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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230233/establishment-and-growth-responses-of-nile-tilapia-embryonic-stem-like-cell-lines-under-feeder-free-condition
#1
Zhenhua Fan, Linyan Liu, Xiaohuan Huang, Yang Zhao, Linyan Zhou, Deshou Wang, Jing Wei
Embryonic stem (ES) cells provide an invaluable tool for molecular analysis of vertebrate development and a bridge linking genomic manipulations in vitro and functional analysis of target genes in vivo. Work towards fish ES cells so far has focused on zebrafish (Danio renio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Here we describe the derivation, pluripotency, differentiation and growth responses of ES cell lines from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a world-wide commercial farmed fish. These cell lines, designated as TES1-3, were initiated from blastomeres of Nile tilapia middle blastula embryos (MBE)...
February 23, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229085/folate-receptor-alpha-is-more-than-just-a-folate-transporter
#2
Vineet Mohanty, M Rizwan Siddiqui, Tadanori Tomita, Chandra Shekhar Mayanil
Until recently folate receptor alpha (FRα) has only been considered as a folate transporter. However, a novel role of FRα as a transcription factor was reported by our lab. More recently our lab showed a novel pleiotropic role of FRα: (a) direct transcriptional activation of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 genes; and (b) repression of biogenesis of miRNAs that target these genes or their effector molecules. These observations beg a question: "Can a simple molecule such as folate be used to manipulate the production and/or differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs), which may hold promise for future therapies?" Conditions such as spinal cord injury, motor neuron diseases, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis may benefit from increasing stem cell pool and promoting specific pathways of differentiation...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216908/role-of-progenitor-cell-producing-normal-vagina-by-metaplasia-in-laparoscopic-peritoneal-vaginoplasty
#3
Pravin N Mhatre, Hemraj R Narkhede, P Amol Pawar, P Jyoti Mhatre, Das Dhanjit Kumar
CONTEXT: Host of vaginoplasty techniques have been described. None has been successful in developing normal vagina. Laparoscopic peritoneal vaginoplasty (LPV) is performed in Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) culminating in normal vagina. AIMS: This study aims to confirm normal development of neovagina by anatomical and functional parameters of histology, cytology, and ultrasonography (USG) in LPV. To identify peritoneal progenitor cell by OCT4/SOX2 markers...
October 2016: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216163/il-33-facilitates-endocrine-resistance-of-breast-cancer-by-inducing-cancer-stem-cell-properties
#4
Haiyan Hu, Jiaxing Sun, Chunhong Wang, Xiangmao Bu, Xiangping Liu, Yan Mao, Haibo Wang
Breast cancers with estrogen receptor (ER) expressions account for the majority of all clinical cases. Due to hormone therapy with tamoxifen, prognoses of patients with ER-positive breast cancer are significantly improved. However, endocrine resistance to tamoxifen is common and inevitable, leading to compromised efficacy of hormone therapy. Herein, we identify a crucial role of IL-33 in inducing endocrine resistance of breast cancer. IL-33 overexpression in breast cancer cells results in resistance to tamoxifen-induced tumor growth inhibition, while IL-33 knockdown corrects this problem...
February 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215675/basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-is-critical-to-reprogramming-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-primordial-germ-cells-into-embryonic-germ-stem-cell-like-cells
#5
Caizhu Wang, Yanfei Deng, Feng Chen, Peng Zhu, Jingwei Wei, Chan Luo, Fenghua Lu, Sufang Yang, Deshun Shi
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are destined to form gametes in vivo, and they can be reprogrammed into pluripotent embryonic germ (EG) cells in vitro. Buffalo PGC have been reported to be reprogrammed into EG-like cells, but the identities of the major signaling pathways and culture media involved in this derivation remain unclear. Here, the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and downstream signaling pathways on the reprogramming of buffalo PGCs into EG-like cells were investigated. Results showed bFGF to be critical to buffalo PGCs to dedifferentiate into EG-like cells (20 ng/mL is optimal) with many characteristics of pluripotent stem cells, including alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, expression of pluripotency marker genes such as OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-1, CDH1, and TRA-1-81, and the capacity to differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers...
March 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212747/catalytic-independent-functions-of-parp-1-determine-sox2-pioneer-activity-at-intractable-genomic-loci
#6
Ziying Liu, W Lee Kraus
Pioneer transcription factors (TFs) function as genomic first responders, binding to inaccessible regions of chromatin to promote enhancer formation. The mechanism by which pioneer TFs gain access to chromatin remains an important unanswered question. Here we show that PARP-1, a nucleosome-binding protein, cooperates with intrinsic properties of the pioneer TF Sox2 to facilitate its binding to intractable genomic loci in embryonic stem cells. These actions of PARP-1 occur independently of its poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferase activity...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212744/parp1-and-sox2-an-unlikely-team-of-pioneers-to-conquer-the-nucleosome
#7
Guillaume Gaullier, Karolin Luger
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Liu and Kraus (2017) demonstrate that the pioneer transcription factor Sox2 requires PARP1 to bind to a subset of its recognition motifs, which are located within nucleosomes across the genome.
