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COPD,fibrosis,asthma,lung cancer

Elizabeth A Oczypok, Timothy N Perkins, Tim D Oury
The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a pro-inflammatory pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory diseases. It was discovered in 1992 on endothelial cells and was named for its ability to bind advanced glycation endproducts and promote vascular inflammation in the vessels of patients with diabetes. Further studies revealed that RAGE is most highly expressed in lung tissue and spurred numerous explorations into RAGE's role in the lung...
March 18, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Hang Cheng, Chengyan Jin, Jing Wu, Shan Zhu, Yong-Jun Liu, Jingtao Chen
The lung is an important open organ and the primary site of respiration. Many life-threatening diseases develop in the lung, e.g., pneumonia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs), pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. In the lung, innate immunity serves as the frontline in both anti-irritant response and anti-tumor defense and is also critical for mucosal homeostasis; thus, it plays an important role in containing these pulmonary diseases. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), characterized by their strict tissue residence and distinct function in the mucosa, are attracting increased attention in innate immunity...
March 7, 2017: Protein & Cell
Shiho Rose, Christine Paul, Allison Boyes, Brian Kelly, Della Roach
The stigma of non-communicable respiratory diseases (NCRDs), whether perceived or otherwise, can be an important element of a patient's experience of his/her illness and a contributing factor to poor psychosocial, treatment and clinical outcomes. This systematic review examines the evidence regarding the associations between stigma-related experiences and patient outcomes, comparing findings across a range of common NCRDs. Electronic databases and manual searches were conducted to identify original quantitative research published to December 2015...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Icíar P López, Sergio Piñeiro-Hermida, Rosete S Pais, Raquel Torrens, Andreas Hoeflich, José G Pichel
Regeneration of lung epithelium is vital for maintaining airway function and integrity. An imbalance between epithelial damage and repair is at the basis of numerous chronic lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factors) signaling has been associated with most of these respiratory pathologies, although their mechanisms of action in this tissue remain poorly understood. Expression profiles analyses of IGF system genes performed in mouse lung support their functional implication in pulmonary ontogeny...
2016: PloS One
Arun V Kolanjiyil, Clement Kleinstreuer, Ruxana T Sadikot
Pulmonary drug delivery is becoming a favored route for administering drugs to treat both lung and systemic diseases. Examples of lung diseases include asthma, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis. Special respiratory drugs are administered to the lungs, using an appropriate inhaler device. Next to the pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI), the dry powder inhaler (DPI) is a frequently used device because of the good drug stability and a minimal need for patient coordination...
November 3, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Sharon L I Wong, Maria B Sukkar
The SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) protein is matricellular molecule regulating interactions between cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). This protein thus governs fundamental cellular functions such as cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. SPARC also regulates the expression and activity of numerous growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases essential for ECM degradation and turnover. Studies in SPARC-null mice have revealed a critical role for SPARC in tissue development, injury and repair and in the regulation of the immune response...
January 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
Dandan Zong, Ruoyun Ouyang, Jinhua Li, Yan Chen, Ping Chen
Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved cell-cell communication mechanism that plays a key role in lung homeostasis, injury and repair. The loss of regulation of Notch signaling, especially Notch1 and Notch3, has recently been linked to the pathogenesis of important lung diseases, in particular, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), lung cancer and lung lesions in some congenital diseases. This review focuses on recent advances related to the mechanisms and the consequences of aberrant or absent Notch1/3 activity in the initiation and progression of lung diseases...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
Gisele P Oliveira, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia R M Rocco
Several respiratory diseases feature increased inflammatory response and catabolic activity, which are associated with glutamine depletion; thus, the benefits of exogenous glutamine administration have been evaluated in clinical trials and models of different respiratory diseases. Recent reviews and meta-analyses have focused on the effects and mechanisms of action of glutamine in a general population of critical care patients or in different models of injury. However, little information is available about the role of glutamine in respiratory diseases...
February 4, 2016: Nutrients
Carlos I Falcon-Rodriguez, Alvaro R Osornio-Vargas, Isabel Sada-Ovalle, Patricia Segura-Medina
Urban air pollution is a serious worldwide problem due to its impact on human health. In the past 60 years, growing evidence established a correlation between exposure to air pollutants and the developing of severe respiratory diseases. Recently particulate matter (PM) is drawing more public attention to various aspects including historical backgrounds, physicochemical characteristics, and its pathological role. Therefore, this review is focused on these aspects. The most famous air pollution disaster happened in London on December 1952; it has been calculated that more than 4,000 deaths occurred during this event...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Ammar Ebrahimi, Esmaeil Sadroddiny
Lung diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide and effective therapies are imperfect. Nonetheless, recently some novel strategies have been developed to treat and curtail their debilitating impact. Some of the treatments include the role of MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in stemming the spread of lung morbidities. Micro RNAs are small non-coding RNAs which are known as important players in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression in mammalian cells by regulating translation...
October 2015: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Efstathia M Konstantinidi, Andreas S Lappas, Anna S Tzortzi, Panagiotis K Behrakis
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. METHODS: We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC), biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and drugs...
