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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589333/effect-of-response-format-on-cognitive-reflection-validating-a-two-and-four-option-multiple-choice-question-version-of-the-cognitive-reflection-test
#1
Miroslav Sirota, Marie Juanchich
The Cognitive Reflection Test, measuring intuition inhibition and cognitive reflection, has become extremely popular because it reliably predicts reasoning performance, decision-making, and beliefs. Across studies, the response format of CRT items sometimes differs, based on the assumed construct equivalence of tests with open-ended versus multiple-choice items (the equivalence hypothesis). Evidence and theoretical reasons, however, suggest that the cognitive processes measured by these response formats and their associated performances might differ (the nonequivalence hypothesis)...
March 27, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504681/hiding-in-plain-sight-jung-astrology-and-the-psychology-of-the-unconscious
#2
Stephanie Buck
Astrology was a lifelong interest for C.G. Jung and an important aid in his formulation of psyche and psychic process. Archetypally configured, astrology provided Jung an objective means to a fuller understanding of the analysand's true nature and unique individuation journey. Jung credits astrology with helping to unlock the mystery of alchemy and in so doing providing the symbol language necessary for deciphering the historically remote cosmology of Gnosticism. Astrology also aided Jung's work on synchronicity...
April 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441821/to-be-immortal-do-good-or-evil
#3
Kurt Gray, Stephen Anderson, Cameron M Doyle, Neil Hester, Peter Schmitt, Andrew J Vonasch, Scott T Allison, Joshua C Jackson
Many people believe in immortality, but who is perceived to live on and how exactly do they live on? Seven studies reveal that good- and evil-doers are perceived to possess more immortality-albeit different kinds. Good-doers have "transcendent" immortality, with their souls persisting beyond space and time; evil-doers have "trapped" immortality, with their souls persisting on Earth, bound to a physical location. Studies 1 to 4 reveal bidirectional links between perceptions of morality and type of immortality...
February 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434562/latent-profile-analysis-of-schizotypy-and-paranormal-belief-associations-with-probabilistic-reasoning-performance
#4
Andrew Denovan, Neil Dagnall, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker
This study assessed the extent to which within-individual variation in schizotypy and paranormal belief influenced performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks. A convenience sample of 725 non-clinical adults completed measures assessing schizotypy (Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences; O-Life brief), belief in the paranormal (Revised Paranormal Belief Scale; RPBS) and probabilistic reasoning (perception of randomness, conjunction fallacy, paranormal perception of randomness, and paranormal conjunction fallacy)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402179/the-moderating-effect-of-mental-toughness-perception-of-risk-and-belief-in-the-paranormal
#5
Kenneth Drinkwater, Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Andrew Parker
This research demonstrates that higher levels of mental toughness provide cognitive-perceptual processing advantages when evaluating risk. No previous research, however, has examined mental toughness in relation to perception of risk and paranormal belief (a variable associated with distorted perception of causality and elevated levels of perceived risk). Accordingly, the present paper investigated relationships between these factors. A sample of 174 participants completed self-report measures assessing mental toughness, general perception of risk, and paranormal belief...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385184/a-short-educational-intervention-diminishes-causal-illusions-and-specific-paranormal-beliefs-in-undergraduates
#6
Itxaso Barberia, Elisabet Tubau, Helena Matute, Javier Rodríguez-Ferreiro
Cognitive biases such as causal illusions have been related to paranormal and pseudoscientific beliefs and, thus, pose a real threat to the development of adequate critical thinking abilities. We aimed to reduce causal illusions in undergraduates by means of an educational intervention combining training-in-bias and training-in-rules techniques. First, participants directly experienced situations that tend to induce the Barnum effect and the confirmation bias. Thereafter, these effects were explained and examples of their influence over everyday life were provided...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379631/validation-of-the-paranormal-health-beliefs-scale-for-adults
#7
Anna Rosa Donizzetti, Giovanna Petrillo
We present the validation study of the Paranormal Health Beliefs Scale adult version, aimed to measure illusory beliefs about health. The scale was administered to 643 participants (54.3% females), having an average age of 29.7 years (standard deviation = 18.31). The results of the analyses confirmed the dimensions of the Paranormal Health Beliefs Scale as developed in the previous adolescent study (Beliefs: Religious, Superstitious, in Extraordinary Events, Parapsychological, and Pseudo-scientific of a biomedical nature), as well as the convergent and discriminant validity through the correlation with other constructs (locus of control and self-efficacy)...
