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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339675/high-reported-rates-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-indian-neonatal-and-pediatric-blood-stream-infections
#1
Dhanya Dharmapalan, Anita Shet, Vijay Yewale, Mike Sharland
Background.: There is real shortage of national data on antimicrobial resistance rates in Indian neonates and children. A descriptive review was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates of blood stream infection among hospitalized children in India. Methods.: Published and gray literature on antibiotic resistance in children was searched using "Google Scholar", "Scopus", and "PubMed" databases between January 2000 and July 2015...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338487/the-evolution-of-disease-chronic-lung-disease-of-infancy-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#2
Michael C Tracy, David N Cornfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or chronic lung disease of infancy BPD was originally described 50 years ago, in 1967 by Northway et al. This article possesses two fundamental objectives to provide: a brief historical perspective on BPD; and an update relative to current notions of epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and clinical management of BPD complicated by vascular disease. The review highlights areas of consensus and ongoing uncertainty. RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical cause and presentation of infants with BPD has evolved over the past several decades...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336724/quantitative-age-specific-variability-of-plasma-proteins-in-healthy-neonates-children-and-adults
#3
Stefan Bjelosevic, Dana Pascovici, Hui Ping, Vasiliki Karlaftis, Thiri Zaw, Xiaomin Song, Mark P Molloy, Paul Monagle, Vera Ignjatovic
Human blood plasma is a complex biological fluid containing soluble proteins, sugars, hormones, electrolytes, and dissolved gasses. As plasma interacts with a wide array of bodily systems, changes in protein expression, or the presence or absence of specific proteins are regularly used in the clinic as a molecular biomarker tool. A large body of literature exists detailing proteomic changes in pathologic contexts, however little research has been conducted on the quantitation of the plasma proteome in age-specific, healthy subjects, especially in pediatrics...
March 23, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336156/pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-management
#4
Ryan J Felling, Lisa R Sun, Emily C Maxwell, Neil Goldenberg, Timothy Bernard
Pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) is an uncommon but important cause of neurologic morbidity in neonates and children, with consequences including hemiparesis, intellectual disabilities, and epilepsy. The causes of pediatric AIS are unique to those typically associated with stroke in adults. Familiarity with the risk factors for AIS in children will help with efficient diagnosis, which is unfortunately frequently delayed. Here we review the epidemiology and risk factors for AIS in neonates and children...
March 7, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333694/high-flow-nasal-cannula-therapy-beyond-the-perinatal-period
#5
Michael Lee, Joshua Nagler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is emerging as a means of oxygen delivery and respiratory support for a range of conditions outside the perinatal period. We aim to review the mechanisms of action and advantages of HFNC and to summarize current findings regarding clinical benefit in specific pediatric disease processes and in patients with significant respiratory distress. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently published studies outside the neonatal population demonstrate both safety and efficacy of this mode of respiratory support...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330522/passive-range-of-motion-exercise-to-enhance-growth-in-infants-following-the-norwood-procedure-a-safety-and-feasibility-trial
#6
Linda M Lambert, Felicia L Trachtenberg, Victoria L Pemberton, Janine Wood, Shelley Andreas, Robin Schlosser, Teresa Barnard, Kaitlyn Daniels, Ann T Harrington, Nicholas Dagincourt, Thomas A Miller
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a passive range of motion exercise programme for infants with CHD. Study design This non-randomised pilot study enrolled 20 neonates following Stage I palliation for single-ventricle physiology. Trained physical therapists administered standardised 15-20-minute passive range of motion protocol, for up to 21 days or until hospital discharge. Safety assessments included vital signs measured before, during, and after the exercise as well as adverse events recorded through the pre-Stage II follow-up...
