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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102844/human-adipose-stem-cell-differentiation-is-highly-affected-by-cancer-cells-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-implication-for-autologous-fat-grafting
#1
Francesca Paino, Marcella La Noce, Diego Di Nucci, Giovanni Francesco Nicoletti, Rosa Salzillo, Alfredo De Rosa, Giuseppe Andrea Ferraro, Gianpaolo Papaccio, Vincenzo Desiderio, Virginia Tirino
Recent studies showed that mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue can promote tumour progression, raising some concerns regarding their use in regenerative medicine. In this context, we co-cultured either SAOS2 osteosarcoma or MCF7 breast cancer cells with human adipose stem cells (hASCs), in order to evaluate potential effects of cancer cells on hASCs differentiation, in vitro and in vivo. In this study we observed that both SAOS2 and MCF7 cell lines induced an increase in hASCs proliferation, compared to hASCs alone, but, surprisingly, neither changes in the expression of CD90, CD29, CD324 and vimentin, nor variations in the Twist and Slug mRNAs were detectable...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101932/amino-acid-profiling-of-zinc-resistant-prostate-cancer-cell-lines-associations-with-cancer-progression
#2
Monika Kratochvilova, Martina Raudenska, Zbynek Heger, Lukas Richtera, Natalia Cernei, Vojtech Adam, Petr Babula, Marie Novakova, Michal Masarik, Jaromir Gumulec
BACKGROUND: Failure in intracellular zinc accumulation is a key process in prostate carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies of zinc administration have provided contradicting results. In order to examine the impact of the artificial intracellular increase of zinc(II) ions on prostate cancer metabolism, PNT1A, 22Rv1, and PC-3 prostatic cell lines-depicting different stages of cancer progression-and their zinc-resistant counterparts were used. To determine "benign" and "malignant" metabolic profiles, amino acid patterns, gene expression, and antioxidant capacity of these cell lines were assessed...
January 19, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100038/trim8-regulates-stemness-in-glioblastoma-through-pias3-stat3
#3
Changming Zhang, Subhas Mukherjee, Carol Tucker-Burden, James L Ross, Monica J Chau, Jun Kong, Daniel J Brat
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant form of primary brain tumor and GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) contribute to the rapid growth, therapeutic resistance and clinical recurrence of these fatal tumors. STAT3 signaling supports the maintenance and proliferation of GSCs, yet regulatory mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we report that tri-partite motif containing protein 8 (TRIM8) activates STAT3 signaling to maintain stemness and self-renewing capabilities of GSCs. TRIM8 (also known as "glioblastoma expressed ring finger protein") is expressed equally in GBM and normal brain tissues, despite its hemizygous deletion in the large majority of GBMs, and its expression is highly correlated with stem cell markers...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100021/identifying-the-biphasic-role-of-calcineurin-nfat-signaling-enables-replacement-of-sox2-in-somatic-cell-reprogramming
#4
Sherif Khodeer, Takumi Era
Induction of pluripotency with defined factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc) raises hopes for successful clinical trials. Despite considerable efforts, the molecular mechanism of reprogramming remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in reprogramming. Our results demonstrated a biphasic role for calcineurin/NFAT signaling during reprogramming. In the early phase of reprogramming, calcineurin activity is required to maintain proper cell cycle division and for mesenchymal-epithelial transition...
January 18, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096221/efficient-crispr-cas9-assisted-gene-targeting-enables-rapid-and-precise-genetic-manipulation-of-mammalian-neural-stem-cells
#5
Raul Bardini Bressan, Pooran Singh Dewari, Maria Kalantzaki, Ester Gangoso, Mantas Matjusaitis, Claudia Garcia-Diaz, Carla Blin, Vivien Grant, Harry Bulstrode, Sabine Gogolok, William C Skarnes, Steven M Pollard
Mammalian neural stem (NS) cell lines provide a tractable model for discovery across stem cell and developmental biology, regenerative medicine and neuroscience. They can be derived from foetal or adult germinal tissues and continuously propagated in vitro as adherent monolayers. NS cells are clonally expandable, genetically stable, and easily transfectable - experimental attributes compatible with targeted genetic manipulations. However, gene targeting - so critical for functional studies of embryonic stem cells - has not been exploited to date in NS cells...
