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Chiara Fabbri, Joseph Zohar, Alessandro Serretti
The empirical approach to drug choice and dosing in depression often results into inadequate response and side effects. Pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing appears a promising way to implement personalized treatments. A systematic review was performed to identify available PGx tests, compare the genes they include with clinical guidelines and drug labels, and assess the quality of published clinical studies. ~40 commercial PGx tests are available and potential benefits were estimated for nine of them by clinical studies...
May 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Amy A Lemke, Christina G Hutten Selkirk, Nicole S Glaser, Annette W Sereika, Dyson T Wake, Peter J Hulick, Henry M Dunnenberger
AIM: To explore primary care physicians' views of the utility and delivery of direct access to pharmacogenomics (PGx) testing in a community health system. METHODS: This descriptive study assessed the perspectives of 15 healthcare providers utilizing qualitative individual interviews. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged: perceived value and utility of PGx testing; challenges to implementation in practice; and provider as well as patient needs...
September 2017: Personalized Medicine
Susanne B Haga, Ariel Kantor
Pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing involves the analysis of genes known to affect response to medications. The field has been projected as a leading application of personalized or precision medicine, but the use of PGx tests has been stymied, in part, by the lack of clinical evidence of utility and reported low provider awareness. Another factor is the availability of testing. The range and types of PGx tests available have not been assessed to date. In the period September 2017-January 2018 we analyzed the numbers and types of PGx tests offered by clinical testing laboratories in the US...
May 2018: Health Affairs
R Shimazawa, M Ikeda
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Many drug labels contain information on pharmacogenomic biomarkers (PGBMs), but the information is not necessarily actionable. Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB) aims to clarify the level of action for PGBMs (PGx levels) implied in each label as issued by the US Food and Drug Administration. We wished to evaluate the association between the PGx level for US and Japanese drug labels and the insurance coverage for PGBM testing or approval for in vitro diagnostics (IVDs) in each country...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Dominic Mitchell, Jason R Guertin, Anick Dubois, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Jean-Claude Tardif, Ange Christelle Iliza, Fiorella Fanton-Aita, Alexis Matteau, Jacques LeLorier
BACKGROUND: Statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) therapy is the mainstay dyslipidemia treatment and reduces the risk of a cardiovascular (CV) event (CVE) by up to 35%. However, adherence to statin therapy is poor. One reason patients discontinue statin therapy is musculoskeletal pain and the associated risk of rhabdomyolysis. Research is ongoing to develop a pharmacogenomics (PGx) test for statin-induced myopathy as an alternative to the current diagnosis method, which relies on creatine kinase levels...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Kevin T Bain, Emily J Schwartz, Orsula V Knowlton, Calvin H Knowlton, Jacques Turgeon
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of implementing a pharmacist-led pharmacogenomics (PGx) service for the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). SETTING: A national centralized pharmacy providing PGx services to community-based PACE centers. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: Individuals 55 years of age and older enrolled in PACE who underwent PGx testing as part of their medical care (n = 296). PRACTICE INNOVATION: Pharmacist-led PGx testing, interpreting, and consulting...
March 27, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Jian-Ping Zhang, Anil K Malhotra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pharmacogenomics (PGx) of antipsychotic drug response is an active area of research in the past few years. We reviewed recent PGx studies with an emphasis of development of new methodologies and new research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Traditional candidate gene approach continues to generate evidence to support the associations of antipsychotic response with genes coding for drug targets such as DRD2. Genome-wide association studies have found a few novel genes that may be associated with drug efficacy and adverse events...
March 27, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Nian Liu, Ricardo Couto, Bernhard Seifried, Paul Moquin, Luis Delgado, Feral Temelli
The physicochemical properties of the oat beta-glucan powder (BG) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)-loaded BG powder (L-BG) produced by the pressurized gas-expanded liquid (PGX) technology were studied. Helium ion microscope, differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffractometer, AutoSorb iQ and rheometer were used to determine the particle morphology, thermal properties, crystallinity, surface area and viscosity, respectively. Both BG (7.7μm) and L-BG (6.1μm) were produced as micrometer-scale particles, while CoQ10 nanoparticles (92nm) were adsorbed on the porous structure of L-BG...
