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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109589/effects-of-precalving-body-condition-and-prepartum-feeding-level-on-gene-expression-in-circulating-neutrophils
#1
M A Crookenden, C G Walker, A Heiser, A Murray, V S R Dukkipati, J K Kay, S Meier, K M Moyes, M D Mitchell, J J Loor, J R Roche
Extensive metabolic, physiological, and immunological changes are associated with calving and the onset of lactation. As a result, cows transitioning between pregnancy and lactation are at a greater risk of metabolic and infectious diseases. The ability of neutrophils to mount an effective immune response to an infection is critical for its resolution, and increasing evidence indicates that precalving nutrition affects postpartum neutrophil function. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the effect of 2 precalving body condition scores (BCS; 4 vs...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107805/effectiveness-of-an-sms-based-maternal-mhealth-intervention-to-improve-clinical-outcomes-of-hiv-positive-pregnant-women
#2
Jesse Coleman, Kate C Bohlin, Anna Thorson, Vivian Black, Patricia Mechael, Josie Mangxaba, Jaran Eriksen
We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the effectiveness of an mHealth messaging intervention aiming to improve maternal health and HIV outcomes. Maternal health SMSs were sent to 235 HIV-infected pregnant women twice per week in pregnancy and continued until the infant's first birthday. The messages were timed to the stage of the pregnancy/infant age and covered maternal health and HIV-support information. Outcomes, measured as antenatal care (ANC) visits, birth outcomes and infant HIV testing, were compared to a control group of 586 HIV-infected pregnant women who received no SMS intervention...
January 20, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106649/neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-biomarker-and-urinary-tract-infections-a-diagnostic-case-control-study-nuti-study
#3
Jameca Renee Price, Larissa Guran, Jeong Youn Lim, Christina J Megli, Amanda L Clark, Sharon Renee Edwards, Mary Anna Denman, W Thomas Gregory
OBJECTIVES: Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) in women is often treated based on symptoms alone. Urinary tract infection symptoms are highly sensitive but lack specificity and result in overuse of antibiotics. We sought to determine if urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) levels in urine can accurately discriminate between UTI and healthy women. METHODS: We recruited adult women aged 18 to 85 years presenting in the ambulatory setting from November 2014 to January 2016...
January 18, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104381/five-cases-of-acute-zika-virus-infection-in-french-women-of-reproductive-age-returning-from-central-and-south-america
#4
P Penot, S Balavoine, A Leplatois, S Brichler, I Leparc-Goffart, A-C Alloui, O Flusin, J Guilleminot, M Amellou, J-M Molina
INTRODUCTION: The favorable season for Aedes albopictus circulation has started in Europe and may lead to autochthonous transmission of Zika virus. Health care providers should be familiar with evocative clinical presentations and able to give updated information to women of reproductive age infected by Zika virus. OBSERVATIONS: We report five laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infections imported to metropolitan France from Central and South America between January and April, 2016...
January 16, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104040/sexual-health-knowledge-and-behaviour-of-young-sudanese-queenslanders-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Judith Dean, Marion Mitchell, Donald Stewart, Joseph Debattista
Background: Forced migration is associated with sexual vulnerability. However, little is known about the sexual health literacy and needs of refugee-background youth post resettlement. Methods: Conducted in partnership with the Queensland Sudanese community, this study used a cross-sectional survey to explore the sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a convenience sample of 16- to 24-year-old Sudanese-background youth in Australia (n=229). Results: Sexually transmissible infection (STI) and HIV knowledge scores were generally low, although they were found to significantly improve the longer participants had lived in Australia (P<0...
January 20, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103952/the-interaction-between-vaginal-microbiota-cervical-length-and-vaginal-progesterone-treatment-for-preterm-birth-risk
#6
Lindsay M Kindinger, Phillip R Bennett, Yun S Lee, Julian R Marchesi, Ann Smith, Stefano Cacciatore, Elaine Holmes, Jeremy K Nicholson, T G Teoh, David A MacIntyre
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the primary cause of infant death worldwide. A short cervix in the second trimester of pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm birth. In specific patient cohorts, vaginal progesterone reduces this risk. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we undertook a prospective study in women at risk of preterm birth (n = 161) to assess (1) the relationship between vaginal microbiota and cervical length in the second trimester and preterm birth risk and (2) the impact of vaginal progesterone on vaginal bacterial communities in women with a short cervix...
January 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102503/reducing-unintended-pregnancies-as-a-strategy-to-avert-zika-related-microcephaly-births-in-the-united-states-a-simulation-study
#7
Katherine A Ahrens, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Loretta Gavin, Susan Moskosky
Introduction There is increasing evidence that infection with the Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy can lead to severe brain abnormalities in infants exposed in utero. The objective of our analysis was to estimate the contribution of enhanced contraception access to averting ZIKV-related microcephaly births in the United States, alone and in combination with another possible strategy, anti-ZIKV vaccination. Methods We used Monte Carlo sampling techniques (n = 100,000 simulations) to estimate the number of microcephaly births expected under strategies of enhanced contraception only, vaccination only, both enhanced contraception and vaccination, and status quo (no intervention)...