January 17, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096214/cartilage-to-bone-transformation-during-fracture-healing-is-coordinated-by-the-invading-vasculature-and-induction-of-the-core-pluripotency-genes
#6
Diane P Hu, Federico Ferro, Frank Yang, Aaron J Taylor, Wenhan Chang, Theodore Miclau, Ralph S Marcucio, Chelsea S Bahney
Fractures heal predominantly through the process of endochondral ossification. The classic model of endochondral ossification holds that chondrocytes mature to hypertrophy, undergo apoptosis and new bone forms by invading osteoprogenitors. However, recent data demonstrate that chondrocytes transdifferentiate to osteoblasts in the growth plate and during regeneration, yet the mechanism(s) regulating this process remain unknown. Here, we show a spatially-dependent phenotypic overlap between hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous border in the fracture callus, in a region we define as the transition zone (TZ)...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093523/cutting-edge-nanog-activates-autophagy-under-hypoxic-stress-by-binding-to-bnip3l-promoter
#7
Meriem Hasmim, Bassam Janji, Mehdi Khaled, Muhammad Zaeem Noman, Fawzia Louache, Didier Bordereaux, Abdou Abderamane, Veronique Baud, Fathia Mami-Chouaib, Salem Chouaib
Hypoxia upregulates the core pluripotency factors NANOG, SOX2, and OCT4, associated with tumor aggressiveness and resistance to conventional anticancer treatments. We have previously reported that hypoxia-induced NANOG contributed in vitro to tumor cell resistance to autologous-specific CTL and in vivo to the in situ recruitment of immune-suppressive cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying NANOG-mediated tumor cell resistance to specific lysis under hypoxia. We demonstrated the tumor-promoting effect of hypoxia on tumor initiation into immunodeficient mice using human non-small lung carcinoma cells...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091581/icaritin-enhances-mesc-self-renewal-through-upregulating-core-pluripotency-transcription-factors-mediated-by-er%C3%AE
#8
Wing Pui Tsang, Fengjie Zhang, Qiling He, Waijiao Cai, Jianhua Huang, Wai Yee Chan, Ziyin Shen, Chao Wan
Utilization of small molecules in modulation of stem cell self-renewal is a promising approach to expand stem cells for regenerative therapy. Here, we identify Icaritin, a phytoestrogen molecule enhances self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Icaritin increases mESCs proliferation while maintains their self-renewal capacity in vitro and pluripotency in vivo. This coincides with upregulation of key pluripotency transcription factors OCT4, NANOG, KLF4 and SOX2. The enhancement of mESCs self-renewal is characterized by increased population in S-phase of cell cycle, elevation of Cylin E and Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and downregulation of p21, p27 and p57...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088038/evidence-of-functional-duplicity-of-nestin-expression-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#9
Parisa Farzanehfar, Shi Sheng Lu, Anupa Dey, Dharshani Musiienko, Hamzah Baagil, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Whether or not neurogenesis occurs in the adult substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is an important question relevant for developing better treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although controversial, it is generally believed that dividing cells here remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia, not neurons. However, there is a suggestion that Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the adult SNc have a propensity to differentiate into neurons, which we sought to confirm in the present study...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087635/rb-controls-growth-survival-and-neuronal-migration-in-human-cerebral-organoids
#10
Takeshi Matsui, Vanesa Nieto-Estévez, Sergii Kyrychenko, Jay W Schneider, Jenny Hsieh
Retinoblastoma (RB) is a tumor suppressor gene which regulates cell cycle entry to S phase via E2F transcription factors. Using knockout (KO) mice, it has been described that Rb plays a role in cell migration and differentiation in developing and adult brain as well as apoptosis. In addition, the RB family is required for the self-renewal and survival of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, little is known about the role of this gene in human brain development. Here, we investigated the role of RB in cerebral organoids from human ESCs deficient for RB...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079892/hif-2%C3%AE-and-oct4-have-synergistic-effects-on-survival-and-myocardial-repair-of-very-small-embryonic-like-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-infarcted-hearts
