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Vascular dementia survival

Walter Pirker, Regina Katzenschlager
Human gait depends on a complex interplay of major parts of the nervous, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems. The individual gait pattern is influenced by age, personality, mood and sociocultural factors. The preferred walking speed in older adults is a sensitive marker of general health and survival. Safe walking requires intact cognition and executive control. Gait disorders lead to a loss of personal freedom, falls and injuries and result in a marked reduction in the quality of life. Acute onset of a gait disorder may indicate a cerebrovascular or other acute lesion in the nervous system but also systemic diseases or adverse effects of medication, in particular polypharmacy including sedatives...
October 21, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Kevin T Nead, Greg Gaskin, Cariad Chester, Samuel Swisher-McClure, Nicholas J Leeper, Nigam H Shah
Importance: A growing body of evidence supports a link between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and cognitive dysfunction, including Alzheimer disease. However, it is currently unknown whether ADT may contribute to the risk of dementia more broadly. Objective: To use an informatics approach to examine the association of ADT as a treatment for prostate cancer with the subsequent development of dementia (eg, senile dementia, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Alzheimer dementia)...
October 13, 2016: JAMA Oncology
C Lorenzi, E Mossello, E Giuliani, N Nesti, M Bulgaresi, V Caleri, M Pieraccioli, E Tonon, M C Cavallini, C Baroncini, M Di Bari, C A Biagini, N Marchionni, A Ungar
OBJECTIVE: Available data on the prognostic role of blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment are still scarce. We recently showed that tight control of blood pressure may be associated with a greater progression of cognitive impairment in the short term. Aim of this study is to evaluate the long term association of clinical and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and antihypertensive drugs (AHD) with survival and desease progression in older subjects with cognitive impairment...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Marileen L P Portegies, Frank J Wolters, Albert Hofman, M Kamran Ikram, Peter J Koudstaal, M Arfan Ikram
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Improved short-term survival after stroke has necessitated quantifying risk and risk factors of long-term sequelae after stroke (ie, recurrent stroke and dementia). This risk may be influenced by exposure to cardiovascular risk factors before the initial stroke. Within the population-based Rotterdam Study, we determined the long-term risk of recurrent stroke and dementia, and the proportion of recurrent strokes and poststroke dementia cases that are attributable to prestroke cardiovascular risk factors (ie, the population attributable risk)...
August 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Vincent C T Mok, Bonnie Y K Lam, Zhaolu Wang, Wenyan Liu, Lisa Au, Eric Y L Leung, Sirong Chen, Jie Yang, Winnie C W Chu, Alexander Y L Lau, Anne Y Y Chan, Lin Shi, Florence Fan, Sze H Ma, Vincent Ip, Yannie O Y Soo, Thomas W H Leung, Timothy C Y Kwok, Chi L Ho, Lawrence K S Wong, Adrian Wong
INTRODUCTION: Patients surviving stroke without immediate dementia are at high risk of delayed-onset dementia. Mechanisms underlying delayed-onset dementia are complex and may involve vascular and/or neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: Dementia-free patients with stroke and/or transient ischemic attack (TIA; n = 919) were studied for 3 years prospectively, excluding those who developed dementia 3 to 6 months after stroke and/or TIA. RESULTS: Forty subjects (4...
June 18, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Julien Dumurgier, Fanny Artaud, Célia Touraine, Olivier Rouaud, Béatrice Tavernier, Carole Dufouil, Archana Singh-Manoux, Christophe Tzourio, Alexis Elbaz
BACKGROUND: Slow gait is common in dementia, but it remains unknown whether the slowing happens many years prior to dementia onset. We therefore examined the relationship between slow baseline gait speed (GS), change in GS, and the hazard of incident dementia in a community dwelling of elderly people. METHODS: A total of 3,663 participants dementia-free at baseline (mean age, 73.5 years) were followed up for 9 years from a prospective cohort (Three-City study, France) for incident dementia (all-cause, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and other causes)...
June 14, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Salka S Staekenborg, Yolande A L Pijnenburg, Afina W Lemstra, Philip Scheltens, Wiesje M Vd Flier
BACKGROUND: Dementia is typically known for its insidious onset and slowly progressive course, but a subgroup deteriorates fast and dies within years or even months. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize dementia patients with a rapidly progressive course to death and evaluate their cause of death. METHODS: We retrospectively included all patients from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort who died within two years after diagnosis...