April 2018: Food Research International
Mohammed A El-Missiry, Magda A ElKomy, Azza I Othman, Ali M AbouEl-Ezz
The present study investigated the neuroprotective role of punicalagin, a major polyphenolic compound of pomegranate on methionine-induced brain injury. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) was induced in two months old male BALB c mice by methionine supplementation in drinking water (1 g/kg body weight) for 30 days. Punicalagin (1 mg/kg) was injected i.p every other day concurrently with methionine. Punicalagin significantly prevented the rise in the levels of homocysteine, amyloid-β and TNF-α. HHcy is associated with a decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (PGx) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the brains of methionine-treated mice while these antioxidants are increased by punicalagin supplementation...
March 23, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Janan Arslan, Paul N Baird
Nonresponsiveness to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treatments has become a growing concern in ophthalmology. Disparity among publications that have assessed pharmacogenetic (PGx) connections between AMD disease genes and treatments has delayed the implementation of PGx testing in AMD. We assessed all AMD PGx publications to identify the degree of agreement for publications within similar ethnic cohorts and worldwide, and the causes for differences in study outcomes. There are no accepted genotype-phenotype correlations, either within similar ethnic cohorts or worldwide...
March 26, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
Victoria M Pratt, Andria L Del Tredici, Houda Hachad, Yuan Ji, Lisa V Kalman, Stuart A Scott, Karen E Weck
This document was developed by the Pharmacogenomics (PGx) Working Group of the Association for Molecular Pathology Clinical Practice Committee, whose aim is to recommend variants for inclusion in clinical pharmacogenomic testing panels. The goals of the Association for Molecular Pathology PGx Working Group are to define the key attributes of PGx alleles recommended for clinical testing and to define a minimum set of variants that should be included in clinical PGx genotyping assays. These recommendations include a minimum panel of variant alleles (tier 1) and an extended panel of variant alleles (tier 2) that will aid clinical laboratories when designing PGx assays...
May 2018: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
Julia M Barbarino, Michelle Whirl-Carrillo, Russ B Altman, Teri E Klein
As precision medicine becomes increasingly relevant in healthcare, the field of pharmacogenomics (PGx) also continues to gain prominence in the clinical setting. Leading institutions have begun to implement PGx testing and the amount of published PGx literature increases yearly. The Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB; is one of the foremost worldwide resources for PGx knowledge, and the organization has been adapting and refocusing its mission along with the current revolution in genomic medicine...
February 23, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Paul Cd Bank, Jesse J Swen, Henk-Jan Guchelaar
AIM: To benchmark knowledge and attitude of pharmacy students toward pharmacogenetics (PGx) and PGx testing and compare the results with practicing colleagues. METHODS: All pharmacy students in The Netherlands were invited to participate in a web-based survey consisting of 28 questions. Out of the 824 invited students, 148 individuals (18.0%) completed the questionnaire. All responders believed in the concept of PGx and had high expectations toward PGx. The majority (96...
March 2018: Pharmacogenomics
Amy A Lemke, Peter J Hulick, Dyson T Wake, Chi Wang, Annette W Sereika, Kristen Dilzell Yu, Nicole S Glaser, Henry M Dunnenberger
AIM: To assess patient perceptions and utilization of pharmacogenomics (PGx) testing in an integrated community health system. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients completed an online survey assessing their experiences with PGx testing offered through two methods: a designated PGx clinic or direct access in-home testing. RESULTS: The majority of participants perceived PGx testing as helpful in their healthcare and reported understanding their results...
March 2018: Pharmacogenomics
Simona Volpi, Carol J Bult, Rex L Chisholm, Patricia A Deverka, Geoffrey S Ginsburg, Howard J Jacob, Melpomeni Kasapi, Howard L McLeod, Dan M Roden, Marc S Williams, Eric D Green, Laura Lyman Rodriguez, Samuel Aronson, Larisa H Cavallari, Joshua C Denny, Lynn G Dressler, Julie A Johnson, Teri E Klein, J Steven Leeder, Micheline Piquette-Miller, Minoli Perera, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Heidi L Rehm, Marylyn D Ritchie, Todd C Skaar, Nikhil Wagle, Richard Weinshilboum, Kristin W Weitzel, Robert Wildin, John Wilson, Teri A Manolio, Mary V Relling
Response to a drug often differs widely among individual patients. This variability is frequently observed not only with respect to effective responses but also with adverse drug reactions. Matching patients to the drugs that are most likely to be effective and least likely to cause harm is the goal of effective therapeutics. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) holds the promise of precision medicine through elucidating the genetic determinants responsible for pharmacological outcomes and using them to guide drug selection and dosing...
