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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788431/novel-treatment-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-via-neurapheresistm-therapy
#1
Gordon J Smilnak, Lefko T Charalambous, Drew Cutshaw, Alykhan M Premji, Charles D Giamberardino, Christi G Ballard, Andrew P Bartuska, Tiffany U Ejikeme, Huaxin Sheng, Laura Zitella Verbick, Blake A Hedstrom, Promila C Pagadala, Aaron R McCabe, John R Perfect, Shivanand P Lad
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) has emerged as the most common life-threatening fungal meningitis worldwide. Current management involves a sequential, longitudinal regimen of antifungals; despite a significant improvement in survival compared to uniform mortality without treatment, this drug paradigm has not led to a consistent cure. NeurapheresisTM therapy, extracorporeal filtration of yeasts from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in infected hosts, is presented here as a novel, one-time therapy for CM. In vitro filtration of CSF through this platform yielded a five-log reduction in concentration of the yeast and a one-log reduction in its polysaccharide antigen over 24 hours...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788061/regulation-of-the-heat-shock-transcription-factor-hsf1-in-fungi-implications-for-temperature-dependent-virulence-traits
#2
Amanda O Veri, Nicole Robbins, Leah E Cowen
The impact of fungal pathogens on human health is devastating. For fungi and other pathogens, a key determinant of virulence is the capacity to thrive at host temperatures, with elevated temperature in the form of fever as a ubiquitous host response to defend against infection. A prominent feature of cells experiencing heat stress is the increased expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) that play pivotal roles in the refolding of misfolded proteins in order to restore cellular homeostasis. Transcriptional activation of this heat shock response is orchestrated by the essential heat shock transcription factor, Hsf1...
August 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788045/molecular-epidemiology-of-candida-auris-in-colombia-reveals-a-highly-related-country-wide-colonization-with-regional-patterns-in-amphotericin-b-resistance
#3
Patricia Escandón, Nancy A Chow, Diego H Caceres, Lalitha Gade, Elizabeth L Berkow, Paige Armstrong, Sandra Rivera, Elizabeth Misas, Carolina Duarte, Heather Moulton-Meissner, Rory M Welsh, Claudia Parra, Luz Angela Pescador, Nohora Villalobos, Soraya Salcedo, Indira Berrio, Carmen Varón, Andrés Espinosa-Bode, Shawn R Lockhart, Brendan R Jackson, Anastasia P Litvintseva, Mauricio Beltran, Tom M Chiller
Background: Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant yeast associated with hospital outbreaks worldwide. During 2015-2016, multiple outbreaks were reported in Colombia. We aimed to understand the extent of contamination in healthcare settings and to characterize the molecular epidemiology of C. auris in Colombia. Methods: We sampled patients, patient contacts, healthcare workers, and the environment in four hospitals with recent C. auris outbreaks. Using standardized protocols, people were swabbed at different body sites...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785613/neuroinfections-caused-by-fungi
#4
REVIEW
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783771/adhesins-in-candida-glabrata
#5
REVIEW
Bea Timmermans, Alejandro De Las Peñas, Irene Castaño, Patrick Van Dijck
The human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is causing more and more problems in hospitals, as this species shows an intrinsic antifungal drug resistance or rapidly becomes resistant when challenged with antifungals. C. glabrata only grows in the yeast form, so it is lacking a yeast-to-hyphae switch, which is one of the main virulence factors of C. albicans . An important virulence factor of C. glabrata is its capacity to strongly adhere to many different substrates. To achieve this, C. glabrata expresses a large number of adhesin-encoding genes and genome comparisons with closely related species, including the non-pathogenic S...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783739/sterol-composition-of-clinically-relevant-mucorales-and-changes-resulting-from-posaconazole-treatment
#6
Christoph Müller, Thomas Neugebauer, Patrizia Zill, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Franz Bracher, Ulrike Binder
Mucorales are fungi with increasing importance in the clinics. Infections take a rapidly progressive course resulting in high mortality rates. The ergosterol biosynthesis pathway and sterol composition are of interest, since they are targeted by currently applied antifungal drugs. Nevertheless, Mucorales often exhibit resistance to these drugs, resulting in therapeutic failure. Here, sterol patterns of six clinically relevant Mucorales ( Lichtheimia corymbifera , Lichtheimia ramosa , Mucor circinelloides , Rhizomucor pusillus , Rhizopus arrhizus , and Rhizopus microsporus ) were analysed in a targeted metabolomics fashion after derivatization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
May 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780375/effect-of-artinm-on-human-blood-cells-during-infection-with-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#7
Luciana P Ruas, Livia M Genaro, Amauri S Justo-Junior, Lilian O Coser, Lívia F de Castro, Plinio Trabasso, Ronei L Mamoni, Maria-Cristina Roque-Barreira, Maria-Heloisa S L Blotta
Infections caused by fungi are prominent in our environment and can be potentially fatal. paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is the most frequent systemic mycosis in Brazil and the main cause of death among immunocompetent individuals. The antifungal therapy for PCM is usually effective but side effects and relapses are often reported. The latter could be avoided with alternative or complementary therapies aimed at boosting the immune response to combat this pathogen...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778961/uva-induced-antimicrobial-activity-of-zno-ag-nanocomposite-covered-surfaces
#8
Meeri Visnapuu, Merilin Rosenberg, Egle Truska, Ergo Nõmmiste, Andris Šutka, Anne Kahru, Mihkel Rähn, Heiki Vija, Kaja Orupõld, Vambola Kisand, Angela Ivask
Application of efficient antimicrobial surfaces has been estimated to decrease both, the healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this paper, we prepared ZnO and ZnO/Ag nanoparticle covered surfaces and evaluated their antimicrobial efficacy towards a Gram-negative bacterial model (Escherichia coli), a Gram-positive bacterial model (Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal model (Candida albicans) in the dark and under UVA illumination. The surfaces were prepared by spin coating aliquots of ZnO and ZnO/Ag nanoparticle suspensions onto glass substrates...