#11
Shaoheng Zhang, Lan Zhao, Jiahong Wang, Nannan Chen, Jian Yan, Xin Pan
Poor cell survival and limited functional benefits have restricted mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) efficacy for treating myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that a better understanding of stem cell biology is needed. The transcription factor HIF-2α is an essential regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia, which can interact with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) transcription factor Oct4 and modulate its signaling. Here, we obtained very small embryonic-like mesenchymal stem cells (vselMSCs) from MI patients, which possessed the very small embryonic-like stem cells' (VSELs) morphology as well as ESCs' pluripotency...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077873/translation-from-unconventional-5-start-sites-drives-tumour-initiation
#12
Ataman Sendoel, Joshua G Dunn, Edwin H Rodriguez, Shruti Naik, Nicholas C Gomez, Brian Hurwitz, John Levorse, Brian D Dill, Daniel Schramek, Henrik Molina, Jonathan S Weissman, Elaine Fuchs
We are just beginning to understand how translational control affects tumour initiation and malignancy. Here we use an epidermis-specific, in vivo ribosome profiling strategy to investigate the translational landscape during the transition from normal homeostasis to malignancy. Using a mouse model of inducible SOX2, which is broadly expressed in oncogenic RAS-associated cancers, we show that despite widespread reductions in translation and protein synthesis, certain oncogenic mRNAs are spared. During tumour initiation, the translational apparatus is redirected towards unconventional upstream initiation sites, enhancing the translational efficiency of oncogenic mRNAs...
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076755/rad51-is-a-selective-dna-repair-target-to-radiosensitize-glioma-stem-cells
#13
Harry O King, Tim Brend, Helen L Payne, Alexander Wright, Thomas A Ward, Karan Patel, Teklu Egnuni, Lucy F Stead, Anjana Patel, Heiko Wurdak, Susan C Short
Patients with glioblastoma die from local relapse despite surgery and high-dose radiotherapy. Resistance to radiotherapy is thought to be due to efficient DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in stem-like cells able to survive DNA damage and repopulate the tumor. We used clinical samples and patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) to confirm that the DSB repair protein RAD51 is highly expressed in GSCs, which are reliant on RAD51-dependent DSB repair after radiation. RAD51 expression and RAD51 foci numbers fall when these cells move toward astrocytic differentiation...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076568/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-retinoblastoma-cell-phenotype-using-neuronal-and-glial-cell-markers
#14
María Eugenia Orellana, Rubens Belfort, Emilia Antecka, Miguel Noel Burnier
Purpose: The cellular origin of retinoblastoma is uncertain as constituent tumor cells heterogeneously express markers of both immature and mature retinal cells. An immunohistochemical analysis of cellular origin may yield valuable insights into disease progression and treatment options. This study aimed to determine the cellular origin of retinoblastoma in a large case series and correlate these findings with histopathological prognostic factors. Methods: Thirty-nine retinoblastoma cases were histopathologically diagnosed and analyzed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the immature neural cell marker SRY-box containing gene 2 (SOX-2), the mature neuronal cell marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), and the mature glial cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076327/mir-410-induces-stemness-by-inhibiting-gsk3%C3%AE-but-upregulating-%C3%AE-catenin-in-non-small-cells-lung-cancer
#15
Xixian Ke, Yue Yuan, Chenglin Guo, Yan Yang, Qiang Pu, Xueting Hu, Kui Tang, Xinmei Luo, Qianqian Jiang, Xiaolan Su, Lunxu Liu, Wen Zhu, Yuquan Wei
Our previous research indicated miR-410 played a critical role in promoting the tumorigenesis and development of NSCLC (non-small cells lung cancer). MiR-410 has been recently reported to be crucial for development and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. But it remains elusive whether miR-410 stimulates the stemness of cancer until now. Herein, we identify miR-410 induces the stemness and is associated with the progression of NSCLC. We demonstrate miR-410 increases the levels of stem cells marker Sox2, Oct4, Nanog, CXCR4 as well as lung cancer stem cells surface marker CD44 and CD166...