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211533/integration-of-microrna-and-mrna-expression-profiles-in-the-skin-of-systemic-sclerosis-patients
#8
Bin Zhou, Xiao Xia Zuo, Yi Sha Li, Si Ming Gao, Xiao Dan Dai, Hong Lin Zhu, Hui Luo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the fibrosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, the underlying miRNA-mRNA regulatory network is not fully understood. A systemic investigation of the role of miRNAs would be very valuable for increasing our knowledge of the pathogenesis of SSc. Here, we combined miRNA and mRNA expression profiles and bioinformatics analyses and then performed validation experiments. we identified 21 miRNAs and 2698 mRNAs that were differentially expressed in SSc. Among these, 17 miRNAs and their 33 target mRNAs (55 miRNA-mRNA pairs) were involved in Toll-like receptor, transforming growth factor β and Wnt signalling pathways...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208648/n-butylidenephthalide-regulated-tumor-stem-cell-genes-ezh2-axl-and-reduced-its-migration-and-invasion-in-glioblastoma
#9
Ssu-Yin Yen, Hong-Meng Chuang, Mao-Hsuan Huang, Shinn-Zong Lin, Tzyy-Wen Chiou, Horng-Jyh Harn
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most common and aggressive types of brain tumor. Due to its highly recurrent rate and poor prognosis, the overall survival time with this type of tumor is only 20-21 months. Recent knowledge suggests that its recurrence is in part due to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which display radioresistant, chemoresistant, self-renewal and tumorigenic potential. Enhancers of Zeste 2 (EZH2) and AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL) are both highly expressed in GBM. Additionally, they are an essential regulator involved in CSCs maintenance, migration, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stemness, metastasis and patient survival...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203609/zeb2-inhibiting-the-inhibitors-in-schwann-cells
#10
Bastian G Brinkmann, Susanne Quintes
Development of Schwann cells is tightly regulated by concerted action of activating and inhibiting factors. Most of the regulatory feedback loops identified to date are transcriptional activators promoting induction of genes coding for integral myelin proteins and lipids. The mechanisms by which inhibitory factors are silenced during Schwann cell maturation are less well understood. We could recently show a pivotal function for the transcription factor zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (Zeb2) during Schwann cell development and myelination as a transcriptional repressor of maturation inhibitors...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203443/could-sox2-be-a-useful-target-to-treat-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#11
COMMENT
Juan-Jose Ventura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199128/sox2-drives-bronchial-dysplasia-in-a-novel-organotypic-model-of-early-human-squamous-lung-cancer
#12
Lúcia L Correia, Jo-Anne Johnson, Peter McErlean, Julien Bauer, Hassan Farah, Doris M Rassl, Robert C Rintoul, Tariq Sethi, Paul Lavender, Emma L Rawlins, Trevor D Littlewood, Gerard I Evan, Frank M McCaughan
Rationale Improving the early detection and chemoprevention of lung cancer are key to improving outcomes. The pathobiology of early squamous lung cancer is poorly understood. We have shown that amplification of SOX2 is an early and consistent event in the pathogenesis of this disease but its functional oncogenic potential remains uncertain. We tested the impact of deregulated SOX2 expression in a novel organotypic system that recreates the molecular and microenvironmental context in which squamous carcinogenesis occurs...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193841/dual-roles-of-akirin2-during-xenopus-neural-development
#13
Xiaoliang Liu, Yingjie Xia, Jixin Tang, Li Ma, Chaocui Li, Pengcheng Ma, Bingyu Mao
To ensure correct spatial and temporal patterning, embryos must maintain pluripotent cell populations and control when cells undergo commitment. The newly identified nucleoprotein Akirin has been shown to modulate the innate immune response through epigenetic regulation and to play important roles in other physiological processes, but its role in neural development remains unknown. Here, we show that Akirin2 is required for neural development in Xenopus and knockdown of Akirin2 expands the expression of the neural progenitor marker Sox2 and inhibits expression of the differentiated neuronal marker N-tubulin...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193206/inducing-goat-pluripotent-stem-cells-with-four-transcription-factor-mrnas-that-activate-endogenous-promoters
#14
Hao Chen, Qisheng Zuo, Yingjie Wang, Jiuzhou Song, Huilin Yang, Yani Zhang, Bichun Li
BACKGROUND: Traditional approaches for generating goat pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) suffer from complexity and low preparation efficiency. Therefore, we tried to derive goat iPSCs with a new method by transfecting exogenous Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc mRNAs into goat embryonic fibroblasts (GEFs), and explore the mechanisms regarding the transcription regulation of the reprogramming factors in goat iPSCs induction. RESULTS: mRNAs of the four reprogramming factors were transfected into GEFs, and were localized in nucleus with approximately 90% transfection efficiency...
