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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925404/ing5-activity-in-self-renewal-of-glioblastoma-stem-cells-via-calcium-and-follicle-stimulating-hormone-pathways
#1
F Wang, A Y Wang, C Chesnelong, Y Yang, A Nabbi, S Thalappilly, V Alekseev, K Riabowol
Stem cell-like brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) cause recurrence of glioblastomas, with BTIC 'stemness' affected by epigenetic mechanisms. The ING family of epigenetic regulators (ING1-5) function by targeting histone acetyltransferase (HAT) or histone deacetylase complexes to the H3K4me3 mark to alter histone acetylation and subsequently, gene expression. Here we find that ectopic expression of ING5, the targeting subunit of HBO1, MOZ and MORF HAT complexes increases expression of the Oct4, Olig2 and Nestin stem cell markers, promotes self-renewal, prevents lineage differentiation and increases stem cell pools in BTIC populations...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925366/establishment-of-a-human-ipsc-line-iishdoi001-a-from-a-patient-with-mcardle-disease
#2
María Del Carmen Ortuño-Costela, Nathalie Rodríguez-Mancera, Marta García-López, Francisco Zurita-Díaz, Ana Moreno-Izquierdo, Alejandro Lucía, Miguel Ángel Martín, Rafael Garesse, M Esther Gallardo
Human iPSC line IISHDOi001-A was generated from fibroblasts of a patient with McArdle disease harbouring the mutation, c.148C>T; p.Arg50Ter, in the PYGM gene. Reprogramming factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc were delivered using Sendai virus.
August 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925364/generation-and-characterization-of-a-human-ipsc-line-from-a-patient-with-propionic-acidemia-due-to-defects-in-the-pcca-gene
#3
Esmeralda Alonso-Barroso, Sandra Brasil, Álvaro Briso-Montiano, Rosa Navarrete, Celia Pérez-Cerdá, Magdalena Ugarte, Belén Pérez, Lourdes R Desviat, Eva Richard
Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line was generated from fibroblasts of a patient with propionic acidemia carrying mutations in the PCCA gene: c.1899+4_1899+7delAGTA; p.(Cys616_Val633del) and c.1430--?_1643+?del; p.(Gly477Glufs*9). Reprogramming factors OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC were delivered using a non-integrative method based on the Sendai virus. Once established, iPSCs have shown full pluripotency, differentiation capacity and genetic stability.
August 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924038/passive-dna-demethylation-preferentially-up-regulates-pluripotency-related-genes-and-facilitates-the-generation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#4
Songwei He, Hao Sun, Lilong Lin, Yixin Zhang, Jinlong Chen, Lining Liang, Yuan Li, Mengdan Zhang, Xiao Yang, Xiaoshan Wang, Fuhui Wang, Feiyan Zhu, Jiekai Chen, Duanqing Pei, Hui Zheng
A high proliferation rate has been observed to facilitate somatic cell reprogramming, but the pathways that connect proliferation and reprogramming have not been reported. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) methylates hemimethylated CpG sites produced during S phase and maintains stable inheritance of DNA methylation. Impairing this process results in passive DNA demethylation. In this study, we show that the cell proliferation rate positively correlated with the expression of Dnmt1 in G1 phase. In addition, as determined by whole genome bisulfate sequencing and high-performance liquid chromatography, global DNA methylation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) was significantly higher in G1 phase than in G2/M phase...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923841/a-novel-notch-yap-circuit-drives-stemness-and-tumorigenesis-in-embryonal-rhabdomyosarcoma
#5
Katherine K Slemmons, Lisa E S Crose, Stefan Riedel, Manuela Sushnitha, Brian C Belyea, Corinne M Linardic
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a cancer characterized by skeletal muscle features, is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood. While low and intermediate-risk groups have seen improved outcomes, high-risk patients still face a 5-year survival of <30%, a statistic that has not changed in over 40 years. Understanding the biologic underpinnings of RMS is critical. The developmental pathways of Notch and YAP have been identified as potent but independent oncogenic signals that support the embryonal variant of RMS (eRMS)...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923480/impact-of-morphine-on-the-expression-of-insulin-receptor-and-protein-levels-of-insulin-igfs-in-rat-neural-stem-cells
#6
Sadegh Salarinasab, AliReza Nourazarian, Masoud Nikanfar, Nima Abdyazdani, Masoumeh Kazemi, Navid Feizy, Reza Rahbarghazi
Alzheimer's disease is correlated with neuronal degeneration and loss of neuronal precursors in different parts of the brain. It has been found disturbance in the homeostasis neural stem cells (NSCs) can cause neurodegeneration. Morphine, an analgesic agent, can disrupt the dynamic and normal state of NSCs. However, more investigations are required to clearly address underlying mechanisms. The current experiment aimed to investigate the effects of morphine on the cell distribution of insulin factor and receptor and insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2) in NSCs...