July 2017: Health Psychology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314029/c-g-jung-and-intuition-from-the-mindscape-of-the-paranormal-to-the-heart-of-psychology
#8
Nathalie Pilard
Intuition is central in the work, practice, and philosophical legacy of C. G. Jung. In this paper, I will first discuss the importance of intuition for Jung in the paradigm usually designated the 'paranormal'. Jung was attracted to intuition as an extra-ordinary gift or function in the traditional sense, and this is considered here in relation to his 1896-1899 Zofingia Lectures and 1902 On the Psychology and Pathology of So-called Occult Phenomena: A Psychiatric Study. A significant development then occurred in 1913, when esotericist intuitions were turned toward psychological use with Jung's Red Book...
February 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032111/paranormal-belief-and-errors-of-probabilistic-reasoning-the-role-of-constituent-conditional-relatedness-in-believers-susceptibility-to-the-conjunction-fallacy
#9
Paul Rogers, John E Fisk, Emma Lowrie
The present study examines the extent to which stronger belief in either extrasensory perception, psychokinesis or life-after-death is associated with a proneness to making conjunction errors (CEs). One hundred and sixty members of the UK public read eight hypothetical scenarios and for each estimated the likelihood that two constituent events alone plus their conjunction would occur. The impact of paranormal belief plus constituents' conditional relatedness type, estimates of the subjectively less likely and more likely constituents plus relevant interaction terms tested via three Generalized Linear Mixed Models...
October 12, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018398/an-assessment-of-the-dimensionality-and-factorial-structure-of-the-revised-paranormal-belief-scale
#10
Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Denovan, Neil Dagnall, Andrew Parker
Since its introduction, the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) has developed into a principal measure of belief in the paranormal. Accordingly, the RPBS regularly appears within parapsychological research. Despite common usage, academic debates continue to focus on the factorial structure of the RPBS and its psychometric integrity. Using an aggregated heterogeneous sample ( N = 3,764), the present study tested the fit of 10 factorial models encompassing variants of the most commonly proposed solutions (seven, five, two, and one-factor) plus new bifactor alternatives...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964712/strange-face-illusions-during-interpersonal-gazing-and-personality-differences-of-spirituality
#11
Giovanni B Caputo
Strange-face illusions are produced when two individuals gaze at each other in the eyes in low illumination for more than a few minutes. Usually, the members of the dyad perceive numinous apparitions, like the other's face deformations and perception of a stranger or a monster in place of the other, and feel a short lasting dissociation. In the present experiment, the influence of the spirituality personality trait on strength and number of strange-face illusions was investigated. Thirty participants were preliminarily tested for superstition (Paranormal Belief Scale, PBS) and spirituality (Spiritual Transcendence Scale, STS); then, they were randomly assigned to 15 dyads...
November 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936192/the-intricate-relationship-between-psychotic-like-experiences-and-associated-subclinical-symptoms-in-healthy-individuals
#12
Lui Unterrassner, Thomas A Wyss, Diana Wotruba, Helene Haker, Wulf Rössler
The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20-60 years, 73 females) using correlational and linear regression analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783090/validation-study-of-italian-version-of-inventory-for-d%C3%A3-j%C3%A3-vu-experiences-assessment-i-idea-a-screening-tool-to-detect-d%C3%A3-j%C3%A3-vu-phenomenon-in-italian-healthy-individuals
#13
Laura Mumoli, Giovanni Tripepi, Umberto Aguglia, Antonio Augimeri, Rossella Baggetta, Francesca Bisulli, Antonella Bruni, Salvatore M Cavalli, Alfredo D'Aniello, Ornella Daniele, Carlo Di Bonaventura, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Jinane Fattouch, Edoardo Ferlazzo, Alessandra Ferrari, Annateresa Giallonardo, Sara Gasparini, Salvatore Nigro, Andrea Romigi, Vito Sofia, Paolo Tinuper, Maria Grazia Vaccaro, Leila Zummo, Aldo Quattrone, Antonio Gambardella, Angelo Labate
The Inventory Déjà Vu Experiences Assessment (IDEA) is the only screening instrument proposed to evaluate the Déjà vu (DV) experience. Here, we intended to validate the Italian version of IDEA (I-IDEA) and at the same time to investigate the incidence and subjective qualities of the DV phenomenon in healthy Italian adult individuals on basis of an Italian multicentre observational study. In this study, we report normative data on the I-IDEA, collected on a sample of 542 Italian healthy subjects aging between 18-70 years (average age: 40) with a formal educational from 1-19 years...
