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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934824/acid-fastness-of-histoplasma-in-surgical-pathology-practice
#1
Madhu Rajeshwari, Immaculata Xess, Mehar Chand Sharma, Deepali Jain
BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis (HP) is diagnosed by visualizing intracellular microorganisms in biopsy and/or culture. Periodic-acid Schiff (PAS) and Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) staining methods are routinely used for identification. The acid-fast property of Histoplasma was identified decades ago, but acid-fast staining has not been practiced in current surgical pathology. Awareness of the acid-fast property of Histoplasma, which is due to mycolic acid in the cell wall, is important in distinguishing Histoplasma from other infective microorganisms...
September 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934414/mrna-seq-reveals-accumulation-followed-by-reduction-of-small-nuclear-and-nucleolar-rnas-in-yeast-exposed-to-antiviral-ribavirin
#2
Siyu Xu, Naomichi Yamamoto
Ribavirin is an antiviral drug that is used to treat a wide range of human viral infections. However, the side effects are reported, and the mechanisms on eukaryotic cells are still largely unknown. Here we report our observation of accumulation followed by reduction of small nuclear (sn)RNAs and small nucleolar (sno)RNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to ribavirin. The three strains reported to contain dsRNA virus-like particle(s) were exposed to 100 μM of ribavirin, and snRNAs and snoRNAs from a total of 31 snR genes were differentially detected between the samples exposed to ribavirin and the respective negative controls by mRNA-Seq...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931690/conformational-changes-in-the-5-end-of-the-hiv-1-genome-dependent-on-the-debranching-enzyme-dbr1-during-early-stages-of-infection
#3
Alvaro E Galvis, Hugh E Fisher, Hung Fan, David Camerini
Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the RNA debranching enzyme (DBR1) is not required for early steps in HIV cDNA formation, but is necessary for synthesis of intermediate and late cDNA products. To further characterize this effect, we evaluated the topology of the 5' end of the HIV-1 RNA genome during early infection with and without inhibition of DBR1 synthesis. Cells were transfected with DBR1 shRNA followed 48 hours later by infection with an HIV-1 derived vector containing an RNase H deficient reverse transcriptase...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929638/interactions-of-wrky15-and-wrky33-transcription-factors-and-their-roles-in-the-resistance-of-oilseed-rape-to-sclerotinia-infection
#4
Fei Liu, Xiaoxia Li, Meirong Wang, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Jinxiong Shen, Chaozhi Ma, Tingdong Fu, Jinxing Tu
WRKY transcription factors are known to participate in the defense responses of higher plants. However, little is known about the roles of such proteins, especially regarding their functions in the resistance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes stem rot. In the present study, we identified BnWRKY33 as a S. sclerotiorum-responsive gene that positively regulates resistance to this pathogen by enhancing the expression of genes involved in camalexin synthesis and genes regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA)...
September 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928442/genome-wide-association-and-hla-region-fine-mapping-studies-identify-susceptibility-loci-for-multiple-common-infections
#5
Chao Tian, Bethann S Hromatka, Amy K Kiefer, Nicholas Eriksson, Suzanne M Noble, Joyce Y Tung, David A Hinds
Infectious diseases have a profound impact on our health and many studies suggest that host genetics play a major role in the pathogenesis of most of them. We perform 23 genome-wide association studies for common infections and infection-associated procedures, including chickenpox, shingles, cold sores, mononucleosis, mumps, hepatitis B, plantar warts, positive tuberculosis test results, strep throat, scarlet fever, pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, yeast infections, urinary tract infections, tonsillectomy, childhood ear infections, myringotomy, measles, hepatitis A, rheumatic fever, common colds, rubella and chronic sinus infection, in over 200,000 individuals of European ancestry...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927766/vulvovaginitis-presentation-of-more-common-problems-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-gynecology
#6
REVIEW
Meredith Loveless, Ohmar Myint
Vulvovaginitis is one of the most common gynecological complaints presenting in the pediatric and adolescent female. The common causes of vulvovaginitis in the pediatric patient differ than that considered in adolescent females. When a child present with vulvar itching, burning and irritation the most common etiology is non-specific and hygiene measures are recommended. However these symptoms can mimic more serious etiologies including infection, labial adhesion, lichen sclerosis, pinworms and foreign body must be considered...