February 13, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192421/g1-cyclins-link-proliferation-pluripotency-and-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells
#15
Lijun Liu, Wojciech Michowski, Hiroyuki Inuzuka, Kouhei Shimizu, Naoe Taira Nihira, Joel M Chick, Na Li, Yan Geng, Alice Y Meng, Alban Ordureau, Aleksandra Kołodziejczyk, Keith L Ligon, Roderick T Bronson, Kornelia Polyak, J Wade Harper, Steven P Gygi, Wenyi Wei, Piotr Sicinski
Progression of mammalian cells through the G1 and S phases of the cell cycle is driven by the D-type and E-type cyclins. According to the current models, at least one of these cyclin families must be present to allow cell proliferation. Here, we show that several cell types can proliferate in the absence of all G1 cyclins. However, following ablation of G1 cyclins, embryonic stem (ES) cells attenuated their pluripotent characteristics, with the majority of cells acquiring the trophectodermal cell fate. We established that G1 cyclins, together with their associated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), phosphorylate and stabilize the core pluripotency factors Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4...
February 13, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191771/linking-pluripotency-reprogramming-and-cancer
#16
Juan Manuel Iglesias, Juan Gumuzio, Angel G Martin
Tumor development and the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells are highly comparable processes with striking similarities. Cellular plasticity is inherent to tumor evolution, rendering cells that acquire a stem cell-like phenotype, for which Sox2 activation has proved instrumental for the plastic acquisition of stemness properties in tumor cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying both events might uncover novel approaches for the development of anticancer therapeutics and constitute model systems for understanding tumor generation and ensuring the biosafety of cell-based therapies...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188976/influence-of-hypoxia-on-the-stemness-of-umbilical-cord-matrix-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-cultured-on-chitosan-films
#17
Takashi Taguchi, Jane Y Cho, Jijun Hao, Yvette S Nout-Lomas, Kyung-Sun Kang, Dominique J Griffon
Chitosan is attractive as a substrate for stem cell expansion because it improves stemness through formation of spheroids. Hypoxia has also been proposed as a strategy to enhance stemness and survival of stem cells after in vivo implantation. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the influence of hypoxia on chitosan-induced behavior of stem cells. Umbilical cord matrix-derived stem cells were cultured on chitosan film or standard plate under normoxia and hypoxia, for 3 and 7 days. Based on immunophenotyping, chitosan strongly suppresses the expression of CD90 and CD105 cell surface markers, changes partially reversed by combined exposure to hypoxia...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188685/sox2-dependent-inhibition-of-p21-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-of-endometrial-cancer
#18
Kaoru Yamawaki, Tatsuya Ishiguro, Yutaro Mori, Kosuke Yoshihara, Kazuaki Suda, Ryo Tamura, Masayuki Yamaguchi, Masayuki Sekine, Katsunori Kashima, Masaya Higuchi, Masahiro Fujii, Koji Okamoto, Takayuki Enomoto
Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) is an essential factor involved in the self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells and has functions in cell survival and progression in many types of cancers. Here, we found that several endometrial cancer cell lines expressed SOX2, which was required for cell growth. Additionally, SOX2 overexpression regulated the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), and SOX2 specifically bound to p21 promoter DNA in endometrial cancer cell lines expressing SOX2...
February 11, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188246/cutting-edge-the-transcription-factor-sox2-regulates-aid-expression-in-class-switched-b-cells
#19
Lauren J DiMenna, Wei-Feng Yen, Laura Nicolas, Rahul Sharma, Zara N Saldanha, Jayanta Chaudhuri
IgH class switch recombination (CSR) occurs through the deliberate introduction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-instigated DNA double-strand breaks into the IgH loci. Because double-strand breaks are generally highly toxic, mechanisms that regulate AID expression are of much relevance to CSR and genomic integrity; however, effectors of such regulatory processes are still poorly understood. In this article, we show that the transcription factor sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2) is expressed in activated B cells, but almost exclusively in those that have undergone CSR...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182001/rasal2-a-ras-gtpase-activating-protein-inhibits-stemness-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-mapk-sox2-pathway-in-bladder-cancer
#20
Ke Hui, Yang Gao, Jun Huang, Shan Xu, Bin Wang, Jin Zeng, Jinhai Fan, Xinyang Wang, Yangyang Yue, Shiqi Wu, Jer-Tsong Hsieh, Dalin He, Kaijie Wu
Muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancer (BCa) is associated with a very poor prognosis, and the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate RASAL2, a RAS GTPase-activating protein (RAS GAP), acts as a tumor suppressor in BCa. First, RASAL2 was downregulated in BCa specimens and inversely correlated with pathological grades and clinical stages. Furthermore, we observed that RASAL2 could inhibit BCa stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) based on our gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments...
February 9, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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