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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810660/recent-advancements-in-understanding-mammalian-o-mannosylation
#1
M Osman Sheikh, Stephanie M Halmo, Lance Wells
The post-translational glycosylation of select proteins by O-linked mannose (O-mannose or O-man) is a conserved modification from yeast to humans and has been shown to be necessary for proper development and growth. The most well studied O-mannosylated mammalian protein is α-dystroglycan (α-DG). Hypoglycosylation of α-DG results in varying severities of congenital muscular dystrophies, cancer progression and metastasis, and inhibited entry and infection of certain arenaviruses. Defects in the gene products responsible for post-translational modification of α-DG, primarily glycosyltransferases, are the basis for these diseases...
September 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809155/microbe-profile-candida-albicans-a-shape-changing-opportunistic-pathogenic-fungus-of-humans
#2
Neil A R Gow, Bhawna Yadav
(a) Morphotypes of Candida albicans (blue sector, vegetative forms; pink sector, forms related to mating or changes in ploidy). Cell types shown include: budding yeast cells; elongated conjoined yeasts forming pseudohyphae; parallel-sided hyphae; chlamydospores formed from suspensor cells; enlarged goliath cells formed under zinc deprivation (unpublished study, image from Duncan Wilson); intestinal gut form cells (image from Suzanne Noble); mating competence defined by white-grey-opaque cell transitions (images from Guanghua Huang); elongated chemotactic shmoo-mating projections leading to tetraploid zygote formation (images from David Soll and Karla Daniels); trimera formed by unequal chromosome segregation under antifungal exposure (image from Judith Berman)...
August 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806733/the-interaction-between-endogenous-30s-ribosomal-subunit-protein-s11-and-cucumber-mosaic-virus-ls2b-protein-affects-viral-replication-infection-and-gene-silencing-suppressor-activity
#3
Ruilin Wang, Zhiyou Du, Zhenqing Bai, Zongsuo Liang
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a model virus for plant-virus protein interaction and mechanism research because of its wide distribution, high-level of replication and simple genome structure. The 2b protein is a multifunctional protein encoded by CMV that suppresses RNA silencing-based antiviral defense and contributes to CMV virulence in host plants. In this report, 12 host proteins were identified as CMV LS2b binding partners using the yeast two-hybrid screen system from the Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806010/blastomycosis-and-histoplasmosis-in-a-patient-with-glioblastoma-receiving-temozolomide
#4
Aiham H Jbeli, John Yu
Malignant glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is the most common primary malignancy of the brain in the U.S. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the cornerstone of management along with surgical resection and radiotherapy. Because of the reduction in the CD4+ lymphocyte count as a side effect of TMZ use, this patient population is under risk for opportunistic infections like Pneumocystis jiroveci. A male patient with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiform presented with non-productive cough and chest pain. Before presentation, the patient received the standard therapy including surgical resection, radiation and TMZ...
October 2016: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805296/basidiomycete-specific-pscamkl1-encoding-a-camk-like-protein-kinase-is-required-for-full-virulence-of-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici
#5
Min Jiao, Dan Yu, Chenglong Tan, Jia Guo, Dingyun Lan, Ershang Han, Tuo Qi, Ralf Thomas Voegele, Zhensheng Kang, Jun Guo
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs) are Ser/Thr protein kinases (PKs) that respond to changes in cytosolic free Ca(2+) and play diverse roles in eukaryotes. In fungi, CAMKs are generally classified into four families CAMK1, CAMKL, RAD53, and CAMK-Unique. Among these, CAMKL constitutes the largest family. In some fungal plant pathogens members of the CaMKL family have been shown to be responsible for pathogenesis. However, little is known about their role(s) in rust fungi. In this study, we functionally characterized a novel PK gene, PsCaMKL1, from Puccinia striiformis f...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804654/histoplasmosis-by-histoplasma-capsulatum-var-duboisii-observed-at-the-laboratory-of-pathological-anatomy-of-lom%C3%A3-in-togo
#6
Tchin Darré, Bayaki Saka, Abas Mouhari-Touré, Améyo Monique Dorkenoo, Koffi Amégbor, Vincent Palokinam Pitche, Gado Napo-Koura
Our study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of African histoplasmosis in Togo through a descriptive and cross-sectional study on histological diagnosed African histoplasmosis in Pathology Department of Lomé from 2002 to 2016 (15 years). A total of 17 cases of African histoplasmosis were diagnosed. The sex ratio (M/F) was 1.8. The annual incidence was 1.1 cases. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 ± 0.4 years. All our patients were of social categories with a low socioeconomic level...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802173/fungicidal-activity-of-copper-sputtered-flexible-surfaces-under-dark-and-actinic-light-against-azole-resistant-candida-albicans-and-candida-glabrata
#7
Myriam K S Ballo, Sami Rtimi, John Kiwi, César Pulgarin, José M Entenza, Alain Bizzini
