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suppression burst

P Leon Brown, Panos Zanos, Leiming Wang, Greg I Elmer, Todd D Gould, Paul D Shepard
Background: The volatile anesthetic isoflurane may exert a rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effect in patients with medication-resistant depression. The mechanism underlying the putative therapeutic actions of the anesthetic have been attributed to its ability to elicit cortical burst suppression, a distinct EEG pattern with features resembling the characteristic changes that occur following electroconvulsive therapy. It is currently unknown whether the antidepressant actions of isoflurane are shared by anesthetics that do not elicit cortical burst suppression...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Muneeb U Rehman, Shahzada Mudasir Rashid, Saiema Rasool, Sheeba Shakeel, Bilal Ahmad, Sheikh Bilal Ahmad, Hassan Madkhali, Majid Ahmad Ganaie, Sabiya Majid, Showkat Ahmad Bhat
Development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is directly linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. In this context, inflammatory and oxidative markers have gained much attention as targets for therapeutic intervention. We studied the effect of zingerone in a streptozotocin/high fat diet (STZ/HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar rat model. Zingerone also known as vanillyl acetone is a pharmacologically active compound present usually in dry ginger. STZ/HFD caused excessive increase in ROS and inflammation in experimental animals...
March 14, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Zhuan Li, Jie Zhao, Shujun Zhang, Steven A Weinman
Alcohol consumption is generally well tolerated by the liver but in some individuals it results in persistent inflammation and liver disease. The mechanisms that regulate alcohol-induced liver inflammation are poorly understood. The transcription factor FOXO3 has previously been shown to be involved in suppressing alcohol-induced liver injury. In this study we demonstrate that in response to alcohol, approximately 10% of mouse hepatic macrophages undergo FOXO3-dependent apoptosis. By 3 days of alcohol exposure total hepatic macrophage numbers declined by 30% but these were restored to normal after 10 days of continued exposure...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Rolf Spirig, Ian K Campbell, Sandra Koernig, Chao-Guang Chen, Bonnie J B Lewis, Rebecca Butcher, Ineke Muir, Shirley Taylor, Jenny Chia, David Leong, Jason Simmonds, Pierre Scotney, Peter Schmidt, Louis Fabri, Andreas Hofmann, Monika Jordi, Martin O Spycher, Susann Cattepoel, Jennifer Brasseit, Con Panousis, Tony Rowe, Donald R Branch, Adriana Baz Morelli, Fabian Käsermann, Adrian W Zuercher
Activation of Fc receptors and complement by immune complexes is a common important pathogenic trigger in many autoimmune diseases and so blockade of these innate immune pathways may be an attractive target for treatment of immune complex-mediated pathomechanisms. High-dose IVIG is used to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and several studies demonstrate that the therapeutic effects of IVIG can be recapitulated with the Fc portion. Further, recent data indicate that recombinant multimerized Fc molecules exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Pei Zhang, Xuguang Hu, Bin Liu, Zhe Liu, Cong Liu, Jianming Cai, Fu Gao, Jianguo Cui, Bailong Li, Yanyong Yang
BACKGROUND Carbon ion radiotherapy has been shown to be more effective in cancer radiotherapy than photon irradiation. Influence of carbon ion radiation on cancer microenvironment is very important for the outcomes of radiotherapy. Tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells (DCs) play critical roles in cancer antigen processing and antitumor immunity. However, there is scant literature covering the effects of carbon ion radiation on DCs. In this study, we aimed to uncover the impact of carbon ion irradiation on bone marrow derived DCs...
