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Yeast infections

Benedikt Hacker, Christoph Schultheiß, Michael Döring, Ursula Kurzik-Dumke
This study provides first insights into the involvement of hNOT/ALG3, the human counterpart of the Drosophila NOT and yeast ALG3 gene, in various putative molecular networks. HNOT/ALG3 encodes two translated transcripts encoding precursor proteins differing in their N-terminus and showing 33% identity with the yeast asparagine-linked glycosylation 3 (ALG3) protein. Experimental evidence for the functional homology of the proteins of fly and man in the N-glycosylation has still to be provided. In this study, using the yeast two-hybrid technique we identify 17 molecular partners of hNOT-1/ALG3-1...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
T A Defosse, Y Le Govic, V Courdavault, M Clastre, P Vandeputte, D Chabasse, J-P Bouchara, N Giglioli-Guivarc'h, N Papon
Among the subdivision of Saccharomycotina (ascomycetes budding yeasts), the CTG clade (formerly the Candida clade) includes species that display a particular genetic code. In these yeasts, the CTG codon is predominantly translated as a serine instead of a leucine residue. It is now well-known that some CTG clade species have a major impact on human and its activities. Some of them are recognized as opportunistic agents of fungal infections termed candidiasis. In addition, another series of species belonging to the CTG clade draws the attention of some research groups because they exhibit a strong potential in various areas of biotechnology such as biological control, bioremediation, but also in the production of valuable biocompounds (biofuel, vitamins, sweeteners, industrial enzymes)...
March 12, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Amit Gaba, Lisanework E Ayalew, Amrutlal Patel, Pankaj Kumar, Suresh K Tikoo
Adenovirus protein VIII appears to connect core with the inner surface of the adenovirus capsid. Since protein- protein interactions are central to virus replication, identification of proteins interacting with protein VIII may help in understanding their role in adenovirus infection. Our yeast two hybrid assay indicated that protein VIII interacts with eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6). These findings were confirmed by GST-pull down assay, bimolecular fluorescent complementation assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay in plasmid DNA transfected and BAdV-3 infected cells...
March 15, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Xueping Yue, Aiping Wang, Qing Li
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in the direct diagnosis of suspected onychomycosis with negative mycological test results. Methods: Outpatients diagnosed with suspected onychomycosis with negative mycological test results, including direct microscopic examination with 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and fungal culture, on 3 separate occasions were recruited. A small piece of infected nail was obtained for SEM examination...
2018: Scanning
Sascha Suffner, Nadine Gerstenberg, Maria Patra, Paula Ruibal, Ahmed Orabi, Michael Schindler, Volker Bruss
During hepatitis B virus infections subviral particles (SVP) consisting only of viral envelope proteins and lipids are secreted. Heterologous expression of the small envelope protein S in mammalian cells is sufficient for SVP generation. S is synthesized as a transmembrane protein with N-terminal (TM1), central (TM2), and C-terminal (HCR) transmembrane domains. The loops between TM1 and TM2 (CL) and between TM2 and HCR (LL) are located in the cytosol and in the ER lumen, respectively. To define domains of S mediating oligomerization during SVP morphogenesis S mutants were characterized by expression in transiently transfected cells...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Sun-Ju Yi, Kyunghwan Kim
Chromatin is an intelligent building block that can express either external or internal needs through structural changes. To date, three methods to change chromatin structure and regulate gene expression have been well-documented: histone modification, histone exchange, and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling. Recently, a growing body of literature has suggested that histone tail cleavage is related to various cellular processes including stem cell differentiation, osteoclast differentiation, granulocyte differentiation, mammary gland differentiation, viral infection, aging, and yeast sporulation...