September 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919367/nup153-interacts-with-sox2-to-enable-bimodal-gene-regulation-and-maintenance-of-neural-progenitor-cells
#7
Tomohisa Toda, Jonathan Y Hsu, Sara B Linker, Lauren Hu, Simon T Schafer, Jerome Mertens, Filipe V Jacinto, Martin W Hetzer, Fred H Gage
Neural progenitor cells (NeuPCs) possess a unique nuclear architecture that changes during differentiation. Nucleoporins are linked with cell-type-specific gene regulation, coupling physical changes in nuclear structure to transcriptional output; but, whether and how they coordinate with key fate-determining transcription factors is unclear. Here we show that the nucleoporin Nup153 interacts with Sox2 in adult NeuPCs, where it is indispensable for their maintenance and controls neuronal differentiation. Genome-wide analyses show that Nup153 and Sox2 bind and co-regulate hundreds of genes...
September 13, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912141/macropinocytosis-of-bevacizumab-by%C3%A2-glioblastoma-cells-in-the-perivascular-niche-affects-their-survival
#8
Gaëlle M Müller-Greven, Cathleen Carlin, Monica E Burgett, Manmeet Singh Ahluwalia, Adam Lauko, Amy S Nowacki, Cameron J Herting, Maha A Qadan, Markus Bredel, Steven A Toms, Justin D Lathia, Dolores Hambardzumyan, Jann N Sarkaria, Petra Hamerlik, Candece L Gladson
PURPOSE: Bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to VEGF, is used routinely in the treatment of patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). However, very little is known regarding the effects of bevacizumab on the cells in the perivascular space in tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Established orthotopic xenograft and syngeneic models of GBM were used to determine entry of monoclonal anti-VEGF-A into, and uptake by cells in, the perivascular space. Based on the results, we examined CD133+ cells derived from GBM tumors in vitro...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905448/mzf1-and-gabp-cooperate-with-sox2-in-regulating-the-expression-of-yap1-in-cancer-cells
#9
Narendra Kumar Verma, Abhilash Gadi, Giulia Maurizi, Upal Basu Roy, Alka Mansukhani, Claudio Basilico
The transcription factor YAP1 is a major effector of the tumor suppressive Hippo signaling pathway and is also necessary to maintain pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. Elevated levels of YAP1 expression antagonize the tumor suppressive effects of the Hippo pathway, that normally represses YAP1 function. High YAP1 expression is observed in several types of human cancers and is particularly prominent in cancer stem cells. The stem cell transcription factor Sox2, which marks and maintains cancer stem cells in osteosarcomas, promotes YAP1 expression by binding to an intronic enhancer element and YAP1 expression is also crucial for the maintainance of osteosarcoma stem cells...
September 14, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903899/the-application-of-next-generation-sequencing-techniques-in-studying-transcriptional-regulation-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#10
Ya-Jun Liu, Feng Zhang, Hong-de Liu, Xiao Sun
The mechanism of transcriptional regulation has been the focus of many studies in the post-genomic era. The development of sequencing-based technologies for chromatin profiling enables current researchers to experimentally measure chromatin properties. Moreover, many studies aim at annotating the state of the chromatin into broad categories based on observed chromatin features and/or DNA sequences, then associating the resultant distal regulatory regions with the correct target genes based on DNA sequences, and predicting the dependence of epigenetic features on genetic variation...
