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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731785/networks-of-transcription-factors-for-oct4-expression-in-mice
#1
Yu-Qiang Li
The present review aimed to assess the networks of transcription factors regulating the Oct4 expression in mice. Through a comprehensive analysis of the binding sites and the interrelationships of the transcription factors of Oct4, it is found that transcription factors of Oct4 form three regulating complexes centered by Oct4-Sox2, Nanog, and Lrh1. They bind on CR4, CR2, and CR1 regions of Oct4 promoter/enhancer, respectively, to activate Oct4 transcription synergistically. This article also discusses the mechanisms of fine-tuning the Oct4 expression...
July 21, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729467/stat3-activation-by-leptin-receptor-is-essential-for-tnbc-stem-cell-maintenance
#2
Praveena S Thiagarajan, Qiao Zheng, Manvir Bhagrath, Erin E Mulkearns-Hubert, Martin G Myers, Justin D Lathia, Ofer Reizes
Leptin (LEP) binds to the long form of the leptin receptor (LEPRb), leading to the activation of multiple signaling pathways that are potential targets for disrupting the obesity-breast cancer link. In triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), LEP is hypothesized to predominantly mediate its tumorigenic effects via a subpopulation of LEPRb-positive tumor cells termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) that can initiate tumors and induce tumor progression. Previously, we showed that LEP promotes CSC survival in vivo Moreover, silencing LEPRb in TNBC cells compromised the CSC state...
August 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726952/porphyra-polysaccharide-derived-carbon-dots-for-non-viral-co-delivery-of-different-gene-combinations-and-neuronal-differentiation-of-ectodermal-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Jiaxin Chen, Qiang Wang, Jie Zhou, Wenwen Deng, Qingtong Yu, Xia Cao, Jianping Wang, Fengxia Shao, Yang Li, Ping Ma, Myron Spector, Jiangnan Yu, Ximing Xu
In this study, multifunctional fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) were synthesized using a one-pot hydrothermal carbonization reaction, with the naturally-occurring porphyra polysaccharide (PPS) serving as a single carbon source for the first time and ethylenediamine (Ed) acting as the surface passivation agent. The resulting CDs enjoyed a high quantum yield (56.3%), excitation-dependent fluorescence, small size (<10 nm), spherical shape, uniform distribution, positive surface charge, low cytotoxicity and excellent ability to condense macromolecular plasmid DNA...
July 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722510/bnip3l-dependent-mitophagy-accounts-for-mitochondrial-clearance-during-three-factors-induced-somatic-cell-reprogramming
#4
Ge Xiang, Liang Yang, Qi Long, Keshi Chen, Haite Tang, Yi Wu, Zihuang Liu, Yanshuang Zhou, Juntao Qi, Lingjun Zheng, Wenbo Liu, Zhongfu Ying, Weimin Fan, Hongyan Shi, Hongmei Li, Xiaobing Lin, Mi Gao, Jinglei Liu, Feixiang Bao, Linpeng Li, Lifan Duan, Min Li, Xingguo Liu
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have less and immature mitochondria than somatic cells and mainly rely on glycolysis for energy source. During somatic cell reprogramming, somatic mitochondria and other organelles get remodeled. However, events of organelle remodeling and interaction during somatic cell reprogramming have not been extensively explored. We show that both SKP/SKO (Sox2, Klf4, Pou5f1/Oct4) and SKPM/SKOM (SKP/SKO plus Myc/c-Myc) reprogramming lead to decreased mitochondrial mass but with different kinetics and by divergent pathways...