March 15, 2018: BMB Reports
Bart Theelen, Claudia Cafarchia, Georgios Gaitanis, Ioannis Dimitrios Bassukas, Teun Boekhout, Thomas L Dawson
Malassezia are lipid dependent basidiomycetous yeasts that inhabit the skin and mucosa of humans and other warm-blooded animals, and are a major component of the skin microbiome. They occur as skin commensals, but are also associated with various skin disorders and bloodstream infections. The genus currently comprises 17 species and has recently been assigned its own class, Malasseziomycetes. Importantly, multiple Malassezia species and/or genotypes may cause unique or similar pathologies and vary in their antifungal susceptibility...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Leandro Ferreira Moreno, Vania Aparecida Vicente, Sybren de Hoog
Black yeasts (BY) comprise a group of polyextremotolerant fungi, mainly belonging to the order Chaetothyriales, which are capable of colonizing a wide range of extreme environments. The tolerance to hostile habitats can be explained by their intrinsic ability to survive under acidic, alkaline, and toxic conditions, high temperature, low nutrient availability, and osmotic and mechanical stress. Occasionally, some species can cause human chromoblastomycosis, a chronic subcutaneous infection, as well as disseminated or cerebral phaeohyphomycosis...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Carsten Schwarz, Patrick Vandeputte, Amandine Rougeron, Sandrine Giraud, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Ludovic Duvaux, Amandine Gastebois, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Maria Teresa Martín-Gomez, Estrella Martin Mazuelos, Amparo Sole, Josep Cano, Javier Pemán, Guillermo Quindos, Françoise Botterel, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Sharon Chen, Laurence Delhaès, Loïc Favennec, Stéphane Ranque, Ludwig Sedlacek, Joerg Steinmann, Jose Vazquez, Craig Williams, Wieland Meyer, Solène Le Gal, Gilles Nevez, Maxime Fleury, Nicolas Papon, Françoise Symoens, Jean-Philippe Bouchara
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the major genetic inherited disease in Caucasian populations. The respiratory tract of CF patients displays a sticky viscous mucus, which allows for the entrapment of airborne bacteria and fungal spores and provides a suitable environment for growth of microorganisms, including numerous yeast and filamentous fungal species. As a consequence, respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this clinical context. Although bacteria remain the most common agents of these infections, fungal respiratory infections have emerged as an important cause of disease...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
H-L Lei, L-H Li, W-S Chen, W-N Song, Y He, F-Y Hu, X-J Chen, W-P Cai, X-P Tang
Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) can cause talaromycosis, a fatal systemic mycosis, in patients with AIDS. With the increasing number of talaromycosis cases in Guangdong, China, we aimed to investigate the susceptibility of 189 T. marneffei clinical strains to eight antifungal agents, including three echinocandins (anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin), four azoles (posaconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and fluconazole), and amphotericin B, with determining minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC) by Sensititre YeastOne™ YO10 assay in the yeast phase...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Stephen R Brand, Thorsten P Degenhardt, Karen Person, Jack D Sobel, Paul Nyirjesy, Robert J Schotzinger, Amir Tavakkol
BACKGROUND: Lanosterol demethylase (CYP51), is an enzyme essential for fungal growth, and catalyzes an early step in the biosynthetic pathway of ergosterol, a sterol required for fungal cell membrane formation and integrity. CYP51 is the molecular target of the class of drugs referred to as 'azole antifungals.' VT-1161 is a novel, oral, selective inhibitor of fungal CYP51, and is being developed for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of 4 dosing regimens of oral VT-1161 compared to placebo in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, defined as at least 3 symptomatic episodes of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis within a 12-month period...
March 10, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Joseph A McBride, Gregory M Gauthier, Bruce S Klein
This review article focuses on the mechanisms underlying temperature adaptation and virulence of the etiologic agents of blastomycosis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Blastomyces gilchristii, and Blastomyces percursus. In response to temperature, Blastomyces undergoes a reversible morphologic switch between hyphae and yeast known as the phase transition. The conversion to yeast for Blastomyces and related thermally dimorphic fungi is essential for virulence. In the yeast phase, Blastomyces upregulates the essential virulence factor, BAD1, which promotes attachment to host cells, impairs activation of immune cells, and blunts cytokine release...