January 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072991/-expression-of-oct4-and-sox2-and-their-clinical-significance-in-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
X D Jiang, G Luo, X H Wang, L L Chen, X Ke, Y Li
Objective: To investigate Oct4 and Sox2 protein expression in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and the relationships between the expressions of Oct4 and Sox2 and clinical pathological characteristics and survival of patients. Methods: The paraffin imbedded tissue specimens of 51 patients with histologically confirmed TSCC were included. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect the protein expression of Oct4 and Sox2 in 51 TSCC tissue samples. The protein expression levels of Oct4 and Sox2 and their relationships with both clinicopathological features and survival of patients with TSCC were evaluated...
January 9, 2017: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071602/microgrooved-topographical-surface-directs-tenogenic-lineage-specific-differentiation-of-mouse-tendon-derived-stem-cells
#17
Yuan Shi, Kaili Zhou, Wenjie Zhang, Zhiyong Zhang, Guangdong Zhou, Yilin Cao, Wei Liu
Tendon derived stem cells (TDSCs) are the endogenous cell source for tenocyte turnover and tendon functional maintenance. They are also the important cell source for tendon engineering and regeneration. In addition, TDSCs also play an important role in tendinopathy via their non-tenogenic lineage differentiation. It has been well demonstrated that cell shape could determine mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) lineage differentiation. In this study, a parallel microgrooved polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane (10 µm groove width and 3 µm depth) was employed to investigate the role of cell elongation via this particular topographic surface in directing murine TDSC (mTDSC) lineage differentiation...
January 10, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070808/combined-positive-effect-of-oocyte-extracts-and-brilliant-cresyl-blue-stained-recipient-cytoplasts-on-epigenetic-reprogramming-and-gene-expression-in-buffalo-nuclear-transfer-embryos
#18
E M Sadeesh, Shah Fozia, Kataria Meena
This study examined the effects of buffalo oocyte extracts (BOE) on donor cells reprogramming and molecular characterisation of oocytes screened via brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining and comparison of gene expression profiles of developmentally important genes in blastocysts from IVF and cloned derived from BOE treated donor cells with BCB selected recipient cytoplasts. Relative abundance (RA) of OCT4 and NANOG was increased (P < 0.05) and HDAC-1, DNMT-1, and DNMT-3A decreased (P < 0.05) in extract treated cells (ETCs)...
January 9, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068409/reprogramming-malignant-cancer-cells-toward-a-benign-phenotype-following-exposure-to-human-embryonic-stem-cell-microenvironment
#19
Shufeng Zhou, Mohamed Abdouh, Vincenzo Arena, Manuel Arena, Goffredo Orazio Arena
The embryonic microenvironment is well known to be non-permissive for tumor development because early developmental signals naturally suppress the expression of proto-oncogenes. In an analogous manner, mimicking an early embryonic environment during embryonic stem cell culture has been shown to suppress oncogenic phenotypes of cancer cells. Exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells harbor substances that mirror the content of the cells of origin and have been reported to reprogram hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells via horizontal transfer of mRNA and proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059963/p53-and-sox2-protein-expression-predicts-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-in-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy
#20
Sophie H van Olphen, Katharina Biermann, Joel Shapiro, Bas P L Wijnhoven, Eelke L A Toxopeus, Ate van der Gaast, Hans A Stoop, Jan J B van Lanschot, Manon C W Spaander, Marco J Bruno, Leendert H J Looijenga
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between p53, SOX2, and CD44 protein expression and tumor response, and to validate potential predictive biomarker(s) in an independent cohort. BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) followed by surgery has become a standard of care for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). However, the response to nCRT is highly variable among patients. METHODS: EAC patients who underwent nCRT and surgery, between January 2003 and December 2014 at the Erasmus University Medical Center, were included and divided into a primary (n = 77) and a validation cohort (n = 70)...
February 2017: Annals of Surgery
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