May 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Kathrin Blagec, Rudolf Koopmann, Mandy Crommentuijn-van Rhenen, Inge Holsappel, Cathelijne H van der Wouden, Lidija Konta, Hong Xu, Daniela Steinberger, Enrico Just, Jesse J Swen, Henk-Jan Guchelaar, Matthias Samwald
Clinical pharmacogenomics (PGx) has the potential to make pharmacotherapy safer and more effective by utilizing genetic patient data for drug dosing and selection. However, widespread adoption of PGx depends on its successful integration into routine clinical care through clinical decision support tools, which is often hampered by insufficient or fragmented infrastructures. This paper describes the setup and implementation of a unique multimodal, multilingual clinical decision support intervention consisting of digital, paper-, and mobile-based tools that are deployed across implementation sites in seven European countries participating in the Ubiquitous PGx (U-PGx) project...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Chengxian Guo, Xinjian Lin, Jiye Yin, Xiaoxue Xie, Jingao Li, Xiangguang Meng, Jichu Wu, Lihua Huang, Zhijun Huang, Guoping Yang, Honghao Zhou, Xiang Chen
Patients exhibit a wide heterogeneity in their responses to a drug treatment due to variations in the molecular determinants underlying this heterogeneity. Pharmacogenomics approaches can be used to integrate information on drug responsiveness with alterations in molecular entities, often on a genome-wide scale. However, most of the studies involving pharmacogenomics of specific therapeutics are in their early stages and thus are not ready for clinical utilization. Genotyping studies tackle around a candidate gene approach using genes known to be important in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the administered drugs...
April 28, 2018: Cancer Letters
David Nana Ampong
Depression is the most common and leading devastating psychiatric illness that affects a majority of the world population. The treatment of depression has been a challenge for a majority of patients and healthcare practitioners. The advent of pharmacogenomics (PGx) empowered the Food and Drug Administration to approve some antidepressant biomarkers for PGx model of treatment. The PGx testing identifies whether an individual is a poor metabolizer, ultra/rapid metabolizer, intermediate metabolizer, or essential metabolizer of an antidepressants before prescription...
February 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
Laney K Jones, Alanna Kulchak Rahm, Michael R Gionfriddo, Janet L Williams, Audrey L Fan, Rebecca A Pulk, Eric A Wright, Marc S Williams
Increasingly, for a variety of indications, patients have their genomes sequenced and actionable results returned. A subset of returned results is pharmacogenomic (PGx) variants involved in the metabolism or action of medications. Although the impact of these variants on health is well-documented, little research exists on how to communicate these findings to patients and clinicians. We conducted semistructured interviews with end users to understand how best to communicate PGx results. Overall, patients and clinicians had similar opinions regarding report content, delivery, and application...
January 8, 2018: Clinical and Translational Science
Supatat Chumnumwat, Kong Yi, Aroonrut Lucksiri, Wichit Nosoongnoen, Busba Chindavijak, Suvatna Chulavatnatol, Ajjima Sarapakdi, Surakit Nathisuwan
AIM: This study was conducted to compare predictive accuracy of the available pharmacogenetics (PGx)-guided warfarin dosing algorithms derived from Caucasian, Asian, and mixed population to identify a suitable algorithm for Thai population. METHODS: Ten warfarin dosing algorithms derived from different population including Caucasian, East Asian, South-East Asian, and mixed races were selected and tested with clinical and genetic data of Thai patients. Comparative performances of these algorithms were tested using mean dose error (MDE) between actual warfarin maintenance dose (AWMD) and predicted dose generated by each dosing algorithm, and percentage of ideal dose prediction (IDP)...
April 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
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