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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785739/in-vitro-formation-of-the-merkel-cell-neurite-complex-in-embryonic-mouse-whiskers-using-organotypic-co-cultures
#1
Kentaro Ishida, Tetsuichiro Saito, Toshiyuki Mitsui
A Merkel cell-neurite complex is a touch receptor composed of specialized epithelial cells named Merkel cells and peripheral sensory nerves in the skin. Merkel cells are found in touch-sensitive skin components including whisker follicles. The nerve fibers that innervate Merkel cells of a whisker follicle extend from the maxillary branch of the trigeminal ganglion. Whiskers as a sensory organ attribute to the complicated architecture of the Merkel cell-neurite complex, and therefore it is intriguing how the structure is formed...
May 22, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783122/bix-01294-promotes-the-differentiation-of-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-adipocytes-and-neural-cells-in-arbas-cashmere-goats
#2
Qing Wang, Xiao Wang, Defang Lai, Jin Deng, Zhuang Hou, Hao Liang, Dongjun Liu
Chromatin remodeling plays an essential role in regulating gene transcription. BIX-01294 is a specific inhibitor of histone methyltransferase G9a, which is responsible for methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) that can also regulate DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BIX-01294 on the potential of goat adipose derived stem cells (gADSCs) to differentiate into adipocytes and neural cells. To accomplish this, BIX-01294 was used to treat gADSCs for 24 h, and the global level of DNA methylation as well as the expression of genes related to cell proliferation, apoptosis and pluripotency were detected...
May 14, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782989/nadph-oxidase-2-deletion-enhances-neurogenesis-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Jing Wang, Merry W Ma, Krishnan M Dhandapani, Darrell W Brann
The NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme family is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contributor to the secondary pathology underlying traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how NOX-derived ROS influences the proliferation and cell-fate determination of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) following TBI. In the current study, we found that deletion of NOX2 (NOX2-KO) significantly decreases the population of radial glia-like NSCs and neuroblasts but maintains the population of non-radial Sox2 expressing stem cells under physiological (non-injury) conditions...
May 18, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782192/the-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-ci994-improves-nuclear-reprogramming-and-in-vitro-developmental-potential-of-cloned-pig-embryos
#4
Long Jin, Qing Guo, Guang-Lei Zhang, Xiao-Xu Xing, Mei-Fu Xuan, Qi-Rong Luo, Zhao-Bo Luo, Jun-Xia Wang, Xi-Jun Yin, Jin-Dan Kang
Epigenetic reprogramming and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning efficiency were recently enhanced using histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis). In this study, we investigated the time effect of CI994, an HDACi, on the blastocyst formation rate, acetylation levels of H3K9 and H4K12, DNA methylation levels of anti-5-methylcytosine (5mC), and some mRNA expression of pluripotency-related genes in pig SCNT embryos. Treatment with 10 μM CI994 for 24 hours significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of SCNT embryos in comparison with the untreated group (p < 0...
May 21, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778085/braf-and-mek-inhibitor-therapy-eliminates-nestin-expressing-melanoma-cells-in-human-tumors
#5
Deon B Doxie, Allison R Greenplate, Jocelyn S Gandelman, Kirsten E Diggins, Caroline E Roe, Kimberly B Dahlman, Jeffrey A Sosman, Mark C Kelley, Jonathan M Irish
Little is known about the in vivo impacts of targeted therapy on melanoma cell abundance and protein expression. Here, 21 antibodies were added to an established melanoma mass cytometry panel to measure 32 cellular features, distinguish malignant cells, and characterize dabrafenib and trametinib responses in BRAFV 600mut melanoma. Tumor cells were biopsied before neoadjuvant therapy and compared to cells surgically resected from the same site after 4 weeks of therapy. Approximately 50,000 cells per tumor were characterized by mass cytometry and computational tools t-SNE/viSNE, FlowSOM, and MEM...
