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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921442/nebulized-antibiotics-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-roadmap-and-challenges
#1
G Poulakou, G Siakallis, S Tsiodras, A Arfaras Melainis, G Dimopoulos
Nebulized antibiotics use has become common practice in the therapeutics of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. There is an increasing interest in their use for respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients in order to a) overcome pharmacokinetic issues in the lung compartment with traditional systemic antibiotic use and b) prevent the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Areas covered: The beneficial effects of antibiotic nebulization in MV patients e.g. increasing efficacy, reduced toxicity and prevention of resistance are described...
December 6, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921227/-nosocomial-pneumonia-from-a%C3%A2-radiological-perspective
#2
REVIEW
P Agarwal, A Wielandner
Due to the high morbidity and mortality, nosocomial pneumonia represents a serious risk in hospitalized patients. The increased risk of infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens makes a timely diagnosis and prompt therapy indispensable. A newly occurring or progressive infiltrate in any patient who has been hospitalized for more than 48 h should be viewed with suspicion. In contrast to community acquired pneumonia (CAP), radiography plays a limited role in the diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
December 5, 2016: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920536/evaluation-of-potential-novel-variations-and-their-interactions-related-to-bipolar-disorders-analysis-of-genome-wide-association-study-data
#3
Cengizhan Acikel, Yesim Aydin Son, Cemil Celik, Husamettin Gul
BACKGROUND: Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) is a nonparametric approach that can be used to detect relevant interactions between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The aim of this study was to build the best genomic model based on SNP associations and to identify candidate polymorphisms that are the underlying molecular basis of the bipolar disorders. METHODS: This study was performed on Whole-Genome Association Study of Bipolar Disorder (dbGaP [database of Genotypes and Phenotypes] study accession number: phs000017...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920503/adverse-events-and-patients-perceived-health-related-quality-of-life-at-the-end-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-in-namibia
#4
Evans L Sagwa, Nunurai Ruswa, Farai Mavhunga, Timothy Rennie, Hubert Gm Leufkens, Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse
PURPOSE: The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients completing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment in Namibia and whether the occurrence of adverse events influenced patients' rating of their HRQoL was evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic survey of patients completing or who recently completed MDR-TB treatment was conducted. The patients rated their HRQoL using the simplified Short Form-™ (SF-8) questionnaire consisting of eight Likert-type questions...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919643/transmission-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-shanghai-china-a-retrospective-observational-study-using-whole-genome-sequencing-and-epidemiological-investigation
#5
Chongguang Yang, Tao Luo, Xin Shen, Jie Wu, Mingyu Gan, Peng Xu, Zheyuan Wu, Senlin Lin, Jiyun Tian, Qingyun Liu, ZhengAn Yuan, Jian Mei, Kathryn DeRiemer, Qian Gao
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistance is a substantial threat to global elimination of tuberculosis. Understanding transmission patterns is crucial for control of the disease. We used a genomic and epidemiological approach to assess recent transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis and identify potential risk factors for transmission. METHODS: We did a population-based, retrospective study of patients who tested positive for tuberculosis between Jan 1, 2009, and Dec 31, 2012, in Shanghai, China...
December 2, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919296/antimicrobial-resistance-in-salmonella-that-caused-foodborne-disease-outbreaks-united-states-2003-2012
#6
A C Brown, J E Grass, L C Richardson, A L Nisler, A S Bicknese, L H Gould
Although most non-typhoidal Salmonella illnesses are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment is critical for invasive infections. To describe resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne outbreaks in the United States, we linked outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to isolate susceptibility data in the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Resistant outbreaks were defined as those linked to one or more isolates with resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug...
December 6, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919287/chemical-profiling-antimicrobial-and-insecticidal-evaluations-of-polygonum-hydropiper-l
#7
Muhammad Ayaz, Muhammad Junaid, Farhat Ullah, Abdul Sadiq, Muhammad Ovais, Waqar Ahmad, Sajjad Ahmad, Anwar Zeb
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat diseases is based on the discovery of potent drugs for the treatment of these challenging diseases. Traditional medicines are one of the major sources for the discovery of safe, effective and economical drug candidates. In order to validate its antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal potentials with respect to traditional uses, we have screened for the first time Polygonum hydropiper against pathogenic bacterial, fungal strains and a variety of insects...
