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hepatitis b vaccine cytokine

Bahaa Abu-Raya, Tobias R Kollmann, Arnaud Marchant, Duncan M MacGillivray
Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Petra Zieglmayer, Margarete Focke-Tejkl, René Schmutz, Patrick Lemell, René Zieglmayer, Milena Weber, Renata Kiss, Katharina Blatt, Peter Valent, Frank Stolz, Hans Huber, Angela Neubauer, Anette Knoll, Friedrich Horak, Rainer Henning, Rudolf Valenta
BACKGROUND: We have developed a recombinant B cell epitope-based vaccine (BM32) for allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) of grass pollen allergy. The vaccine contains recombinant fusion proteins consisting of allergen-derived peptides and the hepatitis B surface protein domain preS as immunological carrier. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled AIT study to determine safety, clinical efficacy and immunological mechanism of three subcutaneous injections of three BM32 doses adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide versus aluminum hydroxide (placebo) applied monthly to grass pollen allergic patients (n=70)...
September 2016: EBioMedicine
Nobuyasu Yukimasa, Shoichi Sato, Wataru Oboshi, Toru Watanabe, Ryuichi Uzawa
Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination is one of the most efficient tools to prevent the transmission of the virus. Considerable variability exists in HB vaccine responses, with 5-10% of healthy Japanese adults demonstrating no response following a standard vaccination. Recently, polymorphisms of immune-regulatory genes, such as cytokine genes, have been reported to influence the immune response to HB vaccine. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the genetic association between several cytokine gene polymorphisms and the immune response to HB vaccination in a Japanese population...
2016: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
E Keoshkerian, M Hunter, B Cameron, N Nguyen, P Sugden, R Bull, A Zekry, L Maher, N Seddiki, J Zaunders, A Kelleher, A R Lloyd
Clearance of primary hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with strong and broadly targeted cellular immune responses. This study aimed to characterize HCV-specific CD4+ effector and regulatory T-cell numbers and cytokine production during primary infection. Antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell responses were investigated in a longitudinal cohort of subjects from pre-infection to postoutcome, including subjects who cleared [n=12] or became chronically infected [n=17]. A cross-sectional cohort with previously cleared, or chronic infection [n=15 for each], was also studied...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Cassandra M Berry
Type I and III interferons (IFNs) of the innate immune system belong to a polygenic family, however the individual subtype mediators of the antiviral response in viral infections have been hindered by a lack of reagents. Evaluation studies using different IFN subtypes have distinguished distinct protein properties with different efficacies towards different viruses, opening promising avenues for immunotherapy. This review largely focuses on the application of IFN-α/β and IFN-λ therapies for viral infections, influenza, herpes, HIV and hepatitis...
October 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
F Zhang, S P Wang, X H Shi, X F Wang, Y Gao, J Guo, L R Zhang, T Wang, H X Wen, X X Xu, Z Q Yang, B Wang, B Wang, S Y Feng
OBJECTIVE: A prospective study was conducted to explore the influence of neonatal modes of HBV marker (HBVM) on non-/hypo-response to hepatitis B vaccine in infants. METHODS: From July 2011 to July 2013, a total of 386 pregnant women who showed serum HBsAg positive with their neonates at birth and another 227 infants at 12 months admitted in the Third People' s Hospital of Taiyuan in Shanxi province, China. All infants received hepatitis B vaccine with the 0-1-6 month schedule...
August 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Kantrol Kumar Sahu, Ravi Shankar Pandey
Hepatitis B is one of the leading liver diseases and remains a major global health problem. Currently available vaccines provide protection but often results in weaker/minimal mucosal immunity. Thus the present study is devoted to the development and in-vivo exploration of the colonically delivered biomimetic nanoparticles which capably enhance humoral as well as cellular immune response. In present work, Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) entrapped nanoparticles containing Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) (HB+L-NP) were prepared by solvent evaporation method and characterized for particle size (~210nm), shape, zeta potential (-24mV±0...