2015: TheScientificWorldJournal
Yong-Hua Xing, Jun-Ling Zhang, Lu Lu, De-Guan Li, Yue-Ying Wang, Song Huang, Cheng-Cheng Li, Zhu-Bo Zhang, Jian-Guo Li, Guo-Shun Xu, Ai-Min Meng
BACKGROUND: Exposure to cigarette may affect human health and increase risk of a wide range of diseases including pulmonary diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, lung fibrosis and lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis induced by cigarettes still remain obscure even with extensive studies. With systemic view, we attempted to identify the specific gene modules that might relate to injury caused by cigarette smoke and identify hub genes for potential therapeutic targets or biomarkers from specific gene modules...
2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Zhigang Jin, Jin Wei Chung, Wenyan Mei, Stefan Strack, Chunyan He, Gee W Lau, Jing Yang
Recent genome-wide association studies reveal that the FAM13A gene is associated with human lung function and a variety of lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, lung cancer, and pulmonary fibrosis. The biological functions of Fam13a, however, have not been studied. In an effort to identify novel substrates of B56-containing PP2As, we found that B56-containing PP2As and Akt act antagonistically to control reversible phosphorylation of Fam13a on Ser-322. We show that Ser-322 phosphorylation acts as a molecular switch to control the subcellular distribution of Fam13a...
March 15, 2015: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Venkatachalem Sathish, Yvette N Martin, Y S Prakash
There is increasing recognition that sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone) have biological and pathophysiological actions in peripheral, non-reproductive organs, including the lung. Clinically, sex differences in the incidence, morbidity and mortality of lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer and pulmonary hypertension have been noted, although intrinsic sex differences vs. the roles of sex steroids are still not well-understood...
June 2015: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Christian R Osadnik, Fernanda M M Rodrigues, Carlos A Camillo, Matthias Loeckx, Wim Janssens, Christophe Dooms, Thierry Troosters
Skeletal muscle dysfunction and physical inactivity are two clinically important features of a wide range of acute and chronic respiratory conditions. Optimisation of both of these features is important in order to improve physical function, prevent clinical deterioration and maximise community participation. One of the most potent and evidence-based interventions to address these physical deficits is pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Whilst the majority of PR research has been conducted in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there is widespread recognition that PR can benefit many other respiratory patient groups...
2015: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Enrico Conte, Evelina Fagone, Mary Fruciano, Elisa Gili, Maria Iemmolo, Carlo Vancheri
Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic molecule with several biological activities, is a well recognized anti-oxidant, anti-aging and cancer chemopreventive agent. Moreover, resveratrol anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic properties have been demonstrated both in vitro and in different animal models of inflammatory pathologies, including bowel and liver diseases. We review the evidence of resveratrol protective role in respiratory diseases such as acute lung injury, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung fibrosis...
May 2015: Histology and Histopathology
Alina Croitoru, Miron Alexandru Bogdan
Pulmonary rehabilitation represents a modern therapeutic approach of respiratory diseases, with a multidisciplinary character, including: physical training, therapeutic education, psychosocial counseling, and nutritional approach. Pulmonary rehabilitation addresses to any patient suffering from pulmonary pathology whose quality of life is affected by the respiratory symptoms, regardless of the degree of functional impairment. This article is an analysis of evidences from the medical literature on outcomes of rehabilitation programs conducted in various lung diseases...
April 2014: Pneumologia: Revista Societății Române de Pneumologie
Matthias C Kugler, Alexandra L Joyner, Cynthia A Loomis, John S Munger
Over the past two decades, the secreted protein sonic hedgehog (SHH) has emerged as a critical morphogen during embryonic lung development, regulating the interaction between epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations in the airway and alveolar compartments. There is increasing evidence that the SHH pathway is active in adult lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer, which raises two questions: (1) What role does SHH signaling play in these diseases? and (2) Is it a primary driver of the disease or a response (perhaps beneficial) to the primary disturbance? In this review we aim to fill the gap between the well-studied period of embryonic lung development and the adult diseased lung by reviewing the hedgehog (HH) pathway during the postnatal period and in adult uninjured and injured lungs...
January 2015: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Richard Booton, Mark A Lindsay
The advent of techniques such as microarrays and high-throughput sequencing has revolutionized our ability to examine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression within the respiratory system. Importantly, these approaches have also uncovered the widespread expression of "noncoding RNAs," including microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, which impact biologic responses through the regulation of mRNA transcription and/or translation. To date, most studies of the role of noncoding RNAs have focused on microRNAs, which regulate mRNA translation via the RNA interference pathway...
July 2014: Chest
Piotr Albrecht, Adam Antczak, Waleria Hryniewicz, Anna Skoczyńska, Andrzej Radzikowski, Kornelia Kedziora-Kornatowska, Ewa Bernatowska, Tomasz Stompór, Tomasz Grodzicki, Ewa Gyrczuk, Jacek Imiela, Wiesław Jedrzejczak, Adam Windak
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a main cause of mortality associated with pneumococcal infections. Although, IPD is regarding mainly small children and persons in the age > 65 years, the investigations showed that because of IPD exactly sick persons are burdened with the greatest mortality in the older age, rather than of children. The most frequent form of IPD is community acquired pneumonia (CAP) with the bacteremia. The presence of even a single additional risk factor is increasing the probability of the unfavorable descent of pneumococcal infection...
February 2014: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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