January 19, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102228/maternal-immune-activation-causes-behavioral-impairments-and-altered-cerebellar-cytokine-and-synaptic-protein-expression
#8
Gurudutt Pendyala, Shinnyi Chou, Yoosun Jung, Pierluca Coiro, Elizabeth Spartz, Ragunathan Padmashri, Ming Li, Anna Dunaevsky
Emerging epidemiology studies indicate that maternal immune activation (MIA) resulting from inflammatory stimuli such as viral or bacterial infections during pregnancy serves as a risk factor for multiple neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Although alterations in the cortex and hippocampus of MIA offspring have been described, less evidence exists on the impact on the cerebellum. Here, we report altered expression of cytokines and chemokines in the cerebellum of MIA offspring, including increase in the neuroinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and its receptor TNFR1...
January 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099739/associations-between-hiv-highly-active-anti-retroviral-therapy-and-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-among-maternal-deaths-in-south-africa-2011-2013
#9
Hannah M Sebitloane, Jagidesa Moodley, Benn Sartorius
OBJECTIVE: To explore potential relationships between HIV and highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). METHODS: A retrospective secondary analysis of maternal-deaths data from the 2011-2013 Saving Mothers Report from South Africa. The incidence of HIV infection amongst individuals who died owing to HDP was determined and comparisons were made based on HIV status and the use of HAART. RESULTS: Among 4452 maternal deaths recorded in the Saving Mothers report, a lower risk of a maternal deaths being due to HDP was observed among women who had HIV infections compared with women who did not have HIV (relative risk [RR] 0...
February 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099135/mycoplasma-ureaplasma-infection-in-pregnancy-to-screen-or-not-to-screen
#10
Gilbert G G Donders, Kateryna Ruban, Gert Bellen, Ljubomir Petricevic
Mycoplasmata have been linked to pregnancy complications and neonatal risk. While formerly a limited number of species could be discovered by cultures, molecular biology nowadays discovers both lower quantities and more diverse species, making us realize that mycoplasmata are ubiquitous in the vaginal milieu and do not always pose a danger for pregnant women. As the meaning of mycoplasmata in pregnancy is not clear to many clinicians, we summarized the current knowledge about the meaning of different kinds of mycoplasmata in pregnancy and discuss the potential benefits and disadvantages of treatment...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097445/pregnancy-outcomes-in-hiv-positive-women-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Kholoud Arab, Andrea R Spence, Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman, Haim A Abenhaim
PURPOSE: In the United States, an estimated 8500 HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) positive women gave birth in 2014. This rate appears to be increasing annually. Our objective is to examine obstetrical outcomes of pregnancy among HIV-positive women. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2003-2011) from the United States. Pregnant HIV-positive women were identified and compared to pregnant women without HIV...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097182/the-role-of-mass-media-in-iranian-youth-s-premarital-sexual-relationships-a-qualitative-study
#12
Fariba Taleghani, Effat Al Sadat Merghati Khoie, Mahnaz Noroozi, Mahgol Tavakoli, Ali Gholami
BACKGROUND: Youth's sexual behaviors have various consequences such as unwanted pregnancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections. Little information is available about the impact of mass media in the development of premarital sexual relationships. This study aimed to explore the role of mass media on premarital sexual relationships among Iranian youth. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted with 26 single boys and girls aged 18-24 years who were living in Isfahan, Iran and have already been started their sexual relationships...