March 23, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328243/factors-associated-with-bleeding-and-thrombosis-in-children-receiving-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-ecmo
#7
Heidi J Dalton, Ron Reeder, Pamela Garcia-Filion, Richard Holubkov, Robert A Berg, Athena Zuppa, Frank W Moler, Thomas Shanley, Murray M Pollack, Christopher Newth, John Berger, David Wessel, Joseph Carcillo, Michael Bell, Sabrina Heidemann, Kathleen L Meert, Richard Harrison, Allan Doctor, Robert F Tamburro, J Michael Dean, Tammara Jenkins, Carol Nicholson
RATIONALE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is employed for respiratory and cardiac failure in children but is complicated by bleeding and thrombosis. OBJECTIVES: (1) Measure the incidence of bleeding (blood loss requiring transfusion or intracranial hemorrhage) and thrombosis during ECMO support; (2) identify factors associated with these complications; and (3) determine the impact of these complications on patient outcome. METHODS: Prospective, observational cohort study in pediatric, cardiac, and neonatal intensive care units in eight hospitals from December 2012 to September 2014...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323911/monogenic-diabetes-accounts-for-6-3-of-cases-referred-to-15-italian-pediatric-diabetes-centers-during-2007-2012
#8
Maurizio Delvecchio, Enza Mozzillo, Giuseppina Salzano, Dario Iafusco, Giulio Frontino, Patrizia I Patera, Ivana Rabbone, Valentino Cherubini, Valeria Grasso, Nadia Tinto, Sabrina Giglio, Giovanna Contreas, Rosa Di Paola, Alessandro Salina, Vittoria Cauvin, Stefano Tumini, Giuseppe d'Annunzio, Lorenzo Iughetti, Vilma Mantovani, Giulio Maltoni, Sonia Toni, Marco Marigliano, Fabrizio Barbetti
Context: Etiologic diagnosis of diabetes may impact on therapeutic strategy, and prognosis of chronic complications. Objective: The aim of the study was to establish the relative percentage of different diabetes subtypes in patients attending Italian pediatric diabetes centers, and the influence of etiologic diagnosis on therapy. Design, Setting and Patients: This was a retrospective study. Clinical records of 3781 consecutive patients (age: 0-18 years) referred to fifteen pediatric diabetes clinics and diagnosed with diabetes or IFG between Jan/1/2007 and Dec/31/2012 were examined...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323880/randomized-controlled-trials-in-central-vascular-access-devices-a-scoping-review
#9
Mari Takashima, Gillian Ray-Barruel, Amanda Ullman, Samantha Keogh, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for central venous access devices, however, high complication rates remain. Scoping reviews map the available evidence and demonstrate evidence deficiencies to focus ongoing research priorities. METHOD: A scoping review (January 2006-December 2015) of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to improve central venous access device outcomes; including peripherally inserted central catheters, non-tunneled, tunneled and totally implanted venous access catheters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323667/central-venous-access-in-children-indications-devices-and-risks
#10
Guillermo Ares, Catherine J Hunter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Central venous catheters (CVCs) have a prominent role in the diagnostic and therapy of neonates and children. Herein, we describe the multiple indications for CVC use and the different devices available for central venous access. Given the prevalent use of CVCs, healthcare systems are focused on reducing complications from their use, particularly central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). The most up-to-date information available sheds light on best practices and future areas of investigation...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323644/pediatric-acute-compartment-syndrome
#11
Kristin S Livingston, Michael P Glotzbecker, Benjamin J Shore
Pediatric acute compartment syndrome (PACS) is a clinical entity that must be carefully differentiated from the adult version (ie, acute compartment syndrome). Healthcare providers must understand the variable etiologies of PACS, of which trauma is the most common but can also include vascular insult, infection, surgical positioning, neonatal phenomena, overexertion, and snake and insect bites. In addition to the unique etiologies of PACS, providers must also recognize the different signs and symptoms of PACS...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322168/pediatric-off-label-and-unlicensed-drug-use-and-its-implications
#12
Rajeshwari Gore, Preeta Kaur Chugh, Chakra Dhar Tripathi, Yangshen Lhamo, Sandhya Gautam
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, in the absence of standard pediatric prescribing information, clinicians often use medicines in children in a dosage form or for an indication that has not been approved for use. Inadequate clinical trials increase exposure to drugs that lack safety-efficacy data in pediatric population. Hence, off-label and unlicensed drug use must be regarded as a patient safety-issue that is known to be associated with increased risks of adverse drug reactions apart from under- or over-dosing due to lack of pharmacokinetic data...
