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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150332/organic-arsenicals-target-thioredoxin-reductase-followed-by-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-resulting-in-apoptosis
#1
Xiao-Yang Fan, Yu-Jiao Liu, Kai Chen, Feng-Lei Jiang, Yan-Jun Hu, Dan Liu, Yi Liu, Yu-Shu Ge
Considering the vital role of cellular redox state, more and more researches focus on the design of drugs targeting thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), an important enzyme in maintaining the balance of cellular redox. Here two organic arsenicals, 2-(((4-(1,3,2-dithiarsinan-2-yl) phenyl) imino) methyl) phenol (PIM-PAO-PDT) and N-(4-(1,3,2-dithiarsinan-2-yl) phenyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide (PAM-PAO-PDT), bearing the S-As-S chemical scaffold and different linking groups have been synthesized, and both of them show the better inhibitory activity and selectivity towards HL-60 cells...
May 6, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134751/cortical-hemispheric-asymmetries-are-present-at-young-ages-and-further-develop-into-adolescence
#2
Hiroshi Yamazaki, Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Melissa Jane Polonenko, Salima Jiwani, Daniel D E Wong, Blake Croll Papsin, Karen Ann Gordon
Specialization of the auditory cortices for pure tone listening may develop with age. In adults, the right hemisphere dominates when listening to pure tones and music; we thus hypothesized that (a) asymmetric function between auditory cortices increases with age and (b) this development is specific to tonal rather than broadband/non-tonal stimuli. Cortical responses to tone-bursts and broadband click-trains were recorded by multichannel electroencephalography in young children (5.1 ± 0.8 years old) and adolescents (15...
November 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124532/acetylsalicylic-acid-produces-different-effects-on-the-production-of-active-oxygen-species-by-activated-platelets-in-different-inflammatory-diseases
#3
Z A Gabbasov, V V Kogan-Yasny, D A Lakhno, L G Kagan, E V Ryzhkova, E Yu Vasilieva, A V Shpektor
We studied the effect of acetylsalicylic acid on ROS generation by platelets in patients after surgical interventions and in patients with bronchial asthma was studied. Platelets stimulated with platelet-activating factor are characterized by weak luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence in healthy people and patients after operations with laparoscopic incisions. Addition of platelet activation factor to platelet samples from patients after open abdominal surgery caused intensive chemiluminescence that was suppressed after platelet incubation with acetylsalicylic acid...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121295/disruption-of-cortical-network-activity-by-the-general-anaesthetic-isoflurane
#4
H Hentschke, A Raz, B M Krause, C A Murphy, M I Banks
Background: Actions of general anaesthetics on activity in the cortico-thalamic network likely contribute to loss of consciousness and disconnection from the environment. Previously, we showed that the general anaesthetic isoflurane preferentially suppresses cortically evoked synaptic responses compared with thalamically evoked synaptic responses, but how this differential sensitivity translates into changes in network activity is unclear. Methods: We investigated isoflurane disruption of spontaneous and stimulus-induced cortical network activity using multichannel recordings in murine auditory thalamo-cortical brain slices...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118572/enhanced-antitumor-efficacy-of-poly-d-l-lactide-co-glycolide-based-methotrexate-loaded-implants-on-sarcoma-180-tumor-bearing-mice
#5
Li Gao, Lunyang Xia, Ruhui Zhang, Dandan Duan, Xiuxiu Liu, Jianjian Xu, Lan Luo
Purpose: Methotrexate is widely used in chemotherapy for a variety of malignancies. However, severe toxicity, poor pharmacokinetics, and narrow safety margin of methotrexate limit its clinical application. The aim of this study was to develop sustained-release methotrexate-loaded implants and evaluate antitumor activity of the implants after intratumoral implantation. Materials and methods: We prepared the implants containing methotrexate, poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), and polyethylene glycol 4000 with the melt-molding technique...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114923/histamine-modulates-spinal-motoneurons-and-locomotor-circuits
#6
Tamara Coslovich, Michele R Brumley, Giuseppe D'Angelo, Alberto Della Mora, Hillary E Swann, Fulvia Ortolani, Giuliano Taccola
Spinal motoneurons and locomotor networks are regulated by monoamines, among which, the contribution of histamine has yet to be fully addressed. The present study investigates histaminergic regulation of spinal activity, combining intra- and extracellular electrophysiological recordings from neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro preparations. Histamine dose-dependently and reversibly generated motoneuron depolarization and action potential firing. Histamine (20 µM) halved the area of dorsal root reflexes and always depolarized motoneurons...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102760/partial-inhibition-of-catecholamine-activity-and-enhanced-responsiveness-to-nmda-after-sustained-administration-of-vortioxetine
#7
Mohammad Ebrahimzadeh, Mostafa El Mansari, Pierre Blier
Vortioxetine is a multimodal drug that blocks serotonin (5-HT) reuptake and directly modulates 5-HT receptors. The effects of subacute and long-term administration of vortioxetine on various aspects of catecholamine and glutamate systems were investigated using single-unit extracellular recordings and microiontophoresis in the rat brain. The firing rate of dopamine (DA) neurons was significantly decreased (26%) after 14, but not 4 days of vortioxetine administration (vortioxetine-containing chow, 1.8 g/kg vortioxetine)...
