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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915418/in-vivo-cns-infection-model-of-acanthamoeba-genotype-t4-the-early-stages-of-infection-lack-presence-of-host-inflammatory-response-and-are-a-slow-and-contact-dependent-process
#1
Maritza Omaña-Molina, Dolores Hernandez-Martinez, Raquel Sanchez-Rocha, Ulises Cardenas-Lemus, Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara, Adolfo Rene Mendez-Cruz, Laura Colin-Barenque, Patricia Aley-Medina, Jesus Espinosa-Villanueva, Leticia Moreno-Fierros, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
This study was developed in order to describe the early morphological events observed during the invasion of two pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4); A. castellanii and A. culbertsoni, at the olfactory meatus and cerebral, pulmonary, renal, hepatic and splenic tissues levels, an in vivo invasion study. Histological and immunohistochemical description of the events at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h postintranasal inoculations of BALB/c mice was performed. A. castellanii showed a higher invasion rate than A...
December 3, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915412/formation-of-indigoidine-derived-pigments-contributes-to-the-adaptation-of-vogesella-sp-strain-eb-to-cold-aquatic-iron-oxidizing-environments
#2
Paula Arrúa Day, María S Villalba, O Marisa Herrero, Luz Alejandra Arancibia, Héctor M Alvarez
We investigated previously under explored cold aquatic environments of Andean Patagonia, Argentina. Oily sheens similar to an oil spill are frequently observed at the surface of water in creeks and small ponds in these places. Chemical analysis of a water sample revealed the occurrence of high concentrations of iron and the presence of a free insoluble indigoidine-derived pigment. A blue pigment-producing bacterium (strain EB) was isolated from the water sample and identified as Vogesella sp. by molecular analysis...
December 3, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915411/saccharothrix-ghardaiensis-sp-nov-an-actinobacterium-isolated-from-saharan-soil
#3
Khaoula Bouznada, Noureddine Bouras, Salim Mokrane, Fawzia Chaabane Chaouch, Abdelghani Zitouni, Gabriele Pötter, Cathrin Spröer, Hans-Peter Klenk, Nasserdine Sabaou
The taxonomic position of a new Saccharothrix strain, designated MB46(T), isolated from a Saharan soil sample collected in Mzab region (Ghardaïa province, South Algeria) was established following a polyphasic approach. The novel microorganism has morphological and chemical characteristics typical of the members of the genus Saccharothrix and formed a phyletic line at the periphery of the Saccharothrix espanaensis subcluster in the 16S rRNA gene dendrograms. Results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain MB46(T) shares high degrees of similarity with S...
December 3, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915380/proteins-interacting-with-crea-and-creb-in-the-carbon-catabolite-repression-network-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#4
Md Ashiqul Alam, Joan M Kelly
In Aspergillus nidulans, carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is mediated by the global repressor protein CreA. The deubiquitinating enzyme CreB is a component of the CCR network. Genetic interaction was confirmed using a strain containing complete loss-of-function alleles of both creA and creB. No direct physical interaction was identified between tagged versions of CreA and CreB. To identify any possible protein(s) that may form a bridge between CreA and CreB, we purified both proteins from mycelia grown in media that result in repression or derepression...
December 3, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915375/identification-of-enzymes-responsible-for-extracellular-alginate-depolymerization-and-alginate-metabolism-in-vibrio-algivorus
#5
Hidetaka Doi, Yuriko Tokura, Yukiko Mori, Kenichi Mori, Yoko Asakura, Yoshihiro Usuda, Hiroo Fukuda, Akito Chinen
Alginate is a marine non-food-competing polysaccharide that has potential applications in biorefinery. Owing to its large size (molecular weight >300,000 Da), alginate cannot pass through the bacterial cell membrane. Therefore, bacteria that utilize alginate are presumed to have an enzyme that degrades extracellular alginate. Recently, Vibrio algivorus sp. SA2(T) was identified as a novel alginate-decomposing and alginate-utilizing species. However, little is known about the mechanism of alginate degradation and metabolism in this species...