Candida spp. are able to survive on hospital surfaces and causes healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). Since surface cleaning and disinfecting interventions are not totally effective to eliminate Candida spp., new approaches should be devised. Copper (Cu) has widely recognized antifungal activity and the use of Cu-sputtered surfaces has recently been proposed to curb the spread of HCAIs. Moreover, the activity of Cu under the action of actinic light remains underexplored. We investigated the antifungal activity of Cu-sputtered polyester surfaces (Cu-PES) against azole-resistant Candida albicans and Candida glabrata under dark and low intensity visible light irradiation (4...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802023/the-agrobacterium-vire2-effector-interacts-with-multiple-members-of-the-arabidopsis-vip1-protein-family
#8
Luyao Wang, Benoît Lacroix, Jianhua Guo, Vitaly Citovsky
T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium to its host plant genome relies on multiple interactions between plant proteins and bacterial effectors. One of such plant proteins is the Arabidopsis VirE2 interacting protein (AtVIP1), a transcription factor that binds A. tumefaciens C58 VirE2, potentially acting as an adaptor between VirE2 and several other host factors. It remains unknown, however, whether the same VirE2 protein has evolved to interact with multiple VIP1 homologs in the same host, and whether VirE2 homologs encoded by different bacterial strains/species recognize AtVIP1 or its homologs...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801743/investigation-of-an-optimal-cell-lysis-method-for-the-study-of-the-zinc-metalloproteome-of-histoplasma-capsulatum
#9
Anna M Donnell, Stephanie Lewis, Sami Abraham, Kavitha Subramanian, Julio Landero Figueroa, George S Deepe, Anne P Vonderheide
This work sought to assess optimal extraction conditions in the study of the metalloproteome of the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. One of the body's responses to H. capsulatum infection is sequestration of zinc within host macrophage (MØ), as reported by Vignesh et al. (Immunity 39:697-710, 2013) and Vignesh et al. (PLOS Pathog 9:E1003815, 2013). Thus, metalloproteins containing zinc were of greatest interest as it plays a critical role in survival of the fungus. One challenge in metalloproteomics is the preservation of the native structure of proteins to retain non-covalently bound metals...
August 12, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797834/antibiotic-susceptibility-of-probiotic-strains-is-it-reasonable-to-combine-probiotics-with-antibiotics
#10
C Neut, S Mahieux, L J Dubreuil
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of strains collected from marketed probiotics to antibiotics used to treat community-acquired infections. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 16 antibiotics were determined using a gradient strip (E test) or the agar dilution method for fidaxomicin. RESULTS: The probiotics demonstrated various antibiotic patterns. Bacterial probiotics are generally susceptible to most prescribed antibiotics orally administered, whereas yeast probiotics, such as Saccharomyces boulardii, are resistant...
August 7, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797487/clinical-manifestations-and-treatment-of-blastomycosis
#11
REVIEW
Joseph A McBride, Gregory M Gauthier, Bruce S Klein
The causal agents of blastomycosis, Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii, belong to a group of thermally dimorphic fungi that can infect healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Following inhalation of mycelial fragments and spores into the lungs, Blastomyces spp convert into pathogenic yeast and evade host immune defenses to cause pneumonia and disseminated disease. The clinical spectrum of pulmonary blastomycosis is diverse. The diagnosis of blastomycosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and involves culture-based and non-culture-based fungal diagnostic tests...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795887/cold-atmospheric-pressure-plasmas-exhibit-antimicrobial-properties-against-critical-bacteria-and-yeast-species
#12
C Wiegand, S Fink, U-C Hipler, O Beier, K Horn, A Pfuch, A Schimanski, B Grünler
OBJECTIVE: Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPPs) have been used to sterilise implant materials and other thermally unstable medical products and to modify chemical surfaces. This study investigates the antimicrobial effect of the gas and input power used to generate CAPPs on microorganisms causing skin infections, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Malassezia pachydermatis. METHOD: Microorganisms were cultivated on Mueller Hinton 2 (MH2) agar plates...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793015/virulence-factors-and-genetic-variability-of-vaginal-candida-albicans-isolates-from-hiv-infected-women-in-the-post-highly-active-antiretroviral-era
#13
Pâmela Cristina Mastellaro Delvas Zanni, Patrícia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça, Melyssa Negri, Sandra Sayuri Nakamura, Lucélia Donatti, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski, Márcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in HIV-infected (HIV+) women is a serious public health problem. However, little is known about the virulence mechanisms of vaginal Candida albicans from HIV+ women in the post-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Here, we report a comparative analysis of the expression of key virulence factors and genetic variability of 26 vaginal C. albicans strains isolated from HIV+ women undergoing HAART and 18 from HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women. In general, we observed that C...
