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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926644/cervical-cancer-screening-guideline-adherence-before-and-after-guideline-changes-in-pennsylvania-medicaid
#1
Natasha Parekh, Julie M Donohue, Aiju Men, Jennifer Corbelli, Marian Jarlenski
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in cervical cancer screening after the 2009 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' guideline change and to determine predictors associated with underscreening and overscreening among Medicaid-enrolled women. METHODS: We performed an observational cohort study of Pennsylvania Medicaid claims from 2007 to 2013. We evaluated guideline adherence of 18- to 64-year-old continuously enrolled women before and after the 2009 guideline change...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926431/the-oral-microbiome-in-health-and-its-implication-in-oral-and-systemic-diseases
#2
B Sampaio-Maia, I M Caldas, M L Pereira, D Pérez-Mongiovi, R Araujo
The oral microbiome can alter the balance between health and disease, locally and systemically. Within the oral cavity, bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses may all be found, each having a particular role, but strongly interacting with each other and with the host, in sickness or in health. A description on how colonization occurs and how the oral microbiome dynamically evolves throughout the host's life is given. In this chapter the authors also address oral and nonoral conditions in which oral microorganisms may play a role in the etiology and progression, presenting the up-to-date knowledge on oral dysbiosis as well as the known underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms involving oral microorganisms in each condition...
2016: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925863/susceptibility-of-rubella-among-pregnant-women-attending-the-antenatal-clinic-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-jabalpur-central-india
#3
Bhupesh K Kori, Kavita N Singh, Ravendra K Sharma, Bhagwati S Sharma, Poorva Badkur, Pradip V Barde
The purpose of this study was to evaluate rubella susceptibility of pregnant women from central India as rubella infection can be devastating for the newborn if it occurs in the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy, which may lead to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). There are very few studies about seroprevalence of rubella from India and none from central India. The study was conducted among women attending the obstetric department of a tertiary care hospital, in which 369 antenatal cases were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibody for rubella and its titer...
December 7, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925148/a-comparison-of-vaginal-ultrasound-and-digital-examination-in-predicting-preterm-delivery-in-women-with-threatened-preterm-labour-a-cohort-study
#4
Anne Pinton, François Severac, Nicolas Meyer, Cherif Youssef Akladios, Adrien Gaudineau, Romain Favre, Bruno Langer, Nicolas Sananes
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of digital examination in addition to ultrasonic measurement of cervical length for predicting spontaneous preterm delivery in women with threatened preterm labor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study in Strasbourg University Hospital, France, between January 2013 and January 2015 All the women with a singleton pregnancy hospitalized with threatened preterm labor between 23 to 34 weeks of gestation were included...
December 7, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923540/fetal-cytomegalovirus-infection
#5
REVIEW
Marianne Leruez-Ville, Yves Ville
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) congenital infection affects 0.7% of live births worldwide and is the leading cause of congenital neurological handicap of infectious origin. However, systematic screening for this infection has not been implemented in pregnancy or at birth in any country. This apparent paradox had been justified by persisting gaps in the knowledge of this congenital infection: uncertain epidemiological data, difficulty in the diagnosis of maternal infection, absence of validated prenatal prognostic markers, unavailability of an efficient vaccine and scarcity of data available on the treatment...
October 20, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921861/understanding-intra-vaginal-and-labia-minora-elongation-practices-among-women-heads-of-households-in-zamb%C3%A3-zia-province-mozambique
#6
Carolyn M Audet, Meridith Blevins, Charlotte Buehler Cherry, Lazaro González-Calvo, Ann F Green, Troy D Moon
Intra-vaginal drying and tightening and labia minora elongation are commonly practised in some parts of southern Africa. We sought to capture data on these practices among women living in Zambézia province, Mozambique. Information was gathered from 3543 female heads of household on > 500 variables, including vaginal practices, in 2014. Women who planned to use intra-vaginal tightening substances had 1.84 times higher odds of ever receiving an HIV test (p < 0.001) and 1.40 times higher odds of at least one antenatal care visit attended during last pregnancy (p = 0...
December 6, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920416/re-evaluating-the-inhibition-of-stress-erosions-revise-a-protocol-for-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Waleed Alhazzani, Gordon Guyatt, John C Marshall, Richard Hall, John Muscedere, Francois Lauzier, Lehana Thabane, Mohammed Alshahrani, Shane W English, Yaseen M Arabi, Adam M Deane, Tim Karachi, Bram Rochwerg, Simon Finfer, Nick Daneman, Nicole Zytaruk, Diane Heel-Ansdell, Deborah Cook, On Behalf Of
INTRODUCTION: Clinicians routinely administer stress ulcer prophylaxis to mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), most commonly prescribing proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from stress ulceration is low and recent observational studies suggest these agents may increase infections. Therefore, a large randomized clinical trial (RCT) is needed to inform modern practice. The aim of this multicenter pilot trial is to determine the feasibility of performing a large RCT to investigate the efficacy and safety of withholding intravenous pantoprazole...