October 2016: International Immunopharmacology
H Dele Davies
Biologic response modifiers (BRMs) are substances that interact with and modify the host immune system. BRMs that dampen the immune system are used to treat conditions such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, or inflammatory bowel disease and often in combination with other immunosuppressive agents, such as methotrexate and corticosteroids. Cytokines that are targeted include tumor necrosis factor α; interleukins (ILs) 6, 12, and 23; and the receptors for IL-1α (IL-1A) and IL-1β (IL-1B) as well as other molecules...
August 2016: Pediatrics
Vikram Mehraj, Rosalie Ponte, Jean-Pierre Routy
UNLABELLED: Interleukin 33 (IL-33), a member of the IL-1 family, is constitutively expressed in epithelial and in endothelial cells at barrier sites, acting as a danger signal and adjuvanting the immune response following tissue damage and infection. Originally implicated in allergy, IL-33 is also known to be involved in innate and adaptive immune responses by enhancing natural killer, Th1, and CD4 and CD8 T-cell functions. The nature of the antiviral immune response orchestrated by IL-33 depends on the site of infection, the duration of the disease and the cytokine milieu...
July 2016: EBioMedicine
Zhi-Qiang Zou, Li Wang, Kai Wang, Ji-Guang Yu
Approximately 400 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) globally despite the widespread immunization of HBV vaccine and the development of antiviral therapies. The immunopathogenesis of HBV infection is initiated and driven by complexed interactions between the host immune system and the virus. Host immune responses to viral particles and proteins are regarded as the main determinants of viral clearance or persistent infection and hepatocyte injury. Innate immune system is the first defending line of host preventing from virus invasion...
June 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Anna U Bielinska, Jessica J O'Konek, Katarzyna W Janczak, James R Baker
TH2-biased immune responses are associated with inadequate protection against some pathogens and with cancer, colitis, asthma and allergy. Since most currently used vaccine adjuvants induce a TH2-biased response, this has led to interest in developing adjuvants capable of activating TH1 immunity and modulating existing TH2 responses. Immunotherapies to shift immune responses from TH2 to TH1 have generally required prolonged immunization protocols and have not induced effective TH1 responses. We have demonstrated that nanoscale emulsions (NE), a novel mucosal adjuvant, induce robust IgA and IgG antibody responses and TH1/TH17 cellular immunity resulting in protection against a variety of respiratory and mucosal infections...
July 25, 2016: Vaccine
Lori Garman, Kenneth Smith, Emily E Muns, Cathy A Velte, Christina E Spooner, Melissa E Munroe, A Darise Farris, Michael R Nelson, Renata J M Engler, Judith A James
Although the U.S. National Academy of Sciences concluded that anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) has an adverse event (AE) profile similar to those of other adult vaccines, 30 to 70% of queried AVA vaccinees report AEs. AEs appear to be correlated with certain demographic factors, but the underlying immunologic pathways are poorly understood. We evaluated a cohort of 2,421 AVA vaccinees and found 153 (6.3%) reported an AE. Females were more likely to experience AEs (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 4...
August 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Lei Qiao, Yuan Zhang, Feng Chai, Yiluo Tan, Chunling Huo, Zishu Pan
To investigate the feasibility and efficacy of a virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine composed of the conserved antigenic epitopes of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the chimeric RSV VLPs HBcΔ-tG and HBcΔ-tG/M282-90 were generated based on the truncated hepatitis B virus core protein (HBcΔ). HBcΔ-tG consisted of HBcΔ, the conserved region (aa 144-204) of the RSV G protein. HBcΔ-tG was combined with a single peptide (aa 82-90) of the M2 protein to generate HBcΔ-tG/M282-90. Immunization of mice with the HBcΔ-tG or HBcΔ-tG/M282-90 VLPs elicited RSV-specific IgG and neutralizing antibody production and conferred protection against RSV infection...