April 19, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Sajjad Rezaei, Karim Asgari Mobarake, Alia Saberi, Parvaneh Keshavarz, Ehsan Kazemnejad Leili
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism is associated with functional and cognitive outcomes of stroke and plays a key role in preventing neuronal death. This study aimed to answer the following question: does BDNF Val66Met polymorphism prognosticate survival status and risk of post-stroke dementia (PSD)? In a retrospective cohort study, 206 patients with ischemic stroke (IS) entered the study. They were consecutively being admitted to the neurology clinic in Poursina Hospital (northern Iran) from 2012 to 2014...
June 2016: Neurological Sciences
Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta, Pablo Martínez-Martín, Alberto Rábano, Enrique Alcalde-Cabero, Fernando José García López, Javier Almazán-Isla, María Ruiz-Tovar, Maria-José Medrano, Fuencisla Avellanal, Olga Calero, Miguel Calero
BACKGROUND: Sutherland et al. (2011) suggested that, instead of risk factors for single neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs), there was a need to identify specific "drivers", i.e., risk factors with impact on specific deposits, such as amyloid-β, tau, or α-synuclein, acting across entities. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Redefining drivers as "neither protein/gene- nor entity-specific features identifiable in the clinical and general epidemiology of conformational NDDs (CNDDs) as potential footprints of templating/spread/transfer mechanisms", we conducted an analysis of the epidemiology of ten CNDDs, searching for patterns...
2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Yorito Hattori, Jun-Ichiro Enmi, Satoshi Iguchi, Satoshi Saito, Yumi Yamamoto, Masahiro Tsuji, Kazuyuki Nagatsuka, Rajesh N Kalaria, Hidehiro Iida, Masafumi Ihara
BACKGROUND: Existing rodent models of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) show abrupt changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and do not reliably replicate the clinical pathogenesis of VCI. We therefore aimed to develop a mouse model of VCI where CBF is gradually reduced, followed by subsequent progressive motor and cognitive impairment, after surgical intervention. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult C57BL/6J male mice were subjected to gradual common carotid artery stenosis (GCAS) surgery by using an ameroid constrictor vessel-constricting device with an inner diameter of 0...
February 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Joseph S Goveas, Stephen R Rapp, Patricia E Hogan, Ira Driscoll, Hilary A Tindle, J Carson Smith, Shelli R Kesler, Oleg Zaslavsky, Rebecca C Rossom, Judith K Ockene, Kristine Yaffe, JoAnn E Manson, Susan M Resnick, Mark A Espeland
BACKGROUND: Independent predictors of preserved cognitive functioning and factors associated with maintaining high preserved cognitive function in women ≥ 80 years remain elusive. METHODS: Two thousand two hundred twenty-eight women with a mean age of 85 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study were classified as cognitively normal (n = 1,905, 85.5%), mild cognitive impairment (n = 88, 3.9%), dementia (n = 121, 5.4%) or other cognitive impairment (n = 114, n = 5...
March 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Irene E van de Vorst, Huiberdina L Koek, Rehana de Vries, Michiel L Bots, Johannes B Reitsma, Ilonca Vaartjes
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors on mortality in individuals with dementia. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. English- and Dutch-language studies in PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched in April 2014 with hand-searching of in-text citations and no publication limitations. Inclusion criteria were original studies reporting on cardiovascular risk factors or diseases and their relationship with survival in individuals with dementia...
January 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Harshil D Dhruv, Alison Roos, Patrick J Tomboc, Serdar Tuncali, Ashley Chavez, Ian Mathews, Michael E Berens, Joseph C Loftus, Nhan L Tran
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary tumor of the CNS and carries a dismal prognosis. The aggressive invasion of GBM cells into the surrounding normal brain makes complete resection impossible, significantly increases resistance to the standard therapy regimen, and virtually assures tumor recurrence. Median survival for newly diagnosed GBM is 14.6 months and declines to 8 months for patients with recurrent GBM. New therapeutic strategies that target the molecular drivers of invasion are required for improved clinical outcome...