December 5, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918694/ceftaroline-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-from-u-s-medical-centers-2014-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-single-ceftaroline-nonsusceptible-isolate
#8
Michael A Pfaller, Rodrigo E Mendes, Robert K Flamm, Ronald N Jones, Helio S Sader
Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (2,614) were collected from patients at 135 U.S. Medical Centers during 2014. Isolates were evaluated for multidrug resistance to penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin. A single isolate (853008) demonstrated a ceftaroline nonsusceptible minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value, and it was subjected to molecular characterization. Ceftaroline (MIC50/90, ≤0.015/0.12 μg/ml) was eightfold more potent than ceftriaxone (MIC50/90, ≤0...
December 5, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917795/lytic-activity-of-various-phage-cocktails-on-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#9
I Ozkan, E Akturk, N Yeshenkulov, S Atmaca, N Rahmanov, H I Atabay
PURPOSE: A bacteriophage is a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium following the injection of phage genome into the bacterial cytoplasm. They are seen as a possible therapy for multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria. The aim of this study is to evaluate the lytic activity of the Pyo, Intesti and Fersisi bacteriophage cocktails on P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. METHODS: Ten different S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains, which were isolated from hospitalized patients in Turkey, were used in the study...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917692/once-daily-high-dose-tigecycline-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-based-dosing-for-optimal-clinical-effectiveness-dosing-matters-revisited
#10
Burke A Cunha, Jeffrey Baron, Cheston B Cunha
Tigecycline has emerged as first line therapy for serious systemic infections due to important pathogens (except P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp.), including multi-drug resistant (MDR) and Gram negative bacilli (GNB), including carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriae. Tigecycline has a "low resistance potential," is protective against C. difficile, and is often the only antibiotic effective against MDR GNB, e.g., Klebsiella sp. Areas covered: Standard dose tigecycline therapy has been used for intra-abdominal infections, complicated skin/skin structure infections (cSSSIs), and CAP...
December 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916878/burkholderia-contaminans-colonization-from-contaminated-liquid-docusate-colace-in-a-immunocompetent-adult-with-legionnaire-s-disease-infection-control-implications-and-the-potential-role-of-candida-pellucosa
#11
Burke A Cunha, John Gian, Bertamaria Dieguez, Elsa Santos-Cruz, Daniela Matassa, Steve Gerson, Pat Daniels, Carlos Rosales, Rodger P Silletti
Objective:B. contaminans was cultured from respiratory secretions and liquid docusate (Colace) in a Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit (NICU) patient with community-acquired Legionnaire's disease but not from another bottle given to the patient. Unexpectedly, C. pelliculosa was cultured from two bottles, but not the B. contaminans bottle or respiratory secretions. Methods:B. cepacia, later identified as B. contaminans, was cultured from a bottle of liquid docusate (Colace) dispensed to a non-cystic fibrosis patient...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916621/point-should-inhaled-antibiotic-therapy-be-routinely-used-for-the-treatment-of-bacterial-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-icu-setting-yes
#12
EDITORIAL
Richard G Wunderink
Routine use of aerosolized antibiotics is the most rational approach to the current treatment dilemmas for severe hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) requiring endotracheal intubation or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The two main issues for HAP/VAP are inappropriate initial therapy and ineffective therapy for multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, particularly gram negative bacilli such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. The emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have made even common pathogens such as Escherichia coli difficult to treat...
November 22, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916419/comparative-transcriptomics-analyses-of-the-different-growth-states-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#13
Shuai Li, Haitao Li, Tianjie Qi, Xixin Yan, Boli Wang, Jitao Guan, Yu Li
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is an important bacterial pathogen commonly associated with hospital acquired infections. A. baumannii can remain viable and hence virulent in the environment for a long period of time due primarily to its ability to form biofilms. A total of 459 cases of MDR A. baumannii our hospital collected from March 2014 to March 2015 were examined in this study, and a representative isolate selected for high-throughput mRNA sequencing and comparison of gene expression profiles under the biofilm and exponential growth conditions...
December 1, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916384/antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-subtypes-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-isolates-from-kolkata-india-over-a-15-years-period-1998-2012
#14
Surojit Das, Sriparna Samajpati, Ujjwayini Ray, Indranil Roy, Shanta Dutta
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains an unresolved public health problem in India. Emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains poses a great concern for typhoid treatment and influences reshaping of current S. Typhi population. We included representative S. Typhi strains (n=164) from retrospective studies, both community and hospital based, conducted at National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata during 15 years period (1998-2012) to analyze their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, mechanism of AMR and molecular subtypes of the strains...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915143/single-and-mixture-toxicity-of-three-organic-uv-filters-ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate-octocrylene-and-avobenzone-on-daphnia-magna
#15
Chang-Beom Park, Jiyi Jang, Sanghun Kim, Young Jun Kim
In freshwater environments, aquatic organisms are generally exposed to mixtures of various chemical substances. In this study, we tested the toxicity of three organic UV-filters (ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, octocrylene, and avobenzone) to Daphnia magna in order to evaluate the combined toxicity of these substances when in they occur in a mixture. The values of effective concentrations (ECx) for each UV-filter were calculated by concentration-response curves; concentration-combinations of three different UV-filters in a mixture were determined by the fraction of components based on EC25 values predicted by concentration addition (CA) model...