August 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901470/tlr5-7-mediated-pi3k-activation-triggers-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-through-wave3-dependent-mesothelin-or-oct4-sox2-expression
#11
Ga Bin Park, Daejin Kim
Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling induces cell migration or invasion in several tumors and various stages of cancer. Interactions of mesothelin, a 40-kDa cell surface glycoprotein, with cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is associated with drug resistance, metastasis, and poor clinical outcome of ovarian cancer patients. In this study, we examined the role of TLR5 and TLR7 in the metastasis of ovarian cancer through the induction of mesothelin/CA125 expression and investigated its underlying mechanism. TLR5 agonist (flagellin) and TLR7 agonist (imiquimod) upregulated mesenchymal phenotypes and produced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related cytokines in the SKOV3 cells; however, TLR7 expressing CaOV3 cells had no response to the specific ligand, imiquimod, for enhancing its EMT processes...
September 6, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900388/disc1-regulates-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-mouse-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-through-pax5-sox2-dll1-and-neurog2
#12
Qian Wu, Weiting Tang, Zhaohui Luo, Yi Li, Yi Shu, Zongwei Yue, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Background: Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) regulates neurogenesis and is a genetic risk factor for major psychiatric disorders. However, how DISC1 dysfunction affects neurogenesis and cell cycle progression at the molecular level is still unknown. Here, we investigated the role of DISC1 in regulating proliferation, migration, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in mouse neural stem/progenitor cells (MNSPCs) in vitro. Methods: MNSPCs were isolated and cultured from mouse fetal hippocampi. Retroviral vectors or siRNAs were used to manipulate DISC1 expression in MNSPCs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900179/microrna-28-potentially-regulates-the-photoreceptor-lineage-commitment-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-derived-progenitors
#13
Hong-Pei Ji, Yu Xiong, Wei-Tao Song, En-Dong Zhang, Zhao-Lin Gao, Fei Yao, Tao Su, Rong-Rong Zhou, Xiao-Bo Xia
Retinal degenerative diseases ultimately result into irreversible photoreceptor death or loss. At present, the most promising treatment for these diseases is cell replacement therapy. Müller glia are the major glia in the retina, displaying cardinal features of retinal progenitor cells, and can be candidate of seed cells for retinal degenerative diseases. Here, mouse retinal Müller glia dissociated and cultured in vitro amplified and were dedifferentiated into Müller glia-derived progenitors (MGDPs), demonstrating expression of stem/progenitor cell markers Nestin, Sox2 and self-renewal capacity...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898112/functional-odontoblastic-like-cells-derived-from-human-ipscs
#14
H Xie, N Dubey, W Shim, C J A Ramachandra, K S Min, T Cao, V Rosa
The induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have an intrinsic capability for indefinite self-renewal and large-scale expansion and can differentiate into all types of cells. Here, we tested the potential of iPSCs from dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to differentiate into functional odontoblasts. DPSCs were reprogrammed into iPSCs via electroporation of reprogramming factors OCT-4, SOX2, KLF4, LIN28, and L-MYC. The iPSCs presented overexpression of the reprogramming genes and high protein expressions of alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and TRA-1-60 in vitro and generated tissues from 3 germ layers in vivo...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895148/critical-roles-of-hmagea2-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-pluripotency-proliferation-and-differentiation
#15
Song Park, Yonghun Sung, Jain Jeong, Minjee Choi, Jinhee Lee, Wookbong Kwon, Soyoung Jang, Si Jun Park, Jae Young Kim, Sung Hyun Kim, Duhak Yoon, Zae Young Ryoo, Myoung Ok Kim
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are important for clinical application and stem cell research. Although human melanoma-associated antigen A2 (hMAGEA2) expression is known to affect differentiation in embryonic stem cells, its specific role in iPS cells remains unclear. To evaluate the function of hMAGEA2 and its characteristics in iPS cells, we produced hMAGEA2-overexpressing iPS cells from hMAGEA2-overexpressing transgenic mice. Although the iPS cells with overexpressed hMAGEA2 did not differ in morphology, their pluripotency, and self-renewal related genes (Nanog, Oct3/4, Sox2, and Stat3), expression level was significantly upregulated...