August 7, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691055/handling-hybrid-and-missing-data-in-constraint-based-causal-discovery-to-study-the-etiology-of-adhd
#14
Elena Sokolova, Daniel von Rhein, Jilly Naaijen, Perry Groot, Tom Claassen, Jan Buitelaar, Tom Heskes
Causal discovery is an increasingly important method for data analysis in the field of medical research. In this paper, we consider two challenges in causal discovery that occur very often when working with medical data: a mixture of discrete and continuous variables and a substantial amount of missing values. To the best of our knowledge, there are no methods that can handle both challenges at the same time. In this paper, we develop a new method that can handle these challenges based on the assumption that data are missing at random and that continuous variables obey a non-paranormal distribution...
2017: International Journal of Data Science and Analytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683360/psychics-aliens-or-experience-using-the-anomalistic-belief-scale-to-examine-the-relationship-between-type-of-belief-and-probabilistic-reasoning
#15
Toby Prike, Michelle M Arnold, Paul Williamson
A growing body of research has shown people who hold anomalistic (e.g., paranormal) beliefs may differ from nonbelievers in their propensity to make probabilistic reasoning errors. The current study explored the relationship between these beliefs and performance through the development of a new measure of anomalistic belief, called the Anomalistic Belief Scale (ABS). One key feature of the ABS is that it includes a balance of both experiential and theoretical belief items. Another aim of the study was to use the ABS to investigate the relationship between belief and probabilistic reasoning errors on conjunction fallacy tasks...
July 3, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642726/urban-legends-and-paranormal-beliefs-the-role-of-reality-testing-and-schizotypy
#16
Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker, Peter J Clough
Recent research suggests that unconventional beliefs are locatable within a generic anomalous belief category. This notion derives from the observation that apparently dissimilar beliefs share fundamental, core characteristics (i.e., contradiction of orthodox scientific understanding of the universe and defiance of conventional understanding of reality). The present paper assessed the supposition that anomalous beliefs were conceptually similar and explicable via common psychological processes by comparing relationships between discrete beliefs [endorsement of urban legends (ULs) and belief in the paranormal] and cognitive-perceptual personality measures [proneness to reality testing (RT) and schizotypy]...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544975/-spiritual-but-not-religious-cognition-schizotypy-and-conversion-in-alternative-beliefs
#17
Aiyana K Willard, Ara Norenzayan
The spiritual but not religious (SBNR) are a growing population in secularizing societies. Yet, we know little about the underlying psychology of this group or their belief profile. Based on an individual difference approach, we address this knowledge gap by comparing SBNR with religious and non-religious participants. In a sample of Americans (n=1013), we find that the SBNR differ from non-religious and religious participants in a number of ways. SBNR participants are more likely to hold paranormal beliefs and to have an experiential relationship to the supernatural (e...
August 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257506/the-conspiratorial-style-in-lay-economic-thinking
#18
David Leiser, Nofar Duani, Pascal Wagner-Egger
This study investigates patterns of lay perception of economics, and in particular the place of conspiratorial thinking regarding the economic domain. We devised four types of accounts in the economic domain, over a range of questions regarding different aspects of the economy: the classical neo-liberal economic view (which we labeled Econ101), and the Conspiracy view (the destructive outcomes of economy are due to small and powerful groups who are manipulating the markets), to which we added the Government malfunction view (failures in the economy are due to the authorities), and the Bad Invisible Hand view (the invisible hand may go wrong, and the equilibrium reached by its doings may be undesirable)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236749/the-self-attribution-bias-and-paranormal-beliefs
#19
Michiel van Elk
The present study investigated the relation between paranormal beliefs, illusory control and the self-attribution bias, i.e., the motivated tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself while negative outcomes are externalized. Visitors of a psychic fair played a card guessing game and indicated their perceived control over randomly selected cards as a function of the congruency and valence of the card. A stronger self-attribution bias was observed for paranormal believers compared to skeptics and this bias was specifically related to traditional religious beliefs and belief in superstition...
March 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212506/dimensional-and-discrete-variations-on-the-psychosis-continuum-in-a-dutch-crowd-sourcing-population-sample
#20
J T W Wigman, K J Wardenaar, R B K Wanders, S H Booij, B F Jeronimus, L van der Krieke, M Wichers, P de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Mild psychotic experiences are common in the general population. Although transient and benign in most cases, these experiences are predictive of later mental health problems for a significant minority. The goal of the present study was to perform examinations of the dimensional and discrete variations in individuals' reporting of subclinical positive and negative psychotic experiences in a unique Dutch internet-based sample from the general population. METHODS: Positive and negative subclinical psychotic experiences were measured with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences in 2870 individuals...
May 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
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