May 4, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775480/titan-cells-formation-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-is-finely-tuned-by-environmental-conditions-and-modulated-by-positive-and-negative-genetic-regulators
#9
Benjamin Hommel, Liliane Mukaremera, Radames J B Cordero, Carolina Coelho, Christopher A Desjardins, Aude Sturny-Leclère, Guilhem Janbon, John R Perfect, James A Fraser, Arturo Casadevall, Christina A Cuomo, Françoise Dromer, Kirsten Nielsen, Alexandre Alanio
The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans exhibits morphological changes in cell size during lung infection, producing both typical size 5 to 7 μm cells and large titan cells (> 10 μm and up to 100 μm). We found and optimized in vitro conditions that produce titan cells in order to identify the ancestry of titan cells, the environmental determinants, and the key gene regulators of titan cell formation. Titan cells generated in vitro harbor the main characteristics of titan cells produced in vivo including their large cell size (>10 μm), polyploidy with a single nucleus, large vacuole, dense capsule, and thick cell wall...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775477/cryptococcus-neoformans-can-form-titan-like-cells-in-vitro-in-response-to-multiple-signals
#10
Nuria Trevijano-Contador, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Rocío García-Rodas, Suélen Andreia Rossi, Irene Llorente, Ángel Zaballos, Guilhem Janbon, Joaquín Ariño, Óscar Zaragoza
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated pathogenic yeast that can change the size of the cells during infection. In particular, this process can occur by enlarging the size of the capsule without modifying the size of the cell body, or by increasing the diameter of the cell body, which is normally accompanied by an increase of the capsule too. This last process leads to the formation of cells of an abnormal enlarged size denominated titan cells. Previous works characterized titan cell formation during pulmonary infection but research on this topic has been hampered due to the difficulty to obtain them in vitro...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774605/mixed-infections-are-a-critical-factor-in-the-treatment-of-superficial-mycoses
#11
A Gawaz, G Weisel
BACKGROUND: Superficial fungal infections of the skin, nails and hair are common with Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans being the main pathogens. Yet, in some patients, mycological cultures show growth of more than one fungal agent in the same anatomical region. OBJECTIVE: This study analyses prevalence, frequency and fungal agents found in superficial fungal mixed infections and discusses consequences for diagnostics and treatment. METHODS: Mycological data obtained between January 2006 to December 2015 from clinical specimens from a total cohort of 7733 patients with suspected fungal infections were retrospectively analysed...
May 17, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772751/what-we-do-not-know-about-fungal-cell-adhesion-molecules
#12
REVIEW
Peter N Lipke
There has been extensive research on structure and function of fungal cell adhesion molecules, but the most of the work has been about adhesins in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These yeasts are members of a single ascomycete order, and adhesion molecules from the six other fungal phyla are only sparsely described in the literature. In these other phyla, most of the research is at the cellular level, rather than at the molecular level, so there has been little characterization of the adhesion molecules themselves...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769603/components-of-a-new-gene-family-of-ferroxidases-involved-in-virulence-are-functionally-specialized-in-fungal-dimorphism
#13
María Isabel Navarro-Mendoza, Carlos Pérez-Arques, Laura Murcia, Pablo Martínez-García, Carlos Lax, Marta Sanchis, Javier Capilla, Francisco E Nicolás, Victoriano Garre
Mucormycosis is an emerging angio-invasive infection caused by Mucorales that presents unacceptable mortality rates. Iron uptake has been related to mucormycosis, since serum iron availability predisposes the host to suffer this infection. In addition, iron uptake has been described as a limiting factor that determines virulence in other fungal infections, becoming a promising field to study virulence in Mucorales. Here, we identified a gene family of three ferroxidases in Mucor circinelloides, fet3a, fet3b and fet3c, which are overexpressed during infection in a mouse model for mucormycosis, and their expression in vitro is regulated by the availability of iron in the culture media and the dimorphic state...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764947/biological-roles-played-by-sphingolipids-in-dimorphic-and-filamentous-fungi
#14
REVIEW
Caroline Mota Fernandes, Gustavo H Goldman, Maurizio Del Poeta
Filamentous and dimorphic fungi cause invasive mycoses associated with high mortality rates. Among the fungal determinants involved in the establishment of infection, glycosphingolipids (GSLs) have gained increased interest in the last few decades. GSLs are ubiquitous membrane components that have been isolated from both filamentous and dimorphic species and play a crucial role in polarized growth as well as hypha-to-yeast transition. In fungi, two major classes of GSLs are found: neutral and acidic GSLs. Neutral GSLs comprise glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide, which utilize Δ4-Δ8-9-methyl-sphingadienine as a sphingoid base, linked to a C16-18 fatty acid chain, forming ceramide, and to a sugar residue, such as glucose or galactose...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762871/fast-identification-of-dermatophytes-by-maldi-tof-ms-using-direct-transfer-of-fungal-cells-on-ground-steel-target-plates
#15
Keith C da Cunha, Arnaud Riat, Anne-Cecile Normand, Philipp P Bosshard, Margarete T G de Almeida, Renaud Piarroux, Jacques Schrenzel, Lionel Fontao
BACKGROUND: Dermatophytes cause human infections limited to keratinized tissues. We showed that the direct transfer method allows reliable identification of non-dermatophytes mould and yeast by MALDI-TOF/MS. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at assessing whether the direct transfer method can be used for dermatophytes and whether an own mass spectra library would be superior to the Bruker library. METHODS: We used the Bruker Biotyper to build a dermatophyte mass spectra library and assessed its performance by 1/ testing a panel of mass spectrum produced with strains genotypically identified and, 2/ comparing MALDI-TOF/MS identification to morphology-based methods...