November 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079206/using-cell-apoptosis-micronuclei-and-immune-alternations-as-biomarkers-of-phenanthrene-exposure-in-yellowfin-seabream-acanthopagrus-latus
#8
Mehrnaz Shirmohammadi, Negin Salamat, Mohammad Taghi Ronagh, Abdolali Movahedinia, Gholamreza Hamidian
In the present study, the apoptosis and tissue changes in the spleen, as well as humoral immune-related parameters, micronuclei (MN) induction in blood cells and Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were investigated in yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) after short-term exposure to phenanthrene (Phe). The fish were intraperitoneally injected with different concentrations (2, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1)) of Phe and tissue and blood samples were collected 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after injection. The concentrations of Phe in the fish liver increased 4 days after the experiment...
October 24, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078279/electron-leak-from-ndufa13-within-mitochondrial-complex-i-attenuates-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-dimerized-stat3
#9
Hengxun Hu, Jinliang Nan, Yong Sun, Dan Zhu, Changchen Xiao, Yaping Wang, Lianlian Zhu, Yue Wu, Jing Zhao, Rongrong Wu, Jinghai Chen, Hong Yu, Xinyang Hu, Wei Zhu, Jian'an Wang
The causative relationship between specific mitochondrial molecular structure and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has attracted much attention. NDUFA13 is a newly identified accessory subunit of mitochondria complex I with a unique molecular structure and a location that is very close to the subunits of complex I of low electrochemical potentials. It has been reported that down-regulated NDUFA13 rendered tumor cells more resistant to apoptosis. Thus, this molecule might provide an ideal opportunity for us to investigate the profile of ROS generation and its role in cell protection against apoptosis...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069304/estradiol-dependent-stimulation-and-suppression-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-neuron-firing-activity-by-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-in-female-mice
#10
Chayarndorn Phumsatitpong, Suzanne M Moenter
GnRH neurons are the final central regulators of reproduction, integrating various inputs that modulate fertility. Stress typically inhibits reproduction but can be stimulatory; stress effects can also be modulated by steroid milieu. CRH released during the stress response may suppress reproduction independent of downstream glucocorticoids. We hypothesized CRH suppresses fertility by decreasing GnRH neuron firing activity. To test this, mice were ovariectomized and either implanted with an estradiol capsule (OVX+E) or not treated further (OVX) to examine the influence of estradiol on GnRH neuron response to CRH...
October 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060851/design-implementation-and-evaluation-of-a-physiological-closed-loop-control-device-for-medically-induced-coma
#11
Jingzhi An, Patrick L Purdon, Ken Solt, Nathaniel M Sims, Emery N Brown, M Brandon Westover
Concerns regarding reliability and safety, as well as uncertainties about what constitutes adequate performance evaluation, have impeded the clinical translation of PCLC devices. We describe an attempt to address these challenges through design, implementation, and evaluation of a PCLC device for delivering medically-induced coma, with the intention to eventually conduct a clinical trial. This device works by automatically adjusting the infusion rate of propofol - a general anesthetic - in response to an electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern called burst suppression...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053865/beta-burst-dynamics-in-parkinson-s-disease-off-and-on-dopaminergic-medication
#12
Gerd Tinkhauser, Alek Pogosyan, Huiling Tan, Damian M Herz, Andrea A Kühn, Peter Brown
Exaggerated basal ganglia beta activity (13-35 Hz) is commonly found in patients with Parkinson's disease and can be suppressed by dopaminergic medication, with the degree of suppression being correlated with the improvement in motor symptoms. Importantly, beta activity is not continuously elevated, but fluctuates to give beta bursts. The percentage number of longer beta bursts in a given interval is positively correlated with clinical impairment in Parkinson's disease patients. Here we determine whether the characteristics of beta bursts are dependent on dopaminergic state...