July 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720304/characterization-of-the-single-cell-derived-bovine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#5
Lixia Zhao, Zixin Wang, Jindun Zhang, Jian Yang, Xuefei Gao, Baojiang Wu, Gaoping Zhao, Siqin Bao, Shuxiang Hu, Pentao Liu, Xihe Li
Single-cell derived bovine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated by the introduction of piggyBac transposons with CAG promoting transcription factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc). In the study, the bovine iPSCs colony from single cell could passage more than 50 passages after enzymatic dissociation into single cells. These bovine iPSCs cells kept the normal karyotype and displayed dome shaped clones similar to mouse embryonic stem cells. They showed pluripotency in many ways, including their expression of pluripotency markers, such as OCT3/4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA1, SSEA4, and AP in immunofluorescence assay, Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc in RT-PCR...
May 22, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719033/identification-of-driver-copy-number-alterations-in-diverse-cancer-types-and-application-in-drug-repositioning
#6
Wenbin Zhou, Zhangxiang Zhao, Ruiping Wang, Yue Han, Chengyu Wang, Fan Yang, Ya Han, Haihai Liang, Lishuang Qi, Chenguang Wang, Zheng Guo, Yunyan Gu
Results from numerous studies suggest an important role for somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) in cancer progression. Our work aimed to identify the drivers (oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes) that reside in recurrently aberrant genomic regions, including a large number of genes or non-coding genes, which remain a challenge for decoding the SCNAs involved in carcinogenesis. Here, we propose a new approach to comprehensively identify drivers, using 8740 cancer samples involving 18 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
July 18, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718379/expression-of-embryonic-stem-cell-markers-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#7
Tiphanie Picot, Carmen Mariana Aanei, Amandine Fayard, Pascale Flandrin-Gresta, Sylvie Tondeur, Marina Gouttenoire, Emmanuelle Tavernier-Tardy, Eric Wattel, Denis Guyotat, Lydia Campos
Acute myeloid leukemia is driven by leukemic stem cells which can be identified by cross lineage expression or arrest of differentiation compared to normal hematopoietic stem cells. Self-renewal and lack of differentiation are also features of stem cells and have been associated with the expression of embryonic genes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of embryonic antigens (OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA1, SSEA3) in hematopoietic stem cell subsets (CD34(+)CD38(-) and CD34(+)CD38(+)) from normal bone marrows and in samples from acute myeloid leukemia patients...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717251/transdifferentiated-human-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-are-a-new-potential-cell-source-for-endothelial-regeneration
#8
Xuechong Hong, Andriana Margariti, Alexandra Le Bras, Laureen Jacquet, Wei Kong, Yanhua Hu, Qingbo Xu
Endothelial dysfunction is widely implicated in cardiovascular pathological changes and development of vascular disease. In view of the fact that the spontaneous endothelial cell (EC) regeneration is a slow and insufficient process, it is of great interest to explore alternative cell sources capable of generating functional ECs. Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) composes the majority of the vascular wall and retains phenotypic plasticity in response to various stimuli. The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of the conversion of SMC into functional EC through the use of reprogramming factors...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717188/targeting-ptprz-inhibits-stem-cell-like-properties-and-tumorigenicity-in-glioblastoma-cells
#9
Akihiro Fujikawa, Hajime Sugawara, Taisaku Tanaka, Masahito Matsumoto, Kazuya Kuboyama, Ryoko Suzuki, Naomi Tanga, Atsuto Ogata, Makoto Masumura, Masaharu Noda
The R5 subfamily of receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) comprises PTPRZ and PTPRG. A recent study on primary human glioblastomas suggested a close association between PTPRZ1 (human PTPRZ) expression and cancer stemness. However, the functional roles of PTPRZ activity in glioma stem cells have remained unclear. In the present study, we found that sphere-forming cells from the rat C6 and human U251 glioblastoma cell lines showed high expression levels of PTPRZ-B, the short receptor isoform of PTPRZ...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714964/inhibition-of-wnt-signaling-attenuates-self-renewal-of-shh-subgroup-medulloblastoma
#10
J Rodriguez-Blanco, L Pednekar, C Penas, B Li, V Martin, J Long, E Lee, W A Weiss, C Rodriguez, N Mehrdad, D M Nguyen, N G Ayad, P Rai, A J Capobianco, D J Robbins
The SMOOTHENED inhibitor vismodegib is FDA approved for advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and shows promise in clinical trials for SONIC HEDGEHOG (SHH)-subgroup medulloblastoma (MB) patients. Clinical experience with BCC patients shows that continuous exposure to vismodegib is necessary to prevent tumor recurrence, suggesting the existence of a vismodegib-resistant reservoir of tumor-propagating cells. We isolated such tumor-propagating cells from a mouse model of SHH-subgroup MB and grew them as sphere cultures...