May 15, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760550/synergistic-antifungal-effect-of-chitosan-stabilized-selenium-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-pulsed-laser-ablation-in-liquids-against-candida-albicans-biofilms
#16
Humberto H Lara, Gregory Guisbiers, Jonathan Mendoza, Lawrence C Mimun, Brandy A Vincent, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Kelly L Nash
Background: Candida albicans is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen. One of the most important virulence factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of candidiasis is its ability to form biofilms. A key characteristic of Candida biofilms is their resistance to antifungal agents. Due to significant morbidity and mortality rates related to biofilm-associated drug resistance, there is an urgency to develop novel nanotechnology-based approaches preventing biofilm-related infections. Methods: In this study, we report, for the first time, the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by irradiating selenium pellets by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in liquid chitosan as a capping agent...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760548/silver-nanoparticles-induced-alterations-in-multiple-cellular-targets-which-are-critical-for-drug-susceptibilities-and-pathogenicity-in-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#17
Venkatraman Srinivasan Radhakrishnan, Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam, Manish Kumar, Surya Prakash Dwivedi, Surinder Pal Singh, Tulika Prasad
Purpose: A significant increase in the incidence of fungal infections and drug resistance has been observed in the past decades due to limited availability of broad-spectrum antifungal drugs. Nanomedicines have shown significant antimicrobial potential against various drug-resistant microbes. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) are known for their antimicrobial properties and lower host toxicity; however, for clinical applications, evaluation of their impact at cellular and molecular levels is essential...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760350/identification-of-chlamydia-pneumoniae-candidate-genes-that-interact-with-human-apoptotic-factor-caspase-9
#18
Md Abdul Aziz, Rie Ushirokita, Yoshinao Azuma
Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular pathogen responsible for respiratory diseases, including pneumonia and bronchitis, and is highly involved in chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, asthma, and Alzheimer's disease. We previously showed that the host apoptotic factor caspase-9 played a crucial role for chlamydial multiplication and host apoptosis inhibition by chlamydial infection. To identify chlamydial genes interacting with human caspase-9, yeast two-hybrid screening was performed and 5 chlamydial genes, including Cpj0838 and pmpG were isolated from the C...
May 15, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760128/nitric-oxide-releasing-macromolecule-exhibits-broad-spectrum-anti-fungal-activity-and-utility-as-a-topical-treatment-for-superficial-fungal-infections
#19
Nathan Stasko, Kimberly McHale, Stanley J Hollenbach, Megan Martin, Ryan Doxey
Cutaneous and superficial fungal infections affecting the skin, nails, and hair of humans are caused primarily by dermatophytes of the genera Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton, or by yeasts of the genera Candida and Malassezia Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of the nail frequently coexisting with tinea pedis, the most prevalent mycotic skin infection. Efficacy rates for current topical onychomycosis therapies are hampered by low drug penetration across the nail plate that is theoretically obviated with nitric oxide (NO)-based topical therapies...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755280/-blastomyces-species-and-orbital-apex-syndrome-unsuspected-co-infection
#20
Janice R Safneck, Sherry Krawitz
Blastomyces species are thermally dimorphic fungi existing as yeast in tissue. We report an initially immunocompetent patient with orbital apex syndrome (OAS) whose presentation suggested giant cell arteritis. Subsequently, metastatic carcinoma was entertained as a cause of OAS until bronchoscopy yielded Blastomyces species. The patient rapidly succumbed with multiorgan failure despite Amphotericin B administration. At post-mortem, Blastomyces co-infection with fungal hyphae in keeping with Aspergillus species was found in cavernous sinus and in infarcted optic nerve...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
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