November 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919154/-many-doubts-about-the-relationship-between-cases-of-microcephaly-and-zika-virus-in-brazil
#8
Roberto Ronchetti, Pietro Massimiliano Bianco
During the last few years, Zika virus rapidly spread across Central and South America and in the last months has spread also across Southern States of USA. As the epidemic began in Brazil, an increase of microcephaly cases was registered, causing concern and inducing the World Health Organization to raise an alarm. Certainly, the Zika virus, as many other viruses, has the capacity to induce severe cerebral lesions in foetuses of women infected during the first months of pregnancy. Moreover, more than 80% of cases of craniostenosys that verisimilarly took place in Brazil from September 2015 up to now were registered in few states of North- Eastern Brazil, where peaks of this malformation were registered several years before the appearance of Zika virus...
November 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918564/interleukin-33-induced-expression-of-pibf1-by-decidual-b-cells-protects-against-preterm-labor
#9
Bihui Huang, Azure N Faucette, Michael D Pawlitz, Bo Pei, Joshua W Goyert, Jordan Zheng Zhou, Nadim G El-Hage, Jie Deng, Jason Lin, Fayi Yao, Robert S Dewar, Japnam S Jassal, Maxwell L Sandberg, Jing Dai, Montserrat Cols, Cong Shen, Lisa A Polin, Ronald A Nichols, Theodore B Jones, Martin H Bluth, Karoline S Puder, Bernard Gonik, Nihar R Nayak, Elizabeth Puscheck, Wei-Zen Wei, Andrea Cerutti, Marco Colonna, Kang Chen
Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal death worldwide. Intrauterine and systemic infection and inflammation cause 30-40% of spontaneous preterm labor (PTL), which precedes PTB. Although antibody production is a major immune defense mechanism against infection, and B cell dysfunction has been implicated in pregnancy complications associated with PTL, the functions of B cells in pregnancy are not well known. We found that choriodecidua of women undergoing spontaneous PTL harbored functionally altered B cell populations...
December 5, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917849/presence-and-resistance-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-in-vaginal-specimens-of-pregnant-and-adult-non-pregnant-women-and-association-with-other-aerobic-bacteria
#10
Fatima Numanović, Jasmina Smajlović, Merima Gegić, Zineta Delibegović, Sabaheta Bektaš, Emir Halilović, Jasmina Nurkić
Aim To determine the prevalence rate and resistance profile of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in vaginal swabs of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women in the Tuzla region, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), as well as its association with other aerobic bacteria. Methods This prospective study included 200 women, 100 pregnant and 100 adult non-pregnant. The research was conducted at the Institute of Microbiology, University Clinical Center Tuzla from October to December 2015. Standard aerobic microbiological techniques were used for isolation and identification of S...
February 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914182/positive-feelings-during-pregnancy-early-feeding-practices-and-infant-health
#11
Melissa A McManus, Ali A Khalessi, Joyce Lin, Jahanzeb Ashraf, Stephanie M Reich
BACKGROUND: Early parenting practices, like infant feeding, can impact children's physical health. Additionally, negative prenatal maternal affect can influence feeding choices, like breastfeeding, and can have a detrimental effect on children's health. However, little is known about the contribution of positive maternal affect during pregnancy on feeding practices and children's health. METHOD: This study explored whether positive prenatal feelings influenced children's health during the first 18 months, and whether early feeding practices mediated the relationship between these two variables...
December 3, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914160/infectious-postpartum-sacroiliitis-the-importance-and-difficulty-of-early-diagnosis
#12
Emídio Vale-Fernandes, Fedra Rodrigues, Carla Monteiro, Luís Carvalho
The sacroiliitis accounts for about 1.5% - 10% of all cases of septic arthritis and it is strongly associated with gynaecological infections, pelvic trauma or drug abuse (3.4% - 12.8% of cases occur during the postpartum period). Early diagnosis is difficult because the symptoms are nonspecific in pregnancy and in the postpartum period, making the delay of treatment a serious risk of irreversible damage to the joint and development of post-infectious complications. The authors describe the case of a 37-year-old puerperal woman presented to hospital, weeks after urgent caesarean section, with endometritis, post-anesthetic epidural hematoma and secondary infectious postpartum sacroiliitis...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912790/fetal-malformation-in-maternal-toxoplasma-and-rubella-co-infection-in-cameroon-a-case-report
#13
Andreas Ateke Njoh, Sarah Namondo Njoh, Messang Blandine Abizou
BACKGROUND: There has been a recent increase in the number of newborns with brain malformations due to congenital infections, but the impact of these diseases remains largely under ascertained in middle-income and low-income countries. This case report presents a fetal anencephaly following maternal toxoplasma and rubella co-infection in a resource-limited setting and the challenges faced by the patient and the health care provider in the management of the condition. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old black Cameroonian woman of Bakossi origin, gravida3 para1010, presented with a positive rubella and toxoplasma immunoglobulin G serologic test at 21 weeks of pregnancy; she could not benefit from a fetal morphologic ultrasound partly because there was none at the site of her antenatal clinic and because there were accessibility constraints getting to the nearest referral hospital approximately 100 km away...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912091/genetic-ablation-of-axl-does-not-protect-human-neural-progenitor-cells-and-cerebral-organoids-from-zika-virus-infection
#14
Michael F Wells, Max R Salick, Ole Wiskow, Daniel J Ho, Kathleen A Worringer, Robert J Ihry, Sravya Kommineni, Bilada Bilican, Joseph R Klim, Ellen J Hill, Liam T Kane, Chaoyang Ye, Ajamete Kaykas, Kevin Eggan
Zika virus (ZIKV) can cross the placental barrier, resulting in infection of the fetal brain and neurological defects including microcephaly. The cellular tropism of ZIKV and the identity of attachment factors used by the virus to gain access to key cell types involved in pathogenesis are under intense investigation. Initial studies suggested that ZIKV preferentially targets neural progenitor cells (NPCs), providing an explanation for the developmental phenotypes observed in some pregnancies. The AXL protein has been nominated as a key attachment factor for ZIKV in several cell types including NPCs...
