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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633330/the-asparagine-rich-protein-nrp-interacts-with-the-verticillium-effector-pevd1-and-regulates-the-subcellular-localization-of-cryptochrome-2
#1
Ruimin Zhou, Tong Zhu, Lei Han, Mengjie Liu, Mengyuan Xu, Yanli Liu, Dandan Han, Dewen Qiu, Qingqiu Gong, Xinqi Liu
The soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects a wide range of dicotyledonous plants including cotton, tobacco, and Arabidopsis. Among the effector proteins secreted by V. dahliae, the 16 kDa PevD1 induces a hypersensitive response in tobacco. Here we report the high-resolution structure of PevD1 with folds resembling a C2 domain-like structure with a calcium ion bound to the C-terminal acidic pocket. A yeast two-hybrid screen, designed to probe for molecular functions of PevD1, identified Arabidopsis asparagine-rich protein (NRP) as the interacting partner of PevD1...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632834/-bladder-fungus-ball-by-candida-tropicalis-a-pediatric-case-report
#2
Ecil Santos, Mónica Mercado, Antonio Luévanos, Pedro Martínez, Martín Guerrero
Vesical fungus ball is a mobile, oval and echogenic mass as a result of accumulation of long and wide numerous hyphae. Fungal urinary tract infection incidence has increased notoriously and there are isolated yeast in 7 to 8% of urine cultures. Different species of Candida are cause of urinary tract infection. Epidemiologically, the first isolated pathogen is Candida albicans, followed by Candida tropicalis. Bladder poll has been documented as the most important risk factor for candiduria in critical patients into intensive care...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630074/the-enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-effector-espw-triggers-actin-remodeling-in-a-rac1-dependent-manner
#3
Pamela Sandu, Valerie F Crepin, Hauke Drechsler, Andrew D McAinsh, Gad Frankel, Cedric N Berger
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a diarrheagenic pathogen that colonizes the gut mucosa and induces attaching-and-effacing lesions. EHEC employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate 50 effector proteins that hijack and manipulate host cell signalling pathways, which allow bacterial colonization, subversion of immune responses and disease progression. The aim of this study was to characterize the T3SS effector EspW. We found espW in the sequenced O157:H7 and non-O157 EHEC strains as well as in Shigella boydii Furthermore, a truncated version of EspW, containing the first 206 residues is present in EPEC strains belonging to serotype O55:H7...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628666/the-effector-avrrxo1-phosphorylates-nad-in-planta
#4
Teja Shidore, Corey D Broeckling, Jay S Kirkwood, John J Long, Jiamin Miao, Bingyu Zhao, Jan E Leach, Lindsay R Triplett
Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of plants and animals employ type III secreted effectors to suppress innate immunity. Most characterized effectors work through modification of host proteins or transcriptional regulators, although a few are known to modify small molecule targets. The Xanthomonas type III secreted avirulence factor AvrRxo1 is a structural homolog of the zeta toxin family of sugar-nucleotide kinases that suppresses bacterial growth. AvrRxo1 was recently reported to phosphorylate the central metabolite and signaling molecule NAD in vitro, suggesting that the effector might enhance bacterial virulence on plants through manipulation of primary metabolic pathways...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627360/the-plasmodium-falciparum-exported-protein-pf3d7_0402000-binds-to-erythrocyte-ankyrin-and-band-4-1
#5
Bikash Shakya, Wesley D Penn, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Douglas J LaCount
Plasmodium falciparum extensively modifies the infected red blood cell (RBC), resulting in changes in deformability, shape and surface properties. These alterations suggest that the RBC cytoskeleton is a major target for modification during infection. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are largely unknown. To begin to address this question, we screened for exported P. falciparum proteins that bound to the erythrocyte cytoskeleton proteins ankyrin 1 (ANK1) and band 4.1 (4.1R), which form critical interactions with other cytoskeletal proteins that contribute to the deformability and stability of RBCs...
June 13, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626345/fungal-dimorphism-and-virulence-molecular-mechanisms-for-temperature-adaptation-immune-evasion-and-in-vivo-survival
#6
REVIEW
Gregory M Gauthier
The thermally dimorphic fungi are a unique group of fungi within the Ascomycota phylum that respond to shifts in temperature by converting between hyphae (22-25°C) and yeast (37°C). This morphologic switch, known as the phase transition, defines the biology and lifestyle of these fungi. The conversion to yeast within healthy and immunocompromised mammalian hosts is essential for virulence. In the yeast phase, the thermally dimorphic fungi upregulate genes involved with subverting host immune defenses. This review highlights the molecular mechanisms governing the phase transition and recent advances in how the phase transition promotes infection...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622982/comparison-of-the-vitek-2-antifungal-susceptibility-system-with-etest-using-clinical-isolates-of-candida-species
#7
Wadha Alfouzan, Tahani Al-Enezi, Ebteehal AlRoomi, Vayalil Sandhya, Rachel Chandy, Zia Uddin Khan
BACKGROUND: Candida species are part of the normal human microbiota. However, in recent years, nosocomial bloodstream Candida infections have emerged as a significant problem ranking the fourth common cause of fungemia in intensive care units. Although microdilution methods are the ones recommended for susceptibility testing, they are difficult to undertake in the clinical practice. Thus, an automated commercially available test is ideal. AIMS: To compare minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) obtained with the recently introduced Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system card (AST-YS01) with Etest...