May 19, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777148/let-7i-5p-mir-181a-2-3p-and-egf-pi3k-sox2-axis-coordinate-to-maintain-cancer-stem-cell-population-in-cervical-cancer
#6
Ravindresh Chhabra
The characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the genes responsible for their maintenance are highly variable in different cancers. Here, we identify the coordination among miRNAs and EGF pathway genes which is critical for the maintenance of CSCs in cervical cancer. The transcript analysis of CSCs enriched from cervical cancer cell lines (CaSki and HeLa) revealed a significant upregulation of SOX2. Since EGF receptor is frequently over expressed in cervical cancer, we hypothesized that EGF pathway may be responsible for the upregulation of SOX2...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773872/computational-identification-of-specific-genes-for-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells-identity
#7
Giulia Fiscon, Federica Conte, Valerio Licursi, Sergio Nasi, Paola Paci
Glioblastoma, the most malignant brain cancer, contains self-renewing, stem-like cells that sustain tumor growth and therapeutic resistance. Identifying genes promoting stem-like cell differentiation might unveil targets for novel treatments. To detect them, here we apply SWIM - a software able to unveil genes (named switch genes) involved in drastic changes of cell phenotype - to public datasets of gene expression profiles from human glioblastoma cells. By analyzing matched pairs of stem-like and differentiated glioblastoma cells, SWIM identified 336 switch genes, potentially involved in the transition from stem-like to differentiated state...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773834/embryonic-pou5f1-is-required-for-expanded-bovine-blastocyst-formation
#8
Bradford W Daigneault, Sandeep Rajput, George W Smith, Pablo J Ross
POU5F1 is a transcription factor and master regulator of cell pluripotency with indispensable roles in early embryo development and cell lineage specification. The role of embryonic POU5F1 in blastocyst formation and cell lineage specification differs between mammalian species but remains completely unknown in cattle. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was utilized for targeted disruption of the POU5F1 gene by direct injection into zygotes. Disruption of the bovine POU5F1 locus prevented blastocyst formation and was associated with embryonic arrest at the morula stage...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773426/stem-cell-transcription-factor-sox2-in-synovial-sarcoma-and-other-soft-tissue-tumors
#9
Heba Zayed, Iver Petersen
BACKGROUND: SOX2 has gained considerable interest as a pluripotency inducing gene. Co-transfection of SOX2 together with NANOG, KLF4 and c-MYC into adult fibroblasts was able to generate pluripotent stem cells. SOX2 has been reported to be expressed in synovial sarcoma, a tumor being characterized by the SS18-SSX gene fusion forming part of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex that affects histone methylation. The role of SOX2 in this tumor type as well as other soft tissue tumor entities however is still poorly characterized...
May 4, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769390/cell-transplantation-as-a-method-to-investigate-spinal-cord-regeneration-in-regenerative-and-nonregenerative-xenopus-stages
#10
Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Juan Larraín
Mammals are not capable of regenerating their central nervous system (CNS); anamniotes, however, can regenerate in response to injury. The mechanisms that explain the different regenerative capabilities include: (i) extrinsic mechanisms that consider the cellular environment and extracellular matrix composition, (ii) intrinsic factors implicating the presence or absence of genetic programs that promote axon regeneration, and (iii) the presence or absence of neural stem and progenitors cells (NSPCs) that allow neurogenesis...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769207/mitigating-sox2-potentiated-immune-escape-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-with-a-sting-inducing-nanosatellite-vaccine
#11
Yee Sun Tan, Kanokwan Sansanaphongpricha, Yuying Xie, Christopher R Donnelly, Xiaobo Luo, Blake R Heath, Xinyi Zhao, Emily L Bellile, Hongxiang Hu, Hongwei Chen, Peter J Polverini, Qianming Chen, Simon Young, Thomas E Carey, Jacques E Nör, Robert L Ferris, Gregory Wolf, Duxin Sun, Yu L Lei
PURPOSE: The response rates of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) to checkpoint blockade are below 20%. We aim to develop a mechanism-based vaccine to prevent HNSCC immune escape. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed RNA-Seq of sensitive and resistant HNSCC cells to discover central pathways promoting resistance to immune killing. Using biochemistry, animal models, HNSCC microarray and immune cell deconvolution, we assessed the role of SOX2 in inhibiting STING-type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling-mediated anti-tumor immunity...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766333/treatment-of-donor-cells-with-recombinant-kdm4d-protein-improves-preimplantation-development-of-cloned-ovine-embryos
#12
Yumei Zhang, Qianqian Wang, Kailing Liu, Enen Gao, Hong Guan, Jian Hou
Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming is one of the major factors affecting the development of embryos cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) trimethylation has been identified as a key barrier to efficient reprogramming by SCNT. The aim of this study was to explore a method of downregulating H3K9me3 levels in donor cells by using histone lysine demethylase (KDM) protein. When sheep fetal fibroblast cells were treated with recombinant human KDM4D protein (rhKDM4D), the levels of H3K9 trimethylation and dimethylation were both significantly decreased...