September 5, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927765/recurrent-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#7
REVIEW
Freida Blostein, Elizabeth Levin-Sparenberg, Julian Wagner, Betsy Foxman
PURPOSE: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), multiple episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC; vaginal yeast infection) within a 12-month period, adversely affects quality of life, mental health, and sexual activity. Diagnosis is not straightforward, as VVC is defined by the combination of often nonspecific vaginal symptoms and the presence of yeast-which is a common vaginal commensal. Estimating the incidence and prevalence is challenging: most VVC is diagnosed and treated empirically, the availability for purchase of effective therapies over the counter enables self-diagnosis and treatment, and the duration of the relatively benign VVC symptoms is short, introducing errors into any estimates relying on medical records or patient recall...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923956/arabidopsis-m-6-a-demethylase-activity-modulates-viral-infection-of-a-plant-virus-and-the-m-6-a-abundance-in-its-genomic-rnas
#8
Mireya Martínez-Pérez, Frederic Aparicio, Maria Pilar López-Gresa, Jose María Bellés, Jesus A Sánchez-Navarro, Vicente Pallás
N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is an internal, reversible nucleotide modification that constitutes an important regulatory mechanism in RNA biology. Unlike mammals and yeast, no component of the m(6)A cellular machinery has been described in plants at present. m(6)A has been identified in the genomic RNAs of diverse mammalian viruses and, additionally, viral infection was found to be modulated by the abundance of m(6)A in viral RNAs. Here we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana protein atALKBH9B (At2g17970) is a demethylase that removes m(6)A from single-stranded RNA molecules in vitro...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922415/rewiring-monocyte-glucose-metabolism-via-c-type-lectin-signaling-protects-against-disseminated-candidiasis
#9
Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Rob J W Arts, Rob Ter Horst, Mark S Gresnigt, Sanne P Smeekens, Jacqueline M Ratter, Ekta Lachmandas, Lily Boutens, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Leo A B Joosten, Richard A Notebaart, Carlos Ardavín, Mihai G Netea
Monocytes are innate immune cells that play a pivotal role in antifungal immunity, but little is known regarding the cellular metabolic events that regulate their function during infection. Using complementary transcriptomic and immunological studies in human primary monocytes, we show that activation of monocytes by Candida albicans yeast and hyphae was accompanied by metabolic rewiring induced through C-type lectin-signaling pathways. We describe that the innate immune responses against Candida yeast are energy-demanding processes that lead to the mobilization of intracellular metabolite pools and require induction of glucose metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and glutaminolysis, while responses to hyphae primarily rely on glycolysis...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922057/the-dietary-food-components-capric-acid-and-caprylic-acid-inhibit-virulence-factors-in-candida-albicans-through-multitargeting
#10
Ashwini Jadhav, Supriya Mortale, Shivkrupa Halbandge, Priyanka Jangid, Rajendra Patil, Wasudev Gade, Kiran Kharat, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil
Capric acid and caprylic acid are the dietary food components. They are found to inhibit the virulence factors like morphogenesis, adhesion, and biofilm formation in the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Our study demonstrated that yeast-to-hyphal signal transduction pathways were affected by capric acid and caprylic acid. The expression profile of genes associated with serum-induced morphogenesis showed reduced expressions of Cdc35, Hwp1, Hst7, and Cph1 by the treatment with both the fatty acids. Cell elongation gene, Ece1, was surprisingly downregulated by 5208-fold by the treatment of caprylic acid...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915910/colonization-of-the-bovine-uterus-by-candida-kefyr
#11
Cecilia Christensen Karstrup, Bent Aalbæk, Kirstine Klitgaard, Tim Kåre Jensen, Hanne Gervi Pedersen, Jørgen Steen Agerholm
BACKGROUND: While fungal infections of the bovine uterus are well-known diseases in pregnant cattle, very limited knowledge exists on the presence and significance of fungi in the uterus of non-pregnant cows. Presence of fungi in the uterine lumen of postpartum (pp) cows has been reported, but little attention has been paid to this as most studies of the bovine pp uterus have focused on bacteria. CASE PRESENTATION: Microscopy of uterine lavage cytology slides of three cows from one herd revealed the presence of numerous yeast-like organisms, which were located either free in the fluid or within macrophages...
September 16, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915270/the-single-cyclic-nucleotide-specific-phosphodiesterase-of-the-intestinal-parasite-giardia-lamblia-represents-a-potential-drug-target
#12
Stefan Kunz, Vreni Balmer, Geert Jan Sterk, Michael P Pollastri, Rob Leurs, Norbert Müller, Andrew Hemphill, Cornelia Spycher
BACKGROUND: Giardiasis is an intestinal infection correlated with poverty and poor drinking water quality, and treatment options are limited. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Giardia infections afflict nearly 33% of people in developing countries, and 2% of the adult population in the developed world. This study describes the single cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) of G. lamblia and assesses PDE inhibitors as a new generation of anti-giardial drugs...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913896/a-novel-non-azole-topical-treatment-reduces-malassezia-numbers-and-associated-dermatitis-a-short-term-prospective-randomized-blinded-and-placebocontrolled-trial-in-naturally-infected-dogs
#13
Ylva Sjöström, Paul Mellor, Kerstin Bergvall
BACKGROUND: Malassezia yeast overgrowth on the skin is a common and often recurrent cause of dermatitis in dogs; it can be an exacerbating factor of atopic dermatitis. Anti-fungal drugs have been a standard treatment, but there is some concern that resistance may be evolving in a spectrum of Malassezia species. Safe, efficient and easy-to-use alternatives are needed. OBJECTIVES: To assess if a commercially available topical non-azole solution applied to paws affected by Malassezia-associated dermatitis (MAD), could ameliorate Malassezia numbers and associated signs over a short term (14 day) trial...