September 11, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892484/six1-is-essential-for-differentiation-and-patterning-of-the-mammalian-auditory-sensory-epithelium
#16
Ting Zhang, Jinshu Xu, Pascal Maire, Pin-Xian Xu
The organ of Corti in the cochlea is a two-cell layered epithelium: one cell layer of mechanosensory hair cells that align into one row of inner and three rows of outer hair cells interdigitated with one cell layer of underlying supporting cells along the entire length of the cochlear spiral. These two types of epithelial cells are derived from common precursors in the four- to five-cell layered primordium and acquire functionally important shapes during terminal differentiation through the thinning process and convergent extension...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892074/replacing-reprogramming-factors-with-antibodies-selected-from-combinatorial-antibody-libraries
#17
Joel W Blanchard, Jia Xie, Nadja El-Mecharrafie, Simon Gross, Sohyon Lee, Richard A Lerner, Kristin K Baldwin
The reprogramming of differentiated cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is usually achieved by exogenous induction of transcription by factors acting in the nucleus. In contrast, during development, signaling pathways initiated at the membrane induce differentiation. The central idea of this study is to identify antibodies that can catalyze cellular de-differentiation and nuclear reprogramming by acting at the cell surface. We screen a lentiviral library encoding ∼100 million secreted and membrane-bound single-chain antibodies and identify antibodies that can replace either Sox2 and Myc (c-Myc) or Oct4 during reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts into iPSCs...
September 11, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887549/satb2-%C3%AE-catenin-tcf-lef-pathway-induces-cellular-transformation-by-generating-cancer-stem-cells-in-colorectal-cancer
#18
Wei Yu, Yiming Ma, Sharmila Shankar, Rakesh K Srivastava
Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of colorectal cancer (CRC) stem cells (CSC) in transformation, cancer progression and metastasis. The main goal of this paper was to examine the molecular mechanisms by which SATB2 induced malignant transformation of colorectal epithelial cells. SATB2 induced malignant transformation and these transformed cells gained the characteristics of CSCs by expressing stem cell markers (CD44, CD133, LGR5 and DCLK1) and transcription factors (c-Myc, Nanog and Sox2). Overexpression of SATB2 in normal colorectal epithelial cells increased cell motility, migration and invasion, which were associated with an increase in N-cadherin and Zeb1, and decrease in E-cadherin expression...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886103/epigenetic-regulation-of-human-sox3-gene-expression-during-early-phases-of-neural-differentiation-of-nt2-d1-cells
#19
Vladanka Topalovic, Aleksandar Krstic, Marija Schwirtlich, Diletta Dolfini, Roberto Mantovani, Milena Stevanovic, Marija Mojsin
Sox3/SOX3 is one of the earliest neural markers in vertebrates. Together with the Sox1/SOX1 and Sox2/SOX2 genes it is implicated in the regulation of stem cell identity. In the present study, we performed the first analysis of epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation and histone marks) involved in the regulation of the human SOX3 gene expression during RA-induced neural differentiation of NT2/D1 cells. We show that the promoter of the human SOX3 gene is extremely hypomethylated both in undifferentiated NT2/D1 cells and during the early phases of RA-induced neural differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885616/myd88-is-an-essential-component-of-retinoic-acid-induced-differentiation-in-human-pluripotent-embryonal-carcinoma-cells
#20
Gomaa Sulaiman, Aoife Cooke, Brendan Ffrench, Claudia Gasch, Olayemi Azeez Abdullai, Kevin O'Connor, Salah Elbaruni, Gordon Blackshields, Cathy Spillane, Helen Keegan, Victoria McEneaney, Ronan Knittel, Annamarie Rogers, Ian B Jeffery, Brendan Doyle, Mark Bates, Charles d'Adhemar, Mathia Yc Lee, Eric L Campbell, Paul N Moynagh, Desmond G Higgins, Sharon O'Toole, Luke O'Neill, John J O'Leary, Michael F Gallagher
We have previously reported that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) is downregulated during all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of pluripotent NTera2 human embryonal carcinoma cells (hECCs), whereas its maintained expression is associated with RA differentiation resistance in nullipotent 2102Ep hECCs. MyD88 is the main adapter for toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling, where it determines the secretion of chemokines and cytokines in response to pathogens. In this study, we report that loss of MyD88 is essential for RA-facilitated differentiation of hECCs...
September 8, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
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