March 17, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321802/sepsis-risk-factors-in-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#13
Michaël Levy, Nolwenn Le Sache, Mostafa Mokhtari, Guy Fagherazzi, Gaelle Cuzon, Benjamin Bueno, Virginie Fouquet, Alexandra Benachi, Sergio Eleni Dit Trolli, Pierre Tissieres
BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare congenital anomaly and remains among the most challenging ICU-managed disease. Beside severe pulmonary hypertension, lung hypoplasia and major abdominal surgery, infective complications remain major determinants of outcome. However, the specific incidence of sepsis as well as associated risk factors is unknown. METHODS: This prospective, 4-year observational study took place in the pediatric intensive care and neonatal medicine department of the Paris South University Hospitals (Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France), CDH national referral center and involved 62 neonates with CDH...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320216/a-neurologic-dysfunction-scoring-protocol-for-jaundiced-neonates-requiring-exchange-transfusion
#14
Bolajoko O Olusanya, Folashade B Osibanjo, Adeniyi A Ajiboye, Oluwafemi E Ayodele, Adebanke A Odunsi, Serah M Olaifa, Abieyuwa A Emokpae
AIM: To evaluate the performance of a neurologic assessment protocol among jaundiced infants requiring exchange transfusion (ET). METHODS: We identified infants in a referral children's hospital who received ET and those who met the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) criteria for ET based on total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels. The performance of a bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction (BIND-M) scoring protocol for acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE) in detecting infants treated with ET in both groups was investigated by logistic regression analysis and c-statistic...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319548/tanshinone-iia-attenuates-sevoflurane-neurotoxicity-in-neonatal-mice
#15
Yimeng Xia, Heng Xu, Chenfei Jia, Xiaodong Hu, Yu Kang, Xiaoxuan Yang, Qingsheng Xue, Guorong Tao, Buwei Yu
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is the most widely used inhalational anesthetic in pediatric medicine. Despite this, sevoflurane has been reported to exert potentially neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Clinical interventions and treatments for these effects are limited. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), has been documented to alleviate cognitive decline in traditional applications. Therefore, we hypothesized that preadministration of Tan IIA may attenuate sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity, suggesting that Tan IIA is a new and promising drug capable of counteracting the effects of cognitive dysfunction produced by general anesthetics...
April 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319507/recombinant-factor-viia-is-associated-with-increased-thrombotic-complications-in-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-patients
#16
Laura Downey, Morgan L Brown, David Faraoni, David Zurakowski, James A DiNardo
BACKGROUND: Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is routinely used as an off-label hemostatic agent in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Despite evidence that rFVIIa use is associated with an increased incidence of thrombotic complications in adult cardiac surgery, the safety of rFVIIa as a rescue hemostatic agent in the pediatric cardiac surgical population is less definitively delineated. In this retrospective study, we used propensity score matching to compare the incidence of thrombotic complications between children treated with rFVIIa and their matched controls...
March 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319487/videolaryngoscopy-in-neonates-infants-and-children
#17
Onur Balaban, Joseph D Tobias
Airway management is vital during anesthetic care and during resuscitative efforts in the PICU, the emergency department, and the delivery room. Given specific anatomic and physiologic differences, neonates and infants may be more prone to complications during airway management. Videolaryngoscopy may offer an alternative to or advantages over direct laryngoscopy in specific clinical scenarios. The following article reviews some of the basic types of videolaryngoscopy and discusses their potential applications in the pediatric population...
March 17, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318185/neonatal-acute-liver-failure-a-diagnosis-challenge
#18
Mirta Ciocca, Fernando Álvarez
Neonatal acute liver failure is a rare, very severe disease with a high rate of mortality. It is clinically and etiologically different from acute liver failure seen in older children and adults. Coagulopathy with an international normalized ratio ≥ 3 is the critical parameter that defines it. The most common causes are fetal alloimmune hepatitis, previously called neonatal hemochromatosis, viral infections, metabolic disorders, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. There is a group of treatable diseases that require a very early diagnosis for the prescription of an adequate treatment...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304316/perspectives-and-attitudes-of-pediatricians-concerning-post-discharge-care-practice-of-premature-infants
#19
A Gad, E Parkinson, N Khawar, A Elmeki, P Narula, D Hoang
OBJECTIVE: Survival rates of premature infants are at a historical high and increasingly more pediatricians are caring for former premature infants. The goal of this study was to describe the perspectives and attitudes of pediatricians, as well as, the challenges of rendering post-neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge care for premature infants. METHODS: An anonymous 22-question web-based survey was emailed to pediatricians who are current members of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and practicing in Kings County, New York...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301052/decreased-blood-product-usage-during-extracorporeal-life-support-with-reduced-circuit-volumes
#20
Samuel D Addison, Marcia L Buck, Gary Y Fang, James J Gangemi, David A Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Activation and consumption of platelets (PLT) and clotting factors along with hemolysis occurs when blood contacts the extracorporeal life support (ECLS) circuit and its components. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The objective was to examine the effects of reducing ECLS circuit volume by decreasing tubing length and changing components on blood product usage in neonatal and pediatric patients. Blood product administration was analyzed in 40 consecutive patients who required ECLS for respiratory or cardiac failure before (PRE) and after (POST) changes in circuit design and components...
March 16, 2017: Transfusion
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