September 14, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913343/exacerbating-and-reversing-lysosomal-storage-diseases-from-yeast-to-humans
#14
REVIEW
Tamayanthi Rajakumar, Andrew B Munkacsi, Stephen L Sturley
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) arise from monogenic deficiencies in lysosomal proteins and pathways and are characterized by a tissue-wide accumulation of a vast variety of macromolecules, normally specific to each genetic lesion. Strategies for treatment of LSDs commonly depend on reduction of the offending metabolite(s) by substrate depletion or enzyme replacement. However, at least 44 of the ~50 LSDs are currently recalcitrant to intervention. Murine models have provided significant insights into our understanding of many LSD mechanisms; however, these systems do not readily permit phenotypic screening of compound libraries, or the establishment of genetic or gene-environment interaction networks...
August 25, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911843/the-effect-of-a-cannula-milk-sampling-technique-on-the-microbiological-diagnosis-of-bovine-mastitis
#15
M Friman, H Hiitiö, M Niemi, J Holopainen, S Pyörälä, H Simojoki
Two methods of collecting milk samples from mastitic bovine mammary quarters were compared. Samples were taken in a consistent order in which standard aseptic technique sampling was done first, followed by insertion of a sterile cannula through the teat canal and collection of a second sample. Microbiological results of those two sampling techniques were compared. Milk samples were analysed using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The cannula technique produced a reduced number of microbial species or groups of species per sample compared with conventional sampling...
August 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911037/a-biologically-conjugated-polysaccharide-vaccine-delivered-by-attenuated-salmonella-typhimurium-provides-protection-against-challenge-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-o1-infection
#16
Yue Han, Qing Liu, Jie Yi, Kang Liang, Yunan Wei, Qingke Kong
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes avian airsacculitis and colibacillosis, resulting in significant economic loss to the poultry industry. O1, O2 and O78 are the three predominant serotypes. O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide is serotype determinant and highly immunogenic, and O-antigen polysaccharide-based vaccines have great potential for preventing bacterial infections. In this study, we utilized a novel yeast/bacterial shuttle vector pSS26 to clone the 10.8 kb operon synthesizing APEC O1 O-antigen polysaccharide...
November 30, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904994/n-acetylglucosamine-metabolism-promotes-survival-of-candida-albicans-in-the-phagosome
#17
Elisa M Vesely, Robert B Williams, James B Konopka, Michael C Lorenz
Phagocytosis by innate immune cells is one of the most effective barriers against the multiplication and dissemination of microbes within the mammalian host. Candida albicans, a pathogenic yeast, has robust mechanisms that allow survival upon macrophage phagocytosis. C. albicans survives in part because it can utilize the alternative carbon sources available in the phagosome, including carboxylic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, metabolism of these compounds raises the pH of the extracellular environment, which combats the acidification and maturation of the phagolysosome...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904196/vaccinia-virus-encodes-a-novel-inhibitor-of-apoptosis-that-associates-with-the-apoptosome
#18
Melissa R Ryerson, Monique M Richards, Marc Kvansakul, Christine J Hawkins, Joanna L Shisler
Apoptosis is an important anti-viral host defense mechanism. Here we report the identification of a novel apoptosis inhibitor encoded by the vaccinia virus (VACV) M1L gene. M1L is absent in the attenuated MVA strain of VACV, a strain that stimulates apoptosis in several types of immune cells. M1 expression increased the viability of MVA-infected THP-1 and Jurkat cells and reduced several biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis such as PARP-1 and procaspase-3 cleavage. Furthermore, ectopic M1L expression decreased staurosporine-induced (intrinsic) apoptosis in HeLa cells...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902283/new-perspectives-on-the-nutritional-factors-influencing-growth-rate-of-candida-albicans-in-diabetics-an-in-vitro-study
#19
Adrian Man, Cristina Nicoleta Ciurea, Dan Pasaroiu, Ana-Ioana Savin, Felicia Toma, Floredana Sular, Luigi Santacroce, Anca Mare
BACKGROUND: The link between Candida albicans and diabetes mellitus is well-acknowledged, but incompletely elucidated. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to assess the growth rate of C. albicans (CA) in the presence of different concentrations of glucose and fructose, two of the main pathophysiologic and nutritionally relevant sugars in diabetic patients, in order to obtain a better understanding of the nutrient acquisition strategy and its possible relation to the hyperglycemic status of diabetic patients...
September 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902164/slbir3-negatively-regulates-pamp-responses-and-cell-death-in-tomato
#20
Shuhua Huang, Shuming Nie, Shufen Wang, Jianwei Liu, Yanfeng Zhang, Xiaofeng Wang
Bri1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1)-interacting receptor-like kinase (BIR) proteins have been shown to play important roles in regulating growth and development, pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) responses, and cell death in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified four BIR family members in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), including SlBIR3, an ortholog of AtBIR3 from A. thaliana. SlBIR3 is predicted to encode a membrane localized non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) kinase that, based on protein sequence, does not have autophosphorylation activity but that can be phosphorylated in vivo...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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