July 2016: Antiviral Research
Ding Yuan, Qin Yuan, Qianqian Cui, Chaoqi Liu, Zhiyong Zhou, Haixia Zhao, Yaoyan Dun, Ting Wang, Changcheng Zhang
The adjuvant effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on immune responses against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in mice was investigated. Female BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected with saline or HBsAg antigen with or without Rg1 on days 7 and 21. Samples were collected 2 weeks after the boosting for the detection of anti-HBsAg immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes in sera and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) produced in splenocytes. The innate and adaptive immune responses were measured in mice immunized as described above...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
David Durantel, Fabien Zoulim
Current therapies of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remain limited to pegylated-interferon-alpha (PegIFN-α) or any of the five approved nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUC) treatments. While viral suppression can be achieved in the majority of patients with the high-barrier-to-resistance new-generation of NUC, i.e. entecavir and tenofovir, HBsAg loss is achieved by PegIFN-α and/or NUC in only 10% of patients, after a 5-year follow-up. Attempts to improve the response by administering two different NUC or a combination of NUC and PegIFN-α have not provided a dramatic increase in the rate of functional cure...
April 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Brenna C Simons, Philip R Spradling, Dana J T Bruden, Carolyn Zanis, Samantha Case, Tammy L Choromanski, Minjun Apodaca, Hazel D Brogdon, Gaelen Dwyer, Mary Snowball, Susan Negus, Michael G Bruce, Chihiro Morishima, Cindy Knall, Brian J McMahon
BACKGROUND: Long-lasting protection resulting from hepatitis B vaccine, despite loss of antibody against hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (anti-HBs), is undetermined. METHODS: We recruited persons from a cohort vaccinated with plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine in 1981 who have been followed periodically since. We performed serological testing for anti-HBs and microRNA-155 and assessed HBV-specific T-cell responses by enzyme-linked immunospot and cytometric bead array...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mehdi Mahdavi, Faranak Mavandadnejad, Mohammad H Yazdi, Elnaz Faghfuri, Hura Hashemi, Somayeh Homayouni-Oreh, Ramin Farhoudi, Ahmad R Shahverdi
: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is known as a life-threatening liver infection and leads to chronic liver disease if left untreated. Nevertheless, the prevalence of HBV infection has been reduced by an approved vaccination approach using recombinant Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and Alum, known as the HBV vaccine. Alum can be used as an adjuvant to increase HBsAg immunogenicity as a strong Th2 stimulator. There is a vital need to stimulate Th1 immunity by HBsAg vaccination; however, the present vaccine does not induce a prophylactic immune response in some groups...
March 22, 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Forough Golsaz-Shirazi, Fazel Shokri
Worldwide there are over 248 million chronic carriers of HBV of whom about a third eventually develop severe HBV-related complications. Due to the major limitations of current therapeutic approaches, the development of more effective strategies to improve therapeutic outcomes in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients seems crucial. Immune activation plays a critical role in spontaneous viral control; therefore, new modalities based on stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses could result in the resolution of infection and are promising approaches...
2016: Immunotherapy
Alessandra Ricciardi, Kittipos Visitsunthorn, John P Dalton, Momar Ndao
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is the most important human helminth infection due to its impact on public health. The clinical manifestations are chronic and significantly decrease an individual's quality of life. Infected individuals suffer from long-term organ pathologies including fibrosis which eventually leads to organ failure. The development of a vaccine against this parasitic disease would contribute to a long-lasting decrease in disease spectrum and transmission. METHOD: Our group has chosen Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) cathepsin B, a peptidase involved in parasite feeding, as a prospective vaccine candidate...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Nahed A Makhlouf, Ahlam M Farghaly, Saad Zaky, Hebat-Alla G Rashed, Nagla H Abu Faddan, Douaa Sayed, Omnia El-Badawy, Noha Afifi, Wafaa S Hamza, Yousseria El-Sayed
Anti-HBs levels wanes with time. Many studies discussed the B cell response to HBV vaccine. However, the data about memory T cell response are limited. To evaluate the efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine via evaluating anti-HBs levels and HBsAg specific memory T-lymphocytes through descriptive study. The study was conducted in a tertiary care setting. This study included 440 vaccinated persons during infancy. Group I: 6 to less than 10 years old; Group II: 10 to less than 14 years old; Group III: 14 to less than 17 years old; Group IV: 17 years old...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
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