July 17, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714175/schwann-cells-secrete-extracellular-vesicles-to-promote-and-maintain-the-proliferation-and-multipotency-of-hdpcs
#11
Ziyue Li, Yan Liang, Kuangwu Pan, Hui Li, Mei Yu, Weihua Guo, Guoqing Chen, Weidong Tian
OBJECTIVES: Schwann cells (SCs) are the principal glial cells in peripheral nerve system, involved in neuropathies with great regenerative potential. Dental pulp cells have been reported to maintain neurogenic potential. In contrast, the regulatory role of SCs on human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) development remains undefined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SC secretion and SC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) were collected and used to treat hDPCs; and proliferation and multiple differentiation of hDPCs were detected after EVs treatments...
August 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712374/parthenogenetic-activation-and-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-of-porcine-oocytes-activated-by-an-electric-pulse-and-azd5438-treatment
#12
Xiao-Chen Li, Qing Guo, Hai-Ying Zhu, Long Jin, Yu-Chen Zhang, Guang-Lei Zhang, Xiao-Xu Xing, Mei-Fu Xuan, Qi-Rong Luo, Zhao-Bo Luo, Jun-Xia Wang, Cheng-Du Cui, Wen-Xue Li, Zheng-Yun Cui, Xi-Jun Yin, Jin-Dan Kang
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype...
July 17, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711945/the-molecular-characterization-of-porcine-egg-precursor-cells
#13
Te-Sha Tsai, Jacqueline Johnson, Yvonne White, Justin C St John
Female-factor infertility can be caused by poor oocyte quality and depleted ovarian reserves. Egg precursor cells (EPCs), isolated from the ovarian cortex, have the potential to be used to overcome female infertility. We aimed to define the origins of EPCs by analyzing their gene expression profiles and mtDNA content using a mini-pig model. We characterized FAC-sorted DDX4+-derived porcine EPCs by performing RNA-sequencing and determined that they utilize pathways important for cell cycle and proliferation, which supports the existence of adult mitotically active oogonial cells...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710230/the-tissue-reconstructing-ability-of-colon-cscs-is-enhanced-by-fk506-and-suppressed-by-gsk3-inhibition
#14
Ryo Ishida, Michiyo Koyanagi-Aoi, Nobu Oshima, Yoshihiro Kakeji, Takashi Aoi
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are capable of reconstructing cancer tissues, are involved in both recurrence and metastasis, and contribute to therapeutic resistance. Therefore, elucidating the molecular mechanism in CSCs is important to successfully treat unresectable cancers. Previously we observed that colon cancer stem-like cells can be induced from human colon cancer cell lines by retrovirally introducing OCT3/4, SOX2 and KLF4, and we have designated such cells as induced cancer stem cells (iCSCs). In the current study, we used iCSCs to evaluate the molecular mechanism of colon CSCs and developed new methods to control them...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707354/additive-neurogenesis-supported-by-multiple-stem-cell-populations-mediates-adult-spinal-cord-development-a-spatio-temporal-statistical-mapping-analysis-in-a-teleost-model-of-indeterminate-growth
#15
Ruxandra F Sîrbulescu, Iulian Ilieş, Annette Meyer, Günther K H Zupanc
The knifefish Apteronotus leptorhynchus exhibits indeterminate growth throughout adulthood. This phenomenon extends to the spinal cord, presumably through the continuous addition of new neurons and glial cells. However, little is known about the developmental dynamics of cells added during adult growth. The present work characterizes the structural and functional development of the adult spinal cord in this model organism through a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the spatial and temporal dynamics of new cells at various developmental stages...
