other gramineous plants are poorly understood. Ethylene induces the formation of lysigenous aerenchyma, which consists of internal gas spaces created by programmed cell death of cortical cells, in roots of gramineous plants under oxygen-deficient conditions. Here, we report that, in rice, one RBOH isoform (RBOHH) has a role in ethylene-induced aerenchyma formation in roots...
March 28, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346695/contribution-of-small-conductance-k-channels-to-sinoatrial-node-pacemaker-activity-insights-from-atrial-specific-na-ca-2-exchange-knockout-mice
#14
Angelo G Torrente, Rui Zhang, Heidi Wang, Audrey Zaini, Brian Kim, Xin Yue, Kenneth D Philipson, Joshua I Goldhaber
Small conductance K(+) (SK) channels have been implicated as modulators of spontaneous depolarization and electrical conduction that may be involved in cardiac arrhythmia. However, neither their presence nor their contribution to sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker activity have been investigated. Using quantitative PCR (q-PCR), immunostaining and patch clamp recordings of membrane current and voltage, we identified all three SK isoforms (SK1, SK2 and SK3) in mouse SAN. Inhibition of SK channels with the specific blocker apamin prolonged action potentials (APs) in isolated SAN cells...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346521/hiv-1-gp120-envelope-glycoprotein-determinants-for-cytokine-burst-in-human-monocytes
#15
Benoît Levast, Lucie Barblu, Mathieu Coutu, Jérémie Prévost, Nathalie Brassard, Adam Peres, Camille Stegen, Joaquín Madrenas, Daniel E Kaufmann, Andrés Finzi
The first step of HIV infection involves the interaction of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein to its receptor CD4, mainly expressed on CD4+ T cells. Besides its role on HIV-1 entry, the gp120 has been shown to be involved in the production of IL-1, IL-6, CCL20 and other innate response cytokines by bystander, uninfected CD4+ T cells and monocytes. However, the gp120 determinants involved in these functions are not completely understood. Whether signalling leading to cytokine production is due to CD4 or other receptors is still unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339550/the-tension-sensitive-ion-transport-activity-of-msl8-is-critical-for-its-function-in-pollen-hydration-and-germination
#16
Eric S Hamilton, Elizabeth S Haswell
All cells respond to osmotic challenges, including those imposed during normal growth and development. Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels provide a conserved mechanism for regulating osmotic forces by conducting ions in response to increased membrane tension. We previously demonstrated that the MS ion channel MscS-Like 8 (MSL8) is required for pollen to survive multiple osmotic challenges that occur during the normal process of fertilization, and that it can inhibit pollen germination. However, it remained unclear whether these physiological functions required ion flux through a mechanically gated channel provided by MSL8...
January 10, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337251/pentaerythritol-tetranitrate-in-vivo-treatment-improves-oxidative-stress-and-vascular-dysfunction-by-suppression-of-endothelin-1-signaling-in-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#17
Sebastian Steven, Matthias Oelze, Moritz Brandt, Elisabeth Ullmann, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Tjebo Heeren, Lan P Tran, Steffen Daub, Mobin Dib, Dirk Stalleicken, Philip Wenzel, Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
Objective. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction contribute to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The role of the nitrovasodilator pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) on endothelial function and oxidative stress in PAH has not yet been defined. Methods and Results. PAH was induced by monocrotaline (MCT, i.v.) in Wistar rats. Low (30 mg/kg; MCT30), middle (40 mg/kg; MCT40), or high (60 mg/kg; MCT60) dose of MCT for 14, 28, and 42 d was used. MCT induced endothelial dysfunction, pulmonary vascular wall thickening, and fibrosis, as well as protein tyrosine nitration...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334851/the-modulatory-effect-of-adaptive-deep-brain-stimulation-on-beta-bursts-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Gerd Tinkhauser, Alek Pogosyan, Simon Little, Martijn Beudel, Damian M Herz, Huiling Tan, Peter Brown
Adaptive deep brain stimulation uses feedback about the state of neural circuits to control stimulation rather than delivering fixed stimulation all the time, as currently performed. In patients with Parkinson's disease, elevations in beta activity (13-35 Hz) in the subthalamic nucleus have been demonstrated to correlate with clinical impairment and have provided the basis for feedback control in trials of adaptive deep brain stimulation. These pilot studies have suggested that adaptive deep brain stimulation may potentially be more effective, efficient and selective than conventional deep brain stimulation, implying mechanistic differences between the two approaches...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328131/recessive-mutations-in-slc35a3-cause-early-onset-epileptic-encephalopathy-with-skeletal-defects
#19
Carla Marini, Katia Hardies, Tiziana Pisano, Patrick May, Sarah Weckhuysen, Elena Cellini, Arvid Suls, Davide Mei, Rudi Balling, Peter D Jonghe, Ingo Helbig, Domenico Garozzo, Renzo Guerrini
We describe the clinical and whole genome sequencing (WGS) study of a non-consanguineous Italian family in which two siblings, a boy and a girl, manifesting a severe epileptic encephalopathy (EE) with skeletal abnormalities, carried novel SLC35A3 compound heterozygous mutations. Both siblings exhibited infantile spasms, associated with focal, and tonic vibratory seizures from early infancy. EEG recordings showed a suppression-burst (SB) pattern and multifocal paroxysmal activity in both. In addition both had quadriplegia, acquired microcephaly, and severe intellectual disability...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320163/inhibition-of-17-beta-estradiol-on-neuronal-excitability-via-enhancing-girk1-mediated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-currents-and-girk1-expression
#20
Yuwen Zhang, Yian Huang, Guoxiang Wang, Xin Wang, Yun Wang
BACKGROUND: Catamenial epilepsy is a common central nervous system disease in female, which is influenced by the 17-β-estradiol (estrogen) level during the menstrual cycle. Low level (<0.05ng/ml) of estrogen normally accompanies with the perimenstrual classification of catamenial epilepsy, however, without clear mechanism. In previous studies, estrogen has been demonstrated to possess widely regulatory effects on potassium channels. Here, the effect of 17-β-estradiol on modulating inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) currents was investigated in cultured hippocampal neurons...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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