June 13, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622792/a-cross-sectional-field-study-on-potential-associations-between-feed-quality-measures-and-usage-of-antimicrobials-in-commercial-mink-neovison-vison
#8
V F Jensen, H M Sommer, T Struve, J Clausen, M Chriél
Feed quality is generally assumed to affect health status in animal production. In previous studies, the feed producer has been found to affect the occurrence of gastrointestinal disease and antimicrobial use in Mink (Neovison vison). Mink are fed with moist, freshly produced feed, based on perishable ingredients. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effect of specific feed parameters on antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was cross-sectional, including 1472 mink herds, responsible for 97% of oral antimicrobials prescribed for Danish mink during the study period, 2012-2014...
August 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616799/dolichol-phosphate-mannose-synthase-a-glycosyltransferase-with-unity-in-molecular-diversities
#9
REVIEW
Dipak K Banerjee, Zhenbo Zhang, Krishna Baksi, Jesús E Serrano-Negrón
N-glycans provide structural and functional stability to asparagine-linked (N-linked) glycoproteins, and add flexibility. Glycan biosynthesis is elaborative, multi-compartmental and involves many glycosyltransferases. Failure to assemble N-glycans leads to phenotypic changes developing infection, cancer, congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) among others. Biosynthesis of N-glycans begins at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with the assembly of dolichol-linked tetra-decasaccharide (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol) where dolichol phosphate mannose synthase (DPMS) plays a central role...
June 14, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616203/reduced-rate-of-intensive-care-unit-acquired-gram-negative-bacilli-after-removal-of-sinks-and-introduction-of-water-free-patient-care
#10
Joost Hopman, Alma Tostmann, Heiman Wertheim, Maria Bos, Eva Kolwijck, Reinier Akkermans, Patrick Sturm, Andreas Voss, Peter Pickkers, Hans Vd Hoeven
BACKGROUND: Sinks in patient rooms are associated with hospital-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of removal of sinks from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patient rooms and the introduction of 'water-free' patient care on gram-negative bacilli colonization rates. METHODS: We conducted a 2-year pre/post quasi-experimental study that compared monthly gram-negative bacilli colonization rates pre- and post-intervention using segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series data...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616054/an-investigation-on-non-invasive-fungal-sinusitis-molecular-identification-of-etiologic-agents
#11
Abdolrasoul Mohammadi, Seyed Mostafa Hashemi, Sayed Hamidreza Abtahi, Seyed Mohammad Lajevardi, Sahar Kianipour, Rasoul Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Fungal sinusitis is increasing worldwide in the past two decades. It is divided into two types including invasive and noninvasive. Noninvasive types contain allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) and fungus ball. AFS is a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal allergens in the mucosa of the sinonasal tract in atopic individuals. The fungus ball is a different type of noninvasive fungal rhinosinusitis which is delineated as an accumulation of debris and fungal elements inside a paranasal sinus...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611247/the-malaria-parasite-cyclin-h-homolog-pfcyc1-is-required-for-efficient-cytokinesis-in-blood-stage-plasmodium-falciparum
#12
Jonathan A Robbins, Sabrina Absalon, Vincent A Streva, Jeffrey D Dvorin
All well-studied eukaryotic cell cycles are driven by cyclins, which activate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and these protein kinase complexes are viable drug targets. The regulatory control of the Plasmodium falciparum cell division cycle remains poorly understood, and the roles of the various CDKs and cyclins remain unclear. The P. falciparum genome contains multiple CDKs, but surprisingly, it does not contain any sequence-identifiable G1-, S-, or M-phase cyclins. We demonstrate that P. falciparum Cyc1 (PfCyc1) complements a G1 cyclin-depleted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and confirm that other identified malaria parasite cyclins do not complement this strain...
June 13, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608842/talaromyces-marneffei-genomic-transcriptomic-proteomic-and-metabolomic-studies-reveal-mechanisms-for-environmental-adaptations-and-virulence
#13
REVIEW
Susanna K P Lau, Chi-Ching Tsang, Patrick C Y Woo
Talaromycesmarneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic infections in patients positive for HIV or other immunocompromised statuses. Analysis of its ~28.9 Mb draft genome and additional transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies revealed mechanisms for environmental adaptations and virulence. Meiotic genes and genes for pheromone receptors, enzymes which process pheromones, and proteins involved in pheromone response pathway are present, indicating its possibility as a heterothallic fungus...