December 3, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915307/diversity-and-antifungal-drug-susceptibility-of-cryptococcus-isolates-in-thailand
#6
Navaporn Worasilchai, Marut Tangwattanachuleeporn, Kornvalee Meesilpavikkai, Claudia Folba, Mourine Kangogo, Uwe Groß, Michael Weig, Oliver Bader, Ariya Chindamporn
Yeasts of the Cryptococcus species complex are the causative agent of cryptococcosis, especially in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals. Cerebral or disseminated cryptococcosis has a very high mortality rate worldwide, including in Thailand. Additionally, an increasing rate of antifungal drug resistant cryptococcal isolates has been reported in several neighboring countries, complicating therapeutic approaches. To understand the situation of this infection in Thailand, we retrospectively investigated the molecular epidemiology and antifungal drug resistance in a collection of 74 clinical, 52 environmental and two veterinary isolates using the URA5-RFLP for typing and the EUCAST guideline for susceptibility testing...
December 3, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915305/dna-barcoding-coupled-with-high-resolution-melting-analysis-enables-rapid-and-accurate-distinction-of-aspergillus-species
#7
Gabor Fidler, Sandor Kocsube, Eva Leiter, Sandor Biro, Melinda Paholcsek
We describe a high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis method that is rapid, reproducible, and able to identify reference strains and further 40 clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus (14), A. lentulus (3), A. terreus (7), A. flavus (8), A. niger (2), A. welwitschiae (4), and A. tubingensis (2). Asp1 and Asp2 primer sets were designed to amplify partial sequences of the Aspergillus benA (beta-tubulin) genes in a closed-, single-tube system. Human placenta DNA, further Aspergillus (3), Candida (9), Fusarium (6), and Scedosporium (2) nucleic acids from type strains and clinical isolates were also included in this study to evaluate cross reactivity with other relevant pathogens causing invasive fungal infections...
December 3, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915303/candida-species-isolated-from-different-body-sites-and-their-antifungal-susceptibility-pattern-cross-analysis-of-candida-albicans-and-candida-glabrata-biofilms
#8
Valentina Cataldi, Emanuela Di Campli, Paolo Fazii, Tonino Traini, Luigina Cellini, Mara Di Giulio
Candida species are regular commensal in humans, but-especially in immunocompromised patients-they represent opportunistic pathogens giving rise to systemic infection. The aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize for their antifungal profile Candida species from different body sites and to analyze the biofilms produced by C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates. Eighty-one strains of Candida species from 77 patients were identified. Epidemiological study showed that the most isolated species were C...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915302/givinostat-exhibits-in-vitro-synergy-with-posaconazole-against-aspergillus-spp
#9
Yi Sun, Lujuan Gao, Chengyan He, Qingzhi Wu, Ming Li, Tongxiang Zeng
In vitro interactions of givinostat, a hydroxamate-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor, and antifungals including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against Aspergillus spp. were assessed via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system. A total of 30 isolates of Aspergillus spp., including 20 strains of A. fumigatus and 10 strains of A. flavus were studied. The results revealed favorable synergistic effects between givinostat and posaconazole (83.3%) against Aspergillus isolates...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915298/multilocus-sequence-typing-mlst-analysis-of-candida-albicans-isolates-colonizing-acrylic-dentures-before-and-after-denture-replacement
#10
Khai How Choo, Hee Ji Lee, Nicholas J Knight, Ann R Holmes, Richard D Cannon
Yeast, in particular Candida albicans, are the principal fungal cause of denture stomatitis, and can also be present as a commensal in many individuals. Few studies, however, have examined oral retention of yeast strains over time. We analyzed the yeast present in saliva samples and from the dentures of 10 individuals colonized with yeast but with no signs of stomatitis, before new complete maxillary dentures were fitted and also at 1, 3, and 6 months after denture replacement. Yeast species were presumptively identified on selective agar plates and were present in nine individuals before denture replacement and in six at the 6-month time point...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915254/ompf-of-pectobacterium-carotovorum-subsp-carotovorum-pcc3-is-required-for-carocin-d-sensitivity
#11
Jeong-A Lim, Jisoo Hong, Jonguk Kim, Sunggi Heu, Eunjung Roh