March 13, 2018: Virulence
Nova Zairina Lubis, Kamaliah Muis, Lukmanul Hakim Nasution
BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of one or more units of the nail caused by dermatophytes, or mould and nondermatophytes yeast. Investigations are needed to establish the diagnosis of onychomycosis before starting treatment. Several investigations methods for diagnosing onychomycosis are microscopic examination with 20% KOH, fungal culture, histopathology examination with PAS staining (Periodic acid Schiff) and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is a method after PCR amplification allowing more specific results...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Marco Tasin, Sebastian Larsson Herrera, Alan L Knight, Wilson Barros-Parada, Eduardo Fuentes Contreras, Ilaria Pertot
Semiochemicals released by plant-microbe associations are used by herbivorous insects to access and evaluate food resources and oviposition sites. Adult insects may utilize microbial-derived nutrients to prolong their lifespan, promote egg development, and offer a high nutritional substrate to their offspring. Here, we examined the behavioral role of semiochemicals from grape-microbe interactions on oviposition and field attraction of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). The volatile constituents released by grape inoculated with yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum (Niehaus), Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Pitt...
March 10, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Regla M Medina-Gali, María Del Mar Ortega-Villaizán, Luis Mercado, Beatriz Novoa, Julio Coll, Luis Perez
The antiviral effects of beta-glucan, an immunostimulatory agent were studied in zebrafish both in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that zebrafish ZF4 cells as well as whole fish primed with yeast β-glucan zymosan exhibited increased cytokine expression and elevated response to spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) infection. In vitro, previous treatment of β-glucan enhanced ZF4 cell viability against SVCV infection which is associated to the activation of interferon signaling pathway and inflammatory cytokines gene expression...
March 7, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zhala Meran, Alexandros Besinis, Tracy De Peralta, Richard D Handy
Patients with facial prostheses suffer from yeast, Candida albicans, infections. This study aimed to determine the biocompatibility and antifungal properties of silicone facial prostheses coated with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in vitro. Medical grade silicone discs were coated with 5 and 50 mg L-1 dispersions of either Ag NPs or AgNO3 . Coatings were fully characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The biocompatibility was examined using human dermal fibroblasts (Hs68), whereas antifungal efficacy was tested against C...
April 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Sheila J Sestari, Wesley A Brito, Bruno J Neves, Celia M A Soares, Silvia M Salem-Izacc
A critical step in the lifecycle of many fungal pathogens is the ability to switch between filamentous and yeast growth, a process known as dimorphism. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) controls morphological changes and the pathogenicity of several animal and plant pathogenic fungi. In this work, we report the analysis of PKA activity during the mycelium to yeast transition in the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides lutzii. This fungus, as well as the closely related species Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, causes paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis that affects thousands of people in Latin America...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Enea Gino Di Domenico, Ilaria Cavallo, Maria Guembe, Grazia Prignano, Maria Teresa Gallo, Valentina Bordignon, Giovanna D'Agosto, Isabella Sperduti, Luigi Toma, Fabrizio Ensoli
Candida species are opportunistic pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases, ranging from skin and mucosal lesions to severe systemic, life-threatening infections. Candida albicans accounts for more than 70% of all Candida infections, however, the clinical relevance of other species such as Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei are being increasingly recognized. Biofilm-producing yeasts cells acquire an increased resistance to antifungal agents, often leading to therapeutic failure and chronic infection...
March 6, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Qin Xiao, Yongzhou Lu, Min Chen, Bo Chen, Yuming Yang, Daxiang Cui, Bo Pan, Nan Xu
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast. There is still little quick and effective solution for the diagnosis or treatment of C. neoformans infection at an early stage in clinical. Antibody-conjugated silica-modified gold nanorods (GNR-SiO2 -Ab) can conjugate C. neoformans selectively. It may provide a possibility for treatment of cryptococcosis safely and effectively. METHODS: Gold nanorods (GNRs) were synthesized according to the seed-mediated template-assisted protocol...
March 7, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Ahmad Mourad, John R Perfect
Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common central nervous system infection in the world today. It occurs primarily, but not exclusively, in immunocompromised individuals and despite substantial improvement in management of clinical events like AIDS, the numbers of cases of cryptococcosis remain very high. Unfortunately, despite several antifungal agents available for treatment, morbidity and mortality rates remain high with this fungal infection. In this Review, we will describe the treatments and strategies for success, identify the failures, and provide insights into the future developments / improvements for management...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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