July 13, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704421/transcriptional-role-of-androgen-receptor-in-the-expression-of-long-non-coding-rna-sox2ot-in-neurogenesis
#16
Valentina Tosetti, Jenny Sassone, Anna L M Ferri, Michela Taiana, Gloria Bedini, Sara Nava, Greta Brenna, Chiara Di Resta, Davide Pareyson, Anna Maria Di Giulio, Stephana Carelli, Eugenio A Parati, Alfredo Gorio
The complex architecture of adult brain derives from tightly regulated migration and differentiation of precursor cells generated during embryonic neurogenesis. Changes at transcriptional level of genes that regulate migration and differentiation may lead to neurodevelopmental disorders. Androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor that is already expressed during early embryonic days. However, AR role in the regulation of gene expression at early embryonic stage is yet to be determinate. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Sox2 overlapping transcript (Sox2OT) plays a crucial role in gene expression control during development but its transcriptional regulation is still to be clearly defined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703793/linc-dync2h1-4-promotes-emt-and-csc-phenotypes-by-acting-as-a-sponge-of-mir-145-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#17
Yuran Gao, Zhicheng Zhang, Kai Li, Liying Gong, Qingzhu Yang, Xuemei Huang, Chengcheng Hong, Mingfeng Ding, Huanjie Yang
The acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and/or existence of a sub-population of cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are associated with malignant behavior and chemoresistance. To identify which factor could promote EMT and CSC formation and uncover the mechanistic role of such factor is important for novel and targeted therapies. In the present study, we found that the long intergenic non-coding RNA linc-DYNC2H1-4 was upregulated in pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3-Gem with acquired gemcitabine resistance...
July 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700586/systematic-identification-and-characterization-of-regulatory-elements-derived-from-human-endogenous-retroviruses
#18
Jumpei Ito, Ryota Sugimoto, Hirofumi Nakaoka, Shiro Yamada, Tetsuaki Kimura, Takahide Hayano, Ituro Inoue
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and other long terminal repeat (LTR)-type retrotransposons (HERV/LTRs) have regulatory elements that possibly influence the transcription of host genes. We systematically identified and characterized these regulatory elements based on publicly available datasets of ChIP-Seq of 97 transcription factors (TFs) provided by ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics projects. We determined transcription factor-binding sites (TFBSs) using the ChIP-Seq datasets and identified TFBSs observed on HERV/LTR sequences (HERV-TFBSs)...
July 12, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700423/sox2-gene-amplification-and-overexpression-is-linked-to-hpv-positive-vulvar-carcinomas
#19
André Gut, Holger Moch, Matthias Choschzick
SOX2 (SRY-related HMG-box 2) belongs to the SOX gene family of high-mobility transcription factors indispensably involved in gene regulation in pluripotent stem cells and neural differentiation. SOX2 copy number increases have been frequently reported in various types of squamous cell cancer. To better understand the effect of SOX2 aberrations on vulvar cancer phenotype and patient prognosis, we analyzed SOX2 copy number changes using fluorescence in situ hybridization and SOX2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 55 squamous cell carcinomas of the vulva...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697535/cancer-stem-cells-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-urothelial-carcinoma-possible-pathways-and-potential-therapeutic-approaches
#20
REVIEW
Dong Fang, Hiroshi Kitamura
There is growing evidence of the presence of cancer stem cells in urothelial carcinoma. Cancer stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into all cell types of the original heterogeneous tumor. A panel of diverse cancer stem cell markers might be suitable for simulation studies of urothelial cancer stem cells and for the development of optimized treatment protocols. The present review focuses on the advances in recognizing the markers of urothelial cancer stem cells and possible therapeutic targets...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
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