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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350807/mait-cells-and-viruses
#1
James E Ussher, Christian B Willberg, Paul Klenerman
Mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) bear a T cell receptor (TCR) that specifically targets microbially-derived metabolites. Functionally they respond to bacteria and yeasts, which possess the riboflavin pathway, essential for production of such metabolites and which are presented on MR1. Viruses cannot generate these ligands, so a priori, they should not be recognized by MAIT cells and indeed this is true when considering recognition through the TCR. However, MAIT cells are distinctive in another respect, since they respond quite sensitively to non-TCR signals, especially in the form of inflammatory cytokines...
January 19, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346417/xylose-donor-transport-is-critical-for-fungal-virulence
#2
Lucy X Li, Carsten Rautengarten, Joshua L Heazlewood, Tamara L Doering
Cryptococcus neoformans, an AIDS-defining opportunistic pathogen, is the leading cause of fungal meningitis worldwide and is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths annually. Cryptococcal glycans are required for fungal survival in the host and for pathogenesis. Most glycans are made in the secretory pathway, although the activated precursors for their synthesis, nucleotide sugars, are made primarily in the cytosol. Nucleotide sugar transporters are membrane proteins that solve this topological problem, by exchanging nucleotide sugars for the corresponding nucleoside phosphates...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345117/candida-auris-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-current-updates-on-an-emerging-multidrug-resistant-pathogen
#3
John Osei Sekyere
From 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a multidrug-resistant ascomycete yeast pathogen with the capacity for easy transmission between patients and hospitals, as well as persistence on environmental surfaces. Its association with high mortalities, breakthrough and persistent candidaemia, inconsistencies in susceptibility testing results, misidentification by available commercial identification systems and treatment failure, complicates its management and detection. Within the last nine years, C. auris has been increasingly reported from far-Eastern Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, South and North America with substantial fatalities and misidentification...
January 18, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339060/quantification-of-a-recombinant-antigen-in-an-immuno-stimulatory-whole-yeast-cell-based-therapeutic-vaccine
#4
Jenny Wang, Daniel Stenzel, Ally Liu, Dengfeng Liu, Darren Brown, Alexandre Ambrogelly
Therapeutic vaccines represent an emerging class of immune-modulatory treatments for cancer, infections, and chronic diseases. One such vaccine was designed as an immune stimulator of the T cell response against HBV antigens to eliminate HBV infected cells and offer a therapeutic avenue to treat patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B infection. Whole deactivated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expressing a recombinant fusion of HBV X, S and Core antigens elicit T cell responses in mice and activate human T cells linked with viral clearance...
January 12, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332258/photodynamic-antimicrobial-chemotherapy-pact-using-toluidine-blue-inhibits-both-growth-and-biofilm-formation-by-candida-krusei
#5
Bruna Graziele Marques da Silva, Moisés Lopes Carvalho, Isabela Bueno Rosseti, Stella Zamuner, Maricilia Silva Costa
Among non-albicans Candida species, the opportunistic pathogen Candida krusei emerges because of the high mortality related to infections produced by this yeast. The Candida krusei is an opportunistic pathogen presenting an intrinsic resistance to fluconazol. In spite of the reduced number of infections produced by C. krusei, its occurrence is increasing in some groups of patients submitted to the use of fluconazol for prophylaxis. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is a potential antimicrobial therapy that combines visible light and a nontoxic dye, known as a photosensitizer, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can kill the treated cells...
January 13, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328469/human-cytomegalovirus-ul141-protein-interacts-with-celf5-and-affects-viral-dna-replication
#6
Fei Zou, Zhi-Tao Lu, Shuang Wang, Si Wu, Ying-Ying Wu, Zheng-Rong Sun
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the primary viral cause of congenital abnormalities and mental retardation in newborns. The HCMV UL141‑encoded glycoprotein has been previously revealed to inhibit the cell‑surface expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)155, CD122, tumor necrosis factor‑related apoptosis‑inducing ligand death (TRAIL)‑receptor 1 (R1) and TRAIL‑receptor 2 (R2), thus protecting virally‑infected cells by allowing them to escape natural killer cell‑mediated cytotoxicity...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328432/a-double-edged-function-of-ddx3-as-an-oncogene-or-tumor-suppressor-in-cancer-progression-review
#7
Yu He, Dan Zhang, Yanfang Yang, Xixi Wang, Xinyu Zhao, Peng Zhang, Hongxia Zhu, Ningzhi Xu, Shufang Liang
DEAD-box RNA helicase 3 (DDX3) is a highly conserved family member of DEAD-box proteins in all eukaryotes from yeasts to human beings. Accumulating studies have confirmed DDX3 has the ability to regulate different steps of RNA metabolism, including RNA splicing, RNA export, transcription and translation initiation. Moreover, DDX3 is involved in many biological processes, such as stress response, cell apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and virus infection. In recent years, DDX3 is getting increasing attention due to its essential roles in cancer progression...