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912030/perinatal-outcomes-and-the-influence-of-maternal-characteristics-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery
#15
Cristiane Chagas, Cláudia Saunders, Silvia Pereira, Jacqueline Silva, Carlos Saboya, Andréa Ramalho
OBJECTIVE: Assess the perinatal outcomes and identify what maternal characteristics can influence them in women who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analytical, prospective, and longitudinal study with pregnant adult women. INCLUSION CRITERIA: chronological age >20 years; singleton pregnancy; RYGB surgery before pregnancy. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: prior malabsorptive or restrictive surgeries; malabsorption syndrome...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911847/zika-virus-cell-tropism-in-the-developing-human-brain-and-inhibition-by-azithromycin
#16
Hanna Retallack, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Carolina Arias, Kristeene A Knopp, Matthew T Laurie, Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa, Walter R Mancia Leon, Robert Krencik, Erik M Ullian, Julien Spatazza, Alex A Pollen, Caleigh Mandel-Brehm, Tomasz J Nowakowski, Arnold R Kriegstein, Joseph L DeRisi
The rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with abnormal brain development constitute a global health emergency. Congenital ZIKV infection produces a range of mild to severe pathologies, including microcephaly. To understand the pathophysiology of ZIKV infection, we used models of the developing brain that faithfully recapitulate the tissue architecture in early to midgestation. We identify the brain cell populations that are most susceptible to ZIKV infection in primary human tissue, provide evidence for a mechanism of viral entry, and show that a commonly used antibiotic protects cultured brain cells by reducing viral proliferation...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909624/for-reliable-urine-cultures-in-the-detection-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infection-do-we-use-urine-specimens-obtained-with-urethral-catheter-or-a-nephrostomy-tube
#17
Gülay Dede, Özcan Deveci, Onur Dede, Mazhar Utanğac, Mansur Dağgulli, Necmettin Penbegül, Namık Kemal Hatipoğlu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the results of urine cultures obtained either from urethral, and percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) catheters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 328 consecutive patients that underwent PCN at our institution with complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) between July 2010 and April 2015. Results of urine cultures obtained from the urethral and nephrostomy catheters were compared. RESULTS: This study included 152 male and 176 female patients...
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908907/importance-of-diagnostic-work-up-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-pregnancy
#18
Elza Pollak-Christian, Kyong-Soon Lee
We report a full-term neonate presenting with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection with hepatosplenomegaly, 'blueberry muffin' rash, intracranial calcifications, thrombocytopenia and respiratory distress. Maternal history was relevant for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during the first trimester of pregnancy. CMV infection is an important cause of GBS; thus, women presenting GBS during pregnancy should be screened for CMV infection. If positive, they may benefit from specialised monitoring and treatment in the antenatal period, which may decrease the risk of major neurodevelopmental sequelae of congenital CMV in the neonate...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908330/sepsis-in-special-populations
#19
REVIEW
Matthew P Borloz, Khalief E Hamden
Sepsis is recognized by the presence of physiologic and laboratory changes that reflect the inflammatory response to infection on cellular and systemic levels. Comorbid conditions, such as cirrhosis, end-stage renal disease, and obesity, alter patients' susceptibility to infection and their response to it once present. Baseline changes in vital signs and chronic medications often mask clues to the severity of illness. The physiologic, hematologic, and biochemical adjustments that accompany pregnancy and the puerperium introduce similar challenges...
February 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908227/improved-infant-hemoglobin-hb-and-blood-glucose-concentrations-the-beneficial-effect-of-maternal-vitamin-a-supplementation-of-malaria-infected-mothers-in-ebonyi-state-nigeria
#20
Michael O Elom, Joseph E Eyo, Fabian C Okafor, Amos Nworie, Victor U Usanga, Gerald N Attamah, Chibueze C Igwe
One hundred and fifty-two malaria-infected pregnant women whose pregnancies had advanced to the 6th month were randomised into two study groups - supplemented and placebo groups, after obtaining their approved consents. Ten thousand international units of vitamin A soft gels were administered to the supplemented group three times per week. Vitamin A soft gels devoid of their active ingredients were administered thrice weekly to the placebo group. Two hundred thousand international units of vitamin A was administered to the supplemented groups within 8 weeks postpartum...
December 1, 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
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