November 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042584/the-role-of-chromatin-density-in-cell-population-heterogeneity-during-stem-cell-differentiation
#13
Mahdi Golkaram, Jiwon Jang, Stefan Hellander, Kenneth S Kosik, Linda R Petzold
We incorporate three-dimensional (3D) conformation of chromosome (Hi-C) and single-cell RNA sequencing data together with discrete stochastic simulation, to explore the role of chromatin reorganization in determining gene expression heterogeneity during development. While previous research has emphasized the importance of chromatin architecture on activation and suppression of certain regulatory genes and gene networks, our study demonstrates how chromatin remodeling can dictate gene expression distribution by folding into distinct topological domains...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041385/mode-suppression-of-53-db-and-pulse-repetition-rates-of-2-87-and-36-4-ghz-in-a-compact-mode-locked-fiber-laser-comprising-coupled-fabry-perot-cavities-of-low-finesse-f-2
#14
H Cheng, Y Zhou, A E Mironov, W Wang, T Qiao, W Lin, Q Qian, S Xu, Z Yang, J G Eden
Multiplication of the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of a compact, mode-locked fiber laser by a factor as large as 25 has been achieved with two coupled Fabry-Perot (FP) resonators of low finesse (F = 2). Reducing the FP finesse by at least two orders of magnitude, relative to previous pulse frequency multiplication architectures, has the effect of stabilizing the oscillator with respect to pulse-to-pulse amplitude, dropped pulses, and other effects of cavity detuning. Coupling two Fabry-Perot cavities, each encompassing a 3...
October 2, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038791/traditional-chinese-medicine-protects-against-cytokine-production-as-the-potential-immunosuppressive-agents-in-atherosclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Yan Ren, Wei Qiao, Dongliang Fu, Zhiwei Han, Wei Liu, Weijie Ye, Zunjing Liu
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by dyslipidemia and mediated by both innate and adaptive immune responses. Inflammation is a critical factor at all stages of atherosclerosis progression. Proinflammatory cytokines accelerate atherosclerosis progression, while anti-inflammatory cytokines ameliorate the disease. Accordingly, strategies to inhibit immune activation and impede immune responses towards anti-inflammatory activity are an alternative therapeutic strategy to conventional chemotherapy on cardiocerebrovascular outcomes...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033963/convergent-evolution-of-pathogen-effectors-toward-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling-networks-in-plants
#16
REVIEW
Nam-Soo Jwa, Byung Kook Hwang
Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032425/heterologous-expression-of-wheat-tarub1-gene-enhances-disease-resistance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Yanlin Yang, Wenqiang Wang, Tian Xu, Na Liu, Honggang Wang, Deshun Feng
Expression of TaRUB1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana elevates the level of disease-related genes in response to pathogen invasion through the accumulation of callose, necrotic cells, and the outbreak of ROS. Ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like proteins are highly conserved in sequence and can covalently bind and modify many intracellular proteins which can be recognized and degraded by 26S proteasome. Post-translational modification of proteins has become a hot research spot today. In the previous study, a cDNA of related-to-ubiquitin protein belonged to ubiquitin-like proteins, whose spatial structure comprised Ub and NEDD8, was obtained from wheat SN6306 by suppression-subtractive hybridization and was named TaRUB1...
December 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028545/penicillium-expansum-compatible-and-penicillium-digitatum-non-host-pathogen-infection-differentially-alter-ethylene-biosynthesis-in-apple-fruit
#18
Laura Vilanova, Núria Vall-Llaura, Rosario Torres, Josep Usall, Neus Teixidó, Christian Larrigaudière, Jordi Giné-Bordonaba
The role of ethylene on inducing plant resistance or susceptibility to certain fungal pathogens clearly depends on the plant pathogen interaction with little or no-information available focused on the apple-Penicillium interaction. Taken advantage that Penicillium expansum is the compatible pathogen and P. digitatum is the non-host of apples, the present study aimed at deciphering how each Penicillium spp. could interfere in the fruit ethylene biosynthesis at the biochemical and molecular level. The infection capacity and different aspects related to the ethylene biosynthesis were conducted at different times post-inoculation...
September 30, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028501/interindividual-variability-in-response-to-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-in-healthy-adults
#19
Ali Jannati, Gabrielle Block, Lindsay M Oberman, Alexander Rotenberg, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
OBJECTIVE: We used complete-linkage cluster analysis to identify healthy subpopulations with distinct responses to continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS). METHODS: 21 healthy adults (age±SD, 36.9±15.2years) underwent cTBS of left motor cortex. Natural log-transformed motor evoked potentials (LnMEPs) at 5-50min post-cTBS (T5-T50) were calculated. RESULTS: Two clusters were found; Group 1 (n=12) that showed significant MEP facilitation at T15, T20, and T50 (p's<0...
November 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989834/the-change-of-picrotoxin-induced-epileptiform-discharges-to-the-beta-oscillation-by-carbachol-in-rat-hippocampal-slices
#20
Ayumi Hashimoto, Toyohiro Sawada, Kiyohisa Natsume
The study aimed to determine whether and how the activation of the acetylcholine receptor affects epileptiform discharges in the CA3 region in a rat hippocampus. Picrotoxin (100 μM), a GABAA receptor antagonist, was applied to a hippocampal slice to induce epileptiform discharges. The effects of the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, on the discharges were examined at the several concentrations (1-30 μM). Carbachol had different impacts on epileptiform discharges at the different concentrations. Relatively low concentrations of carbachol (<10 μM) increased the frequency but decreased the amplitude of the discharges...
2017: Biophysics and Physicobiology
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