2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792845/discovery-of-pan-autophagy-inhibitors-through-a-high-throughput-screen-highlights-macroautophagy-as-an-evolutionarily-conserved-process-across-3-eukaryotic-kingdoms
#14
Piyush Mishra, Adrian N Dauphinee, Carl Ward, Sovan Sarkar, Arunika H L A N Gunawardena, Ravi Manjithaya
Due to the involvement of macroautophagy/autophagy in different pathophysiological conditions such as infections, neurodegeneration and cancer, identification of novel small molecules that modulate the process is of current research and clinical interest. In this work, we developed a luciferase-based sensitive and robust kinetic high-throughput screen (HTS) of small molecules that modulate autophagic degradation of peroxisomes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Being a pathway-specific rather than a target-driven assay, we identified small molecule modulators that acted at key steps of autophagic flux...
August 9, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791025/the-ido-ahr-axis-controls-th17-treg-immunity-in-a-pulmonary-model-of-fungal-infection
#15
Eliseu Frank de Araújo, Claudia Feriotti, Nayane Alves de Lima Galdino, Nycolas Willian Preite, Vera Lúcia Garcia Calich, Flávio Vieira Loures
In infectious diseases, the enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) that catalyzes the tryptophan (Trp) degradation along the kynurenines (Kyn) pathway has two main functions, the control of pathogen growth by reducing available Trp and immune regulation mediated by the Kyn-mediated expansion of regulatory T (Treg) cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, IDO1 was shown to control the disease severity of both resistant and susceptible mice to the infection; however, only in resistant mice, IDO1 is induced by TGF-β signaling that confers a stable tolerogenic phenotype to dendritic cells (DCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783875/antifungal-activity-of-the-lipophilic-antioxidant-ferrostatin-1
#16
Michael Horwath, Tiffany Bell-Horwath, Victor Lescano, Karthik Krishnan, Edward Merino, George Samuel Deepe
Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) is a lipophilic antioxidant that effectively blocks ferroptosis, a distinct non-apoptotic form of cell death caused by lipid peroxidation. During many infections, both pathogens and host cells are subjected to oxidative stress, but the occurrence of ferroptosis has not been investigated. Ferroptosis was examined in macrophages infected with the pathogenic yeast Histoplasma capsulatum. Unexpectedly, Fer-1 not only reduced death of macrophages infected in vitro, but inhibited the growth of H...
August 7, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783748/heat-shock-protein-90-localizes-to-the-surface-and-augments-virulence-factors-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#17
Sharanya Chatterjee, Utpal Tatu
BACKGROUND: Thermotolerance is an essential attribute for pathogenesis of Cryptococcus as exemplified by the fact that only two species in the genus, which can grow at 37°C, are human pathogens. Species which have other virulence factors including capsule formation and melanisation, but lack the ability to propagate at 37°C are not pathogenic. In another related fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, heat shock protein 90 has been implicated to be a central player in commanding pathogenicity by governing yeast to hyphal transition and drug resistance...
August 4, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774749/sexual-and-reproductive-health-behaviors-and-experiences-reported-by-young-women-with-cystic-fibrosis
#18
Traci M Kazmerski, Gregory S Sawicki, Elizabeth Miller, Kelley A Jones, Kaleab Z Abebe, Lisa K Tuchman, Sigrid Ladores, Ronald C Rubenstein, Scott D Sagel, Daniel J Weiner, Joseph M Pilewski, David M Orenstein, Sonya Borrero
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of general and disease-specific sexual and reproductive health (SRH) concerns is unknown in the United States (U.S.) female CF population. This study aimed to describe and compare the SRH experiences and behaviors of young women with CF with the general U.S. POPULATION: HASH(0x460ec48) METHODS: Young women with CF ages 15-24years from five geographically diverse U.S. CF centers participated in a survey investigating SRH...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771134/evaluation-of-the-cobas-u-701-microscopy-analyser-compared-with-urine-culture-in-screening-for-urinary-tract-infection
#19
Si Hyun Kim, Sae Am Song, Sang-Hwa Urm, Joong-Ki Kook, Hye Ran Kim, Dongeun Yong, Jun Yong Choi, Jeong Hwan Shin
PURPOSE: A new automated Cobas u 701 microscopy analyser for urine sediment examination was introduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analyser in comparison with urine culture in screening for urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODOLOGY: A total of 852 urine specimens submitted for culture were included in this study. Urine sediment examination was performed using the Cobas u 701 microscopy analyser. The results of the bacteria (BAC) and yeast (YEA) analyses were compared with the results from urine culture as a method for UTI screening...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762125/progress-in-definition-prevention-and-treatment-of-fungal-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#20
REVIEW
Carsten Schwarz, Dominik Hartl, Olaf Eickmeier, Andreas Hector, Christian Benden, Isabelle Durieu, Amparo Sole, Silvia Gartner, Carlos E Milla, Peter James Barry
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic lethal multi-system condition; however, most of the morbidity and mortality is dependent on the status of the respiratory system. Progressive respiratory decline is mediated by chronic infection and inflammation, punctuated by important acute events known as pulmonary exacerbations which can lead to accelerated decline. The main bacterial species causing infections include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Achromobacter xylosoxidans. In addition to bacteria, fungi are detected in a significant number of patients...
July 31, 2017: Mycopathologia
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