January 9, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327956/the-incidence-and-treatment-outcomes-of-macrorhabdus-ornithogaster-infection-in-budgerigars-melopsittacus-undulatus-in-a-veterinary-clinic
#8
Ronja Püstow, Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns
Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, avian gastric yeast, is a common cause of gastrointestinal disease in budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus). To better understand the clinical disease in budgerigars presented in a practice population, we reviewed the occurrence, clinical signs, and treatment success of M ornithogaster disease in budgerigars during a 2.5-year period at the Clinic for Birds and Reptiles, University of Leipzig (Leipzig, Germany). The yeast was diagnosed by microscopic examination of fresh fecal samples...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325916/proanthocyanidin-polymeric-tannins-from-stryphnodendron-adstringens-are-effective-against-fluconazole-resistant-candida-spp-and-treat-vaginal-candidiasis
#9
Aline Luiza Duarte de Freitas, Vanessa Kaplum, Diego Conrado Pereira Rossi, Leandro Buffoni Roque da Silva, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Carlos Pelleschi Taborda, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Kelly Ishida
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The stem bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville is popularly used as anti-inflammatory, astringent and in the treatment of wounds and vaginal infections. Several pharmacological activities have been scientifically proven by "in vitro" and "in vivo" experimental assays for antibacterial, antiviral, antiprotozoan, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated whether proanthocyanidin polymeric tannins from the Stryphnodendron adstringens steam bark with antifungal activity against Candida albicans in vitro are also active against planktonic and biofilm cells of Candida non-albicans (CNA, including fluconazole-resistant isolates) and are capable of controlling Candida vaginitis in vivo...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325170/ecology-of-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-p-lutzii-and-related-species-infection-in-armadillos-soil-occurrence-and-mycological-aspects
#10
Marluce Francisca Hrycyk, Hans Garcia Garces, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes Bosco, Sílvio Luis de Oliveira, Sílvio Alencar Marques, Eduardo Bagagli
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and the related species P. americana, P. restrepiensis, P. venezuelensis, and P. lutzii (Ascomycota, Ajellomycetaceae) are the etiological agents of paracoccidoidoimycosis (PCM), one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. They are dimorphic fungi, with a mycelial life cycle in soil and a yeast phase associated with tissues of mammalian hosts. This study aimed to detect Paracoccidioides spp. in armadillo tissues and associated soil samples in three well-defined geographic areas, including the Alta Floresta, an area not only endemic for PCM in the central region of Brazil but also of probable P...
January 6, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323807/impact-of-obesity-on-cesarean-delivery-outcomes
#11
Andrew J Vegel, Dana M Benden, Andrew J Borgert, Kara J Kallies, Shanu N Kothari
BACKGROUND: The rate of cesarean delivery has increased over the last 2 decades. Obesity is a risk factor for complications during pregnancy and cesarean procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate cesarean delivery outcomes in patients with vs without obesity, and determine the impact of obesity on complications. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent a cesarean delivery from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed. Patients were grouped by body mass index (BMI) into obese (≥30kg/m²) and non-obese (<30kg/m²) cohorts for comparison...
November 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323105/enterovirus-d68-virus-like-particles-expressed-in-pichia-pastoris-potently-induce-neutralizing-antibody-responses-and-confer-protection-against-lethal-viral-infection-in-mice
#12
Chao Zhang, Xueyang Zhang, Wei Zhang, Wenlong Dai, Jing Xie, Liping Ye, Hongli Wang, Huan Chen, Qingwei Liu, Sitang Gong, Lanlan Geng, Zhong Huang
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been increasingly associated with severe respiratory illness and neurological complications in children worldwide. However, no vaccine is currently available to prevent EV-D68 infection. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of developing a virus-like particle (VLP)-based EV-D68 vaccine. We found that co-expression of the P1 precursor and 3CD protease of EV-D68 in Pichia pastoris yeast resulted in the generation of EV-D68 VLPs, which were composed of processed VP0, VP1, and VP3 capsid proteins and were visualized as ~30 nm spherical particles...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319242/clinical-diversity-of-cns-cryptococcosis
#13
J M Koshy, S Mohan, D Deodhar, M John, A Oberoi, A Pannu
Background: Though cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is recognized as a disease of the immunocompromised, studies have implicated that it also affect immunocompetent patients. Methodology: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary teaching institution in North India. All the patients diagnosed with CM on the basis of detection of cryptococcal antigen or the presence of capsulated budding yeast cells on India ink preparation, from April 2009 to March2015 were included in the study...