December 1, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914336/thermoresponsive-supramolecular-micellar-drug-delivery-system-based-on-star-linear-pseudo-block-polymer-consisting-of-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-and-adamantyl-poly-ethylene-glycol
#16
Xia Song, Jing-Ling Zhu, Yuting Wen, Feng Zhao, Zhong-Xing Zhang, Jun Li
Chemotherapy is facing several limitations such as low water solubility of anticancer drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. To overcome these limitations, a thermoresponsive micellar drug delivery system formed by a non-covalently connected supramolecular block polymer was developed. The system is based on the host-guest interaction between a well-defined β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) star host polymer and an adamantyl-containing poly(ethylene glycol) (Ad-PEG) guest polymer...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913311/should-travelers-be-screened-for-multi-drug-resistant-mdr-bacteria-after-visiting-high-risk-areas-such-as-india
#17
Eskild Petersen, Jalila Mohsin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913127/co-assembly-of-doxorubicin-and-curcumin-targeted-micelles-for-synergistic-delivery-and-improving-anti-tumor-efficacy
#18
Wenzhuan Ma, Qiang Guo, Ying Li, Xiaohui Wang, Jinling Wang, Pengfei Tu
Chemotherapeutic drugs have a series of limitations in anti-tumor treatment, mainly including multidrug resistance (MDR) and serious adverse reactions. Co-delivery system with two or more synergistic therapeutic drugs is an effective strategy to settle these limitations. In this study, active tumor-targeted co-delivery micelles (DOX+Cur)-PMs, with two synergistic drugs of a therapeutic drug of doxorubicin (DOX) and a chemosensitizer of curcumin (Cur) co-encapsulated into hyaluronic acid-vitamin E succinate (HA-VES) graft copolymer, were prepared and delivered simultaneously into tumor cells for improving therapeutic effects of DOX...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913093/genome-of-the-carbapenemase-producing-clinical-isolate-elizabethkingia-miricola-em_chuv-and-comparative-genomics-with-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-and-elizabethkingia-anophelis-evidence-for-intrinsic-multidrug-resistance-trait-of-emerging-pathogens
#19
Onya Opota, Seydina M Diene, Claire Bertelli, Guy Prod'hom, Philippe Eckert, Gilbert Greub
Elizabethkingia miricola is a Gram-negative non-fermenting rod emerging as a life-threatening human pathogen. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing clinical isolate E. miricola EM_CHUV was recovered in the setting of severe nosocomial pneumonia. In this study, the genome of E. miricola EM_CHUV was sequenced and a functional analysis was performed, including a comparative genomic study with Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis. The resistome of EM_CHUV revealed the presence of a high number of resistance genes, including the presence of the blaGOB-13 and blaB-9 carbapenemase-encoding genes...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909306/rpl5-on-1p22-1-is-recurrently-deleted-in-multiple-myeloma-and-its-expression-is-linked-to-bortezomib-response
#20
I J F Hofman, M Van Duin, E De Bruyne, L Fancello, G Mulligan, E Geerdens, E Garelli, C Mancini, H Lemmens, M Delforge, P Vandenberghe, I Wlodarska, A Aspesi, L Michaux, K Vanderkerken, P Sonneveld, K De Keersmaecker
Chromosomal region 1p22 is deleted in ⩾20% of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, suggesting the presence of an unidentified tumor suppressor. Using high-resolution genomic profiling, we delimit a 58 kb minimal deleted region (MDR) on 1p22.1 encompassing two genes: ectopic viral integration site 5 (EVI5) and ribosomal protein L5 (RPL5). Low mRNA expression of EVI5 and RPL5 was associated with worse survival in diagnostic cases. Patients with 1p22 deletion had lower mRNA expression of EVI5 and RPL5, however, 1p22 deletion status is a bad predictor of RPL5 expression in some cases, suggesting that other mechanisms downregulate RPL5 expression...
December 2, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
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