March 11, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Yuan-Hao Chen, Tung-Tai Kuo, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Yu-Ching Chou, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Barry J Hoffer, Jonathon Miller
Background: Traumatic brain injury is associated with substantial alterations in reward processing, but underlying mechanisms are controversial. Objective: A better understanding of alterations in dopamine (DA) release patterns from the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens shell (NAc) may provide insights into posttraumatic reward pathology. Materials and Methods: The patterns of DA release with or without exposure to nicotine in brain slices with striatum and NAc, isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats with 6 psi fluid percussion (FPI) or sham injury were analysis by using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Corey A H Allard, Hannah E Opalko, Ko-Wei Liu, Uche Medoh, James B Moseley
Cell size control requires mechanisms that link cell growth with Cdk1 activity. In fission yeast, the protein kinase Cdr2 forms cortical nodes that include the Cdk1 inhibitor Wee1 along with the Wee1-inhibitory kinase Cdr1. We investigated how nodes inhibit Wee1 during cell growth. Biochemical fractionation revealed that Cdr2 nodes were megadalton structures enriched for activated Cdr2, which increases in level during interphase growth. In live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy videos, Cdr2 and Cdr1 remained constant at nodes over time, but Wee1 localized to nodes in short bursts...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Takayuki Uchida, Yoshihiro Sakashita, Kanako Kitahata, Yui Yamashita, Chisato Tomida, Yuki Kimori, Akio Komatsu, Katsuya Hirasaka, Ayako Ohno, Reiko Nakao, Atsushi Higashitani, Akira Higashibata, Noriaki Ishioka, Toru Shimazu, Takeshi Kobayashi, Yuushi Okumura, Inho Choi, Motoko Oarada, Edward M Mills, Shigetada Teshima-Kondo, Shin'ichi Takeda, Eiji Tanaka, Keiji Tanaka, Masahiro Sokabe, Takeshi Nikawa
Unloading-mediated muscle atrophy is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We previously demonstrated that elevated ubiquitin ligase casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b (Cbl-b) resulted in the loss of muscle volume [Nakao R. et al. Mol Cell Biol, 29: 4798-4811, 2009]. However, the pathological role of ROS production associated with unloading-mediated muscle atrophy still remains unknown. Here, we showed the ROS-mediated signal transduction caused by microgravity or its simulation contributes to Cbl-b expression...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Yian Huang, Yuwen Zhang, Shuzhen Kong, Kai Zang, Shize Jiang, Li Wan, Lulan Chen, Guoxiang Wang, Min Jiang, Xin Wang, Jie Hu, Yun Wang
G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are important inhibitory regulators of neuronal excitability in central nervous system, and the impairment of GIRK channel function has been reported to be associated with the susceptibility of epilepsy. However, the dynamics of GIRK channels in the pathogenesis of epilepsy are still unclear. In this study, our results showed that cyclothiazide, a potent convulsant, dose dependently increased the epileptiform bursting activities and suppressed the baclofen induced GIRK currents...
February 27, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Huipeng Li, Xue Yang, Fang Gao, Chenggen Qian, Chenzi Li, David Oupicky, Minjie Sun
In present study, gene concentrated as well as bioreduction-ruptured nanogel with local enrichment positive charge while low cytotoxicity was developed for Bcl2 siRNA delivery featured in intracellular switch on/off controlled release. Dynamic covalent bond crosslinked nanogel was formed by thiolated PEI of 1.8 kDa(PEI-1.8 kDa)and biodegradable dextrin. Once nanogel was uptake by tumor cells, high concentration of glutathione (GSH) in cytosol could bioreducible -degrade and rupture the crosslink of this dextrin nanogel (DSP) into hypotoxic PEI-1...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Kanchan Garai, Ammon E Posey, Xinyi Li, Joel N Buxbaum, Rohit V Pappu
Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric protein that is found in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. Dissociation of TTR tetramers sets off a downhill cascade of amyloid formation through polymerization of monomeric TTR. Interestingly, TTR has an additional, biologically relevant activity, which pertains to its ability to slow the progression of amyloid beta (Aβ) associated pathology in transgenic mice. In vitro, both TTR and a kinetically stable variant of monomeric TTR (M-TTR) inhibit the fibril formation of Aβ1-40/42 molecules...
March 2, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Amanda Bundgaard, Andrew M James, William Joyce, Michael P Murphy, Angela Fago
Freshwater turtles ( Trachemys scripta ) are among the very few vertebrates capable of tolerating severe hypoxia and reoxygenation without suffering from damage to the heart. As myocardial ischemia and reperfusion causes a burst of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammals, the question arises as to whether, and if so how, this ROS burst is prevented in the turtle heart. We find here that heart mitochondria isolated from turtles acclimated to anoxia produce less ROS than mitochondria from normoxic turtles when consuming succinate...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jiansong Chen, Lili Hu, Longhua Sun, Borong Lin, Kun Huang, Kan Zhuo, Jinling Liao
Plant-parasitic nematodes can secrete effector proteins into the host tissue to facilitate their parasitism. In this study, we reported a novel effector protein, MgMO237, from Meloidogyne graminicola, which was exclusively expressed within the dorsal esophageal gland cell and markedly up-regulated in parasitic third/fourth stage juveniles of M. graminicola. Transient expression of MgMO237 in protoplasts from rice roots showed that MgMO237 was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the host cells. Rice plants overexpressing MgMO237 had an increased susceptibility to M...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Matthieu Raveau, Denis Polygalov, Roman Boehringer, Kenji Amano, Kazuhiro Yamakawa, Thomas J McHugh
Down syndrome, the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability, results from an extra-copy of chromosome 21. Mice engineered to model this aneuploidy exhibit Down syndrome-like memory deficits in spatial and contextual tasks. While abnormal neuronal function has been identified in these models, most studies have relied on in vitro measures. Here, using in vivo recording in the Dp(16)1Yey model, we find alterations in the organization of spiking of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, including deficits in the generation of complex spikes...