January 2017: International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095812/maternal-sepsis-complicating-arabin-cervical-pessary-placement-for-the-prevention-of-preterm-birth-a-case-report
#13
Begoña Martinez de Tejada
BACKGROUND: Preterm delivery is a major health problem and contributes to more than 50% of all neonatal and infant deaths. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the use of cervical pessaries as a safe and effective intervention with few maternal side-effects for the prevention of preterm birth in both single and twin pregnancies. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old gravida 5, para 1 (previous preterm birth at 24 weeks) patient with an in vitro fertilization twin pregnancy had an Arabin cervical pessary placed at 19 weeks of pregnancy due to the presence of cervical funneling identified by ultrasound screening...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095801/providing-lipid-based-nutrient-supplement-during-pregnancy-does-not-reduce-the-risk-of-maternal-p-falciparum-parasitaemia-and-reproductive-tract-infections-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Minyanga Nkhoma, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, Kathryn G Dewey, Austrida Gondwe, John Mbotwa, Stephen Rogerson, Steve M Taylor, Kenneth Maleta
BACKGROUND: Maternal infections are associated with maternal and foetal adverse outcomes. Nutrient supplementation during pregnancy may reduce the occurrence of infections by improving maternal immunity. We aimed to investigate the impact of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) on the occurrence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia during pregnancy and trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis and urinary tract infection (UTI) after delivery. METHODS: Pregnant Malawian women enrolled in the iLiNS-DYAD trial receiving daily supplementation with SQ-LNS, multiple micronutrients (MMN) or iron & folic acid (IFA) from <20 gestation weeks (gw) were assessed for P...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095491/pro-inflammatory-cytokine-levels-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-pregnant-women-with-and-without-preeclampsia
#15
Niren Ray Maharaj, Alisa Phulukdaree, Savania Nagiah, Prithiksha Ramkaran, Charlette Tiloke, Anil Amichund Chuturgoon
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia and HIV/AIDS are inflammatory conditions that contribute significantly to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. The immune reconstitution effects of HAART on inflammatory mediators has not been adequately studied in pregnancy and may impact on the inflammatory cytokine network in women with co-morbid preeclampsia. Our study evaluated changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 in HIV infected preeclamptic women on HAART. METHODS: A prospective experimental study was conducted at Prince Mshiyeni Memorial Hospital between July 2013 and September 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095254/maternal-psychological-distress-during-pregnancy-does-not-increase-the-risk-for-adverse-birth-outcomes
#16
Aleksandra Staneva, Alina Morawska, Fiona Bogossian, Anja Wittkowski
Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy is a potential risk factor for various birth complications. This study aimed to explore psychological factors associated with adverse birth outcomes. Symptoms of psychological distress, individual characteristics, and medical complications were assessed at two time points antenatally in 285 women from Australia and New Zealand; birth outcomes were assessed postpartum, between January 2014 and September 2015. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relation of psychological distress to adverse birth outcomes...
January 17, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093483/treatment-simplification-to-atazanavir-ritonavir%C3%A2-%C3%A2-lamivudine-versus-maintenance-of-atazanavir-ritonavir%C3%A2-%C3%A2-two-nrtis-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-patients-48-week-results-from-a-randomized-trial-atlas-m
#17
Simona Di Giambenedetto, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Eugenia Quiros Roldan, Alessandra Latini, Gabriella D'Ettorre, Andrea Antinori, Antonella Castagna, Giancarlo Orofino, Daniela Francisci, Pierangelo Chinello, Giordano Madeddu, Pierfrancesco Grima, Stefano Rusconi, Massimo Di Pietro, Annalisa Mondi, Nicoletta Ciccarelli, Alberto Borghetti, Emanuele Focà, Manuela Colafigli, Andrea De Luca, Roberto Cauda
BACKGROUND: Combination ART (cART)-related toxicities and costs have prompted the need for treatment simplification. The ATLAS-M trial explored 48 week non-inferior efficacy of simplification to atazanavir/ritonavir  +  lamivudine versus maintaining three-drug atazanavir/ritonavir-based cART in virologically suppressed patients. METHODS: We performed an open-label, multicentre, randomized, non-inferiority study, enrolling HIV-infected adults on atazanavir/ritonavir + two NRTIs, with stable HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL and CD4 + >200 cells/mm(3) Main exclusion criteria were hepatitis B virus coinfection, past virological failure on or resistance to study drugs, recent AIDS and pregnancy...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091778/hospital-based-surveillance-of-congenital-rubella-syndrome-in-indonesia
#18
Elisabeth Siti Herini, Gunadi, Agung Triono, Asal Wahyuni Erlin Mulyadi, Niprida Mardin, Rusipah, Yati Soenarto, Susan E Reef
: Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has serious consequences, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and severe birth defects in infants, resulting from rubella virus infection during pregnancy. However, rubella vaccine has not yet been implemented in Indonesia. This study aimed (1) to estimate the incidence of CRS in Indonesia, (2) describe the clinical features of CRS at our referral hospital, and (3) pilot a CRS surveillance system to be extended to other hospitals. We conducted a 4-month prospective surveillance study of infants aged <1 year with suspected CRS in 2013 at an Indonesian hospital...
January 13, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090157/pharmaceutical-approval-update
#19
Mary Choy
Olaratumab (Lartruvo) for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma; bezlotoxumab (Zinplava) for use with an antibiotic to reduce recurrence of C. difficile infection; and doxylamine succinate/pyridoxine hydrochloride (Bonjesta) for the treatment of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.
January 2017: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089231/-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-despite-postexposure-prophylaxis-a-review-of-the-literature-and-description-of-11%C3%A2-observations
#20
B Biot, N Laverdure, F Lacaille, A Lachaux
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection leads to a risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In France, where the prevalence of HBV is low, mother-to-child transmission is the cause of chronic infection in more than one-third of cases. After exposure, the risk of chronic infection is the highest for newborns (90 %). The World Health Organization implemented a global immunization program in 1991, applied in France in 1994. A significant number of children are infected each year, however, and failure of postexposure prophylaxis is reported in 4-10 % of newborns...
January 11, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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