February 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Toshie Manabe, Katsuyoshi Mizukami, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Shinji Teramoto, Kazue Yamaoka, Seiji Nakamura, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Koichiro Kudo, Nobuyuki Hizawa
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a major, complicated disease in patients with dementia. However, the influence of pneumonia on the prognosis of patients with varying types of dementia has not been fully evaluated. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data from medical and autopsy reports. All study patients had been hospitalized and underwent brain autopsy in a hospital in Toyohashi, Japan, between 2005 and 2014. The patients with subtypes of dementia, specifically Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), or vascular dementia (VaD), were neuropathologically diagnosed and examined...
September 2016: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Marie-Françoise Ritz, Caspar Grond-Ginsbach, Manja Kloss, Markus Tolnay, Felix Fluri, Leo H Bonati, Christopher Traenka, Thomas Zeis, Nicole Schaeren-Wiemers, Nils Peters, Stefan Thomas Engelter, Philippe Alexandre Lyrer
Cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD) is characterized by periventricular white matter (WM) changes and general brain atrophy. SVD is prevalent in elderly individuals and is frequently associated with the development of vascular dementia (VaD). Studies of the molecular basis of SVD are sparse. We have to gain further insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of SVD. Therefore, we compared gene expression patterns in the brains of SVD and control patients, in order to identify cellular pathways changed in diseased brains...
2016: Current Neurovascular Research
Jong Hun Kim, Seok Min Go, Sang Won Seo, Suk Hui Kim, Juhee Chin, So Young Moon, Hyunsun Lim, Hae Kwan Cheong, Sun Ah Choi, Jun Hong Lee, Duk L Na
BACKGROUND: Subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) is one of the most common dementias, after Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Few survival analyses in SVaD patients have been reported. METHODS: The dates and causes of death of 146 SVaD and 725 AD patients were included. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to compare survival between SVaD and AD patients and to explore possible factors related to survival of SVaD patients. RESULTS: The median survival time after the onset of SVaD (109 months) was shorter than that recorded for AD (152 months)...
2015: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Cátia Janota, Cynthia A Lemere, Maria Alexandra Brito
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive decline that afflicts as many as 45 % of individuals who survive past the age of 85. AD has been associated with neurovascular dysfunction and brain accumulation of amyloid-β peptide, as well as tau phosphorylation and neurodegeneration, but the pathogenesis of the disease is still somewhat unclear. According to the amyloid cascade hypothesis of AD, accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregates initiates a sequence of events leading to neuronal injury and loss, and dementia...
August 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Chen-Yi Wu, Hsiao-Yun Hu, Lok-Hi Chow, Yiing-Jenq Chou, Nicole Huang, Pei-Ning Wang, Chung-Pin Li
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the contribution of treatment on the mortality of dementia based on a population-based study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of anti-dementia and nootropic treatments on the mortality of dementia using a population-based cohort study. METHODS: 12,193 incident dementia patients were found from 2000 to 2010. Their data were compared with 12,193 age- and sex-matched non-dementia controls that were randomly selected from the same database...
2015: PloS One
Shinichi Harada, Tsukasa Tsujita, Akiko Ono, Kei Miyagi, Takaharu Mori, Shogo Tokuyama
Stachys sieboldii (Labiatae; Chinese artichoke, a tuber), "chorogi" in Japanese, has been extensively used in folk medicine, and has a number of pharmacological properties, including antioxidative activity. However, few studies have examined the neuroprotective effects of S. sieboldii tuber extract (chorogi extract), and it remains unknown whether the extract can alleviate learning and memory dysfunction associated with vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of chorogi extract, and examined its protection against learning and memory dysfunction using Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (ginkgo extract) as a positive control...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Daniel A Nation, Emily C Edmonds, Katherine J Bangen, Lisa Delano-Wood, Blake K Scanlon, S Duke Han, Steven D Edland, David P Salmon, Douglas R Galasko, Mark W Bondi
IMPORTANCE: Increased pulse pressure associated with age-related arterial stiffening increases risk for Alzheimer dementia but the mechanism responsible for this association remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between pulse pressure and cerebral spinal fluid biomarker profiles of preclinical Alzheimer disease, investigate whether observed relationships are stronger in adults with more advanced arterial age (≥80 years of age), and examine the relationship between pulse pressure and progression to dementia...
May 2015: JAMA Neurology
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