February 27, 2018: ELife
Qian Zhao, Lujian Zhou, Jianchao Liu, Zhenzhen Cao, Xiaoxia Du, Fudeng Huang, Gang Pan, Fangmin Cheng
HT-induced ROS burst in developing anther is closely related to the lowered CAT activity as the result of the markedly suppressed OsCATB transcript, thereby causing severe fertility injury for rice plants exposed to HT at meiosis stage. The reproductive stage of rice plants is highly sensitive to heat stress. In this paper, different rice cultivars were used to investigate the relationship of HT-induced floret sterility with reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification in rice anthers under well-controlled climatic conditions...
February 21, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Loganathan Rangasamy, Venkatesh Chelvam, Ananda Kumar Kanduluru, Madduri Srinivasarao, Achini N Bandara, Fei You, Esteban Orellana, Andrea L Kasinski, Philip S Low
Although peptides, antibodies/antibody fragments, siRNAs, antisense DNAs, enzymes and aptamers are all under development as possible therapeutic agents, the breadth of their applications has been severely compromised by their inability to reach intracellular targets. Thus, while macromolecules can often enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, their missions frequently fail due to an inability to escape their entrapping endosomes. In this paper, we describe a general method for promoting release of any biologic material from any entrapping endosome...
February 15, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Nicholas S Abend, Rui Xiao, Sudha Kilaru Kessler, Alexis A Topjian
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether EEG background characteristics remain stable across discrete time periods during the acute period after resuscitation from pediatric cardiac arrest. METHODS: Children resuscitated from cardiac arrest underwent continuous conventional EEG monitoring. The EEG was scored in 12-hour epochs for up to 72 hours after return of circulation by an electroencephalographer using a Background Category with 4 levels (normal, slow-disorganized, discontinuous/burst-suppression, or attenuated-featureless) or 2 levels (normal/slow-disorganized or discontinuous/burst-suppression/attenuated-featureless)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Parasappa R Saabale, Sunil C Dubey, Kumari Priyanka, Tilak R Sharma
The present study reports the transcriptome analysis of resistance (WR315) and susceptible (JG62) genotypes of chickpea in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) race 4 using the method of suppression subtractive hybridization. Altogether, 162 chickpea-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified from two libraries and analyzed to catalog eight functional categories. These ESTs could be assembled into 18 contigs and 144 singletons with 10 contigs and 68 singletons from compatible and 8 contigs and 70 singletons from incompatible interaction...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Madhuradhar Chegondi, Jun Sasaki, Sayed Naqvi, Wei-Chiang Lin, Andre Raszynski, Balagangadhar R Totapally
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as prognostic tool in various disorders in pediatric and adult patients. In our study we aimed to evaluate heart rate variability indices and their association with neurological outcome in three children with anoxic brain injury following drowning. Three children included in the study were admitted following drowning and required mechanical ventilation and targeted temperature management. All physiologic data, including electrocardiography (ECG) and EEG were collected for a period of 3-5 days after enrollment...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Dnyaneshwar P Mutkule, S Manimala Rao, Jaydip Ray Chaudhuri, Kunche Rajasri
Status epilepticus is frequently encountered in neuro Intensive Care Units. It is a medical emergency and if not treated promptly can lead to severe brain damage and even death. Here, we present the case of a 18-year-old male with uncontrolled and unrelenting seizures with a rare etiology requiring ketamine infusion for burst suppression as it was resistant to thiopentone and midazolam infusions. The management of this case is presented in detail.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
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