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318387/antimicrobial-activity-of-psidium-cattleianum-associated-with-calcium-hydroxide-against-enterococcus-faecalis-and-candida-albicans-an-in-vitro-study
#14
Jorgiana Sangalli, Elerson Gaetti Jardim Júnior, Carlos Roberto Emerenciano Bueno, Rogério Castilho Jacinto, Gustavo Sivieri-Araújo, João Eduardo Gomes Filho, Luciano Tavares Ângelo Cintra, Eloi Dezan Junior
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate, in vitro, the antimicrobial activity of Psidium cattleianum leaf extracts combined with calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans biofilm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dentin specimens obtained from extracted bovine incisors were infected during 14 days with E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and C. albicans ATCC 10231. The specimens were filled with calcium hydroxide pastes prepared with the following vehicles: Psidium cattleianum ethanolic, Psidium cattleianum propylene glycolic, distilled water, and saline as control...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317510/the-f-box-protein-fbp1-shapes-the-immunogenic-potential-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#15
Jorge Masso-Silva, Vanessa Espinosa, Tong-Bao Liu, Yina Wang, Chaoyang Xue, Amariliz Rivera
Cryptococcus neoformans is the main etiologic agent of cryptococcal meningitis and causes a significant number of deadly infections per year. Although it is well appreciated that host immune responses are crucial for defense against cryptococcosis, our understanding of factors that control the development of effective immunity to this fungus remains incomplete. In previous studies, we identified the F-box protein Fbp1 as a novel determinant of C. neoformans virulence. In this study, we found that the hypovirulence of the fbp1Δ mutant is linked to the development of a robust host immune response...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316739/development-of-candida-albicans-biofilms-is-diminished-by-paeonia-lactiflora-through-obstruction-of-cell-adhesionand-cell-lysis
#16
Heung-Shick Lee, Younhee Kim
Candida albicans infections are problematic to treat often due to antifungal resistance, since most infections of the pathogen are associated with biofilms. The abilities of C. albicans to switch from budding yeast to filamentous hyphae, and adhere to host cells or various surfaces support biofilm formation. We previously reported that the ethanol extract from Paeonia lactiflora not only inhibits cell wall synthesis but also causes depolarization and permeabilization of cell membrane in C. albicans. In this study, we found that the P...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316615/what-could-be-the-role-of-antifungal-lock-solutions-from-bench-to-bedside
#17
REVIEW
Christine Imbert, Blandine Rammaert
Candidemia related to the presence of a biofilm are often reported in patients with vascular catheters. Once they are mature, biofilms are persistent infectious reservoirs, and the yeasts dispersed from biofilms can cause infections. Sessile yeasts typically display increased levels of resistance to most antimicrobial agents and systemic treatments usually fail to eradicate previously formed fungal biofilms. In a curative strategy, antifungal lock therapy may help to sterilize catheters, with very high concentrations of antifungal agents, which are not compatible with systemic use...
January 6, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315379/anti-biofilm-activity-of-antibody-directed-against-surface-antigen-cr3-rp-comparison-of-candida-albicans-and-candida-dubliniensis
#18
Jaroslava Chupácová, Elisa Borghi, Giulia Morace, Agata Los, Helena Bujdáková
Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are related yeasts that differ in the expression of virulence-associated proteins involved in adherence and biofilm development. CR3-RP (complement receptor 3-related protein) is one of the surface antigens expressed by Candida species. The main objective of this research was to elucidate the effect of the polyclonal anti-CR3-RP antibody (Ab) on adherence and the biofilm formed by C. albicans SC5314 and C. dubliniensis CBS 7987 and 2 clinical isolates in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo...
January 5, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315028/effects-of-pichia-guilliermondii-and-hot-air-treatment-on-the-postharvest-preservation-of-red-fuji-apple-quality-attributes
#19
Yan Zhao, Jingjing Yin
The effects of individual and combined Pichia guilliermondii (at 1 × 108 CFU mL-1) and hot air (at 38°C for 96 h) treatments on the three major postharvest diseases Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, as well as the quality and antioxidant content of Red Fuji ( Malus pumila var. domestica) apple fruit, were investigated in this work. Results suggested that the combined hot air and antagonistic yeast ( P. guilliermondii) treatment effectively and completely inhibited the infection of apple fruit wounds by the three major postharvest diseases...
February 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311198/fungal-peritonitis-caused-by-rhodotorula-mucilaginosa-in-a-capd-patient-treated-with-liposomal-amphotericin-b-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Frédéric Franconieri, Julie Bonhomme, Aline Doriot, Cécile Bonnamy, Maxence Ficheux, Thierry Lobbedez, Clémence Béchade
Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is a ubiquitous yeast that may cause serious peritoneal dialysis (PD) infections. A 70-year-old man receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 6 months presented with a PD infection caused by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa The patient was treated with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B. His peritoneal catheter was simultaneously removed and reinserted. To date, only 10 cases of Rhodotorula CAPD infections have been reported. Catheters, corticoids, cancer, and previous antibiotic therapy were the main risk factors for these infections...
January 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
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