May 15, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764313/2-5-hexanedione-increases-the-percentage-of-proliferative-sox2-cells-in-rat-hippocampus
#13
Longjuan Wang, Shuang Liu, Dan Su, Feng Chen, Tengteng Lei, Haibo Chen, Wei Dong, Yue Jiang, Xiance Sun, Wenchang Sun
n-Hexane is an organic solvent widely used in industry. 2,5-Hexanedione (2,5-HD), the major neurotoxic metabolite of n-hexane, decreases the levels of neurofilaments (NFs) in neurons. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life, and the hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of two major brain areas showing neurogenesis in adulthood. In the current study, rats were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline solution or 2,5-HD five times per week for five continuous weeks. 2,5-HD was administered to the low-dose and high-dose groups at 200 and 400 mg/kg/day, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763882/thymoquinone-influences-the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-self-renewal-and-immunomodulatory-potential-of-mouse-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro
#14
Elham Alimoradi, Sajjad Sisakhtnezhad, Hassan Akrami
Thymoquinone (TQ) is an active ingredient of some medicinal herbs. Despite extensive studies on the biological and pharmacological properties of TQ, its effect on the characteristics of stem cells remains to be clarified. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of TQ on viability, proliferation and immunomodulatory potential of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in vitro. The BM-MSCs were isolated from young NMRI mice. The cytotoxic effect of TQ on the BM-MSCs was evaluated using MTT assay...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762837/stemness-related-changes-of-cd133-cells-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-after-x-ray-radiation-at-the-median-lethal-dose
#15
W-W Dai, S Liu, X-J Liu, Z-P Peng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of X-ray radiation at the median lethal dose (LD50) on the outcome of a cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133)- cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CD133- cells were obtained from human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (CNE-1 and CNE-2) based on CD133-labeled fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), respectively. Changes in invasion ability and in-vivo tumorigenicity of CD133- cells before and after X-ray radiation at LD50 were observed...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761897/chronic-ethanol-exposure-of-human-pancreatic-normal-ductal-epithelial-cells-induces-cancer-stem-cell-phenotype-through-satb2
#16
Wei Yu, Yuming Ma, Sharmila Shankar, Rakesh K Srivastava
The incidence of pancreatic cancer is on the rise. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer include alcohol toxicity and metabolic conditions such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism by which chronic alcohol consumption contributes to pancreatic cancer is not well understood. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the effects of long-term chronic ethanol exposure on the transformation of human pancreatic normal ductal epithelial (HPNE) cells...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761584/reduction-of-fibrosis-and-scar-formation-by-partial-reprogramming-in-vivo
#17
Markus C Doeser, Hans R Schöler, Guangming Wu
Transient expression of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and C-MYC (OSKM) to induce partial reprogramming while avoiding the pluripotent state and teratoma formation has recently been discussed as a strategy for regenerating damaged tissues in vivo, whereby the impact of partial reprogramming on tissue repair remains to be elucidated. Here, we activated OSKM transcription factors in cutaneous wounds of OSKM-inducible transgenic mice and found that induction of OSKM factors in excisional wounds caused a diminished fibroblast transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts and wound contraction...
May 15, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754932/mild-hypothermia-inhibits-the-notch-3-and-notch-4-activation-and-seizure-after-stroke-in-the-rat-model
#18
Guo-Shuai Yang, Xiao-Yan Zhou, Xue-Fang An, Xuan-Jun Liu, Yan-Jun Zhang, Dan Yu
Ischemic brain injury is an important cause for seizure. Mild hypothermia of the brain or the whole body is an effective way to remit the post-stroke seizure. Our previous study revealed an implication of Notch 1 and 2 in the post-stroke seizure. This study further investigated the involvement of Notch 3 and 4 in post-stroke seizure and the effect of mild hypothermia on these two factors. A global cerebral ischemia (GCI) model was conducted in Sprague Dawley rats. Seizure activity was evaluated by the frequency of seizure attacks, seizure severity scores, and seizure discharges...
May 4, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753274/blood-derived-integration-free-ips-cell-line-ukbi011-a-from-a-diagnosed-male-alzheimer-s-disease-patient-with-apoe-%C3%A9-4-%C3%A9-4-genotype
#19
Michael Peitz, Tamara Bechler, Catrin Cornelia Thiele, Monika Veltel, Melanie Bloschies, Klaus Fliessbach, Alfredo Ramirez, Oliver Brüstle
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is most the frequent neurodegenerative disease, and the APOE ε4 allele is the most prominent risk factor for late-onset AD. Here, we present an iPSC line generated from peripheral blood cells of a male AD patient employing Sendai virus vectors encoding the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. The characterized iPSC line expresses typical human pluripotency markers and shows differentiation into all three germ layers, complete reprogramming vector clearance, a normal SNP genotype and maintenance of the APOE ε4/ε4 allele...
April 23, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753273/generation-of-an-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-from-a-patient-with-non-syndromic-cln3-associated-retinal-degeneration-and-a-coisogenic-control-line
#20
Xiao Zhang, Dan Zhang, Shang-Chih Chen, Tina Lamey, Jennifer A Thompson, Terri McLaren, John N De Roach, Fred K Chen, Samuel McLenachan
We report the generation of the human iPSC line LEIi004-A from a patient with late-onset non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa caused by compound heterozygous mutations in the CLN3 gene. Reprogramming of primary dermal fibroblasts was performed using episomal plasmids containing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, L-MYC, LIN28, shRNA for p53 and mir302/367 microRNA. To create a coisogenic control line, one CLN3 variant was corrected in the patient-iPSC using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to generate the iPSC line LEIi004-A-1.
May 1, 2018: Stem Cell Research
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