June 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606567/yeast-derived-%C3%AE-1-3-1-6-glucan-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-and-innate-immunity-in-older-adults
#14
Richard Fuller, Michael V Moore, George Lewith, Beth L Stuart, Rory V Ormiston, Helena L Fisk, Paul S Noakes, Philip C Calder
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to test whether yeast-derived β-1,3/1,6 glucan can prevent the occurrence or reduce the severity of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and modulate innate immune responses during winter months in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: This was a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of community-dwelling adults ages 50 to 70 y randomized to once-daily β-1,3/1,6 glucan (Wellmune 250 mg/d; n = 50) or identical placebo capsule (n = 50) over 90 d during winter...
July 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603117/anti-microbial-screening-and-cytotoxic-activity-of-aerial-part-of-thymelaea-hirsuta-l-essential-oil-growing-in-south-west-tunisia
#15
Samir Felhi, Mouna Chaaibia, Sana Bakari, Riadh Ben Mansour, Ahmed Békir, Néji Gharsallah, Adel Kadri
This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil isolated by the hydro-distillation of aerial parts of Thymelaea hirsuta. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated against eight bacterial and three fungal pathogenic strains. The results revealed that the essential oil exhibited a moderate-to-potent anti-microbial activity against all the microorganisms tested. Gram-positive bacteria were noted to be more sensitive to the oil than gram-negative bacteria and yeasts...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597394/invasive-candidiasis-in-brescia-italy-analysis-of-species-distribution-and-antifungal-susceptibilities-during-seven-years
#16
M A De Francesco, G Piccinelli, M Gelmi, F Gargiulo, G Ravizzola, G Pinsi, L Peroni, C Bonfanti, A Caruso
The aims of this study were to evaluate the epidemiology of nosocomial candidemia in a large teaching hospital in Brescia, Italy, and the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of isolates. We analyzed 196 isolates causing fungemia in patients admitted in our hospital, between January 2009 and December 2015. Strains were identified by VITEK 2 and MALDI-TOF MS. MICs were determined by Sensititre Yeast OneTM. The resistance was defined by using the revised CLSI breakpoints/epidemiological cutoff values to assign susceptibility or wild type to systemic antifungal agents...
June 8, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595777/disseminated-cryptococcus-deuterogattii-aflp6-vgii-infection-in-an-arabian-horse-from-dubai-united-arab-emirates
#17
Jörg Kinne, Marina Joseph, Ulrich Wernery, Nora Nogradi, Ferry Hagen
BACKGROUND: During the past decades there has been an increase in cryptococcal infections caused by the basidiomycetous yeast species Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato, among humans and animals that live in endemic regions in Australia, Europe and the Americas. Unlike human cryptococcosis, little epidemiological data are available about C. gattii sensu lato infections in horses. CASE REPORT: A fatal case of a disseminated C. gattii sensu lato infection in an 11-year-old Arabian gelding imported from South Africa into the United Arab Emitares is reported...
June 5, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595598/isolation-biochemical-and-molecular-identification-of-nocardia-species-among-tb-suspects-in-northeastern-tanzania-a-forgotten-or-neglected-threat
#18
Abubakar S Hoza, Sayoki G S Mfinanga, Irmgard Moser, Brigitte König
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary nocardiosis mimic pulmonary tuberculosis in most clinical and radiological manifestations. In Tanzania, where tuberculosis is one of the major public health threat clinical impact of nocardiosis as the cause of the human disease remains unknown. The objective of the present study was to isolate and identify Nocardia isolates recovered from TB suspects in Northeastern, Tanzania by using biochemical and molecular methods. METHODS: The study involved 744 sputum samples collected from 372 TB suspects from four periphery diagnostic centers in Northeastern, Tanzania...
June 8, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588043/heme-a-synthesis-and-c-c-o-activity-are-essential-for-trypanosoma-cruzi-infectivity-and-replication
#19
Marcelo Luciano Merli, Brenda Analía Cirulli, Simón Matías Menéndez-Bravo, Julia Alejandra Cricco
Trypanosoma cruzi , the causative agent of Chagas disease, presents a complex life cycle and adapts its metabolism to nutrients availability. Although T. cruzi is an aerobic organism, it does not produce heme. This cofactor is acquired from the host, and is distributed and inserted into different heme-proteins such as respiratory complexes in the parasite mitochondrion. It has been proposed that T. cruzi's energy metabolism relies on a branched respiratory chain with a cytochrome c oxidase type aa 3 (C c O) as the main terminal oxidase...
June 6, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584999/assessment-of-post-vaccination-phagocytic-activation-using-candida-albicans-killing-assays
#20
Wenqing Li, Yan Hu
Candida albicans is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen. It is now the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections and a great threat to the immuncompromised patients attributed to the disseminated candidiasis with the mortality up to 40%. Phagocytic cells are the first line of defense against Candida infections. Antibodies induced by vaccination can effectively enhance the capacities of phagocytosis and killing of neutrophils and macrophages. In this chapter, flow cytometric analysis (FACS) and killing assay by plate culture methods are introduced to evaluate the phagocytosis and killing of strains of Candida albicans opsonized with immune serum obtained from mice vaccinated with yeast and recombinant enolase...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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