Carocin D is a bacteriocin produced by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Pcc21. Carocin D inhibits the growth of P carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and closely related strains, P carotovorum subsp. carotovorum is causative bacteria for soft rot disease and leads to severe economic losses. Bacteriocins recognize and interact with a specific membrane protein of target bacteria as a receptor. To identify the receptor responsible for carocin D recognition, mutants that underwent a phenotypic change from carocin D-sensitivity to carocin D-insensitivity were screened...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915251/identification-of-a-campylobacter-coli-methyltransferase-targeting-adenines-at-gatc-sites
#12
Vikrant Dutta, Eric Altermann, Maria D Crespo, Jonathan W Olson, Robin M Siletzky, Sophia Kathariou
Campylobacter coli can infect humans and colonize multiple other animals but its host-associated genes or adaptations are poorly understood. Adenine methylation at GATC sites, resulting in MboI resistance of genomic DNA, was earlier frequently detected among C. coli from swine but not among turkey-derived isolates. The underlying genetic basis has remained unknown. Comparative genome sequence analyses of C. coli 6461, a swine-derived strain with MboI-resistant DNA, revealed two chromosomal ORFs, 0059 and 0060, encoding a putative DNA methyltransferase and a conserved hypothetical protein, respectively, which were lacking from the genome of the turkey-derived C...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915250/importance-of-fumarate-and-nitrate-reduction-regulatory-protein-for-proliferation-for-intestinal-proliferation-of-vibrio-vulnificus
#13
Takehiro Kado, Takashige Kashimoto, Kohei Yamazaki, Shunji Ueno
The sepsis caused by Vibrio vulnificus is characterized by an average incubation period of 26 hours and a high mortality rate exceeding 50%. The fast growth and dissemination of V. vulnificus in vivo lead to poor clinical outcomes in patients. Therefore, elucidation of the proliferation mechanisms of this organism in vivo may lead to development of an effective therapeutic strategy. In this study, we focused on the low oxygen concentration in the intestinal milieu because of its drastic difference from that in the air...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915249/new-and-highly-active-microbial-phosphotriesterase-sources
#14
Julia Y Santillan, Lucas A Dettorre, Elizabeth S Lewkowicz, Adolfo M Iribarren
Many toxic insecticides used worldwide as well as some chemical warfare agents are phosphotriester derivatives. Therefore, detoxification of organophosphorus compounds has become the subject of many studies and in particular bioremediation, based on the phosphotriesterase catalysed hydrolysis of these compounds, has shown to be an effective and ecological methodology. In order to identify new bacterial phosphotriesterases, a simple and sensitive fluorimetric screening method on solid media was employed, that allowed the selection of 6 strains with phosphotriesterase activity...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915248/comparative-proteomic-analysis-unravels-a-role-for-esrb-in-the-regulation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-stress-responses-in-edwardsiella-piscicida
#15
Kaiyu Yin, Qiyao Wang, Jingfan Xiao, Yuanxing Zhang
As a leading pathogen, Edwardsiella piscicida can cause hemorrhagic septicemia in fish and gastro-intestinal infections in humans. The two-component regulatory system EsrA-EsrB plays essential roles in pathogenesis through the type III and type VI secretion systems, and hemolysin production in E. piscicida It is unclear whether other virulence- or stress response-associated genes are regulated by EsrA-EsrB. In this study, the proteomes of wild type E. piscicida EIB202 and esrB mutant strains were compared to reveal EsrB regulon components after growth in LB...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915245/the-yeast-tum1-affects-production-of-hydrogen-sulfide-from-cysteine-treatment-during-fermentation
#16
Chien-Wei Huang, Michelle Walker, Bruno Fedrizzi, Miguel Roncoroni, Richard Gardner, Vladimir Jiranek
The undesirable rotten-egg odour of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced by yeast shortly after yeast inoculation of grape musts, might be an important source of desirable varietal thiols, which contribute to tropical aromas in varieties such as Sauvignon Blanc. In this study, we observed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produce an early burst of H2S from cysteine. Both Δmet2 and Δmet17 strains produce a larger burst, likely because they are unable to utilise the H2S in the sulfate assimilation pathway. For the first time, we show that TUM1 is partly responsible for the early production of H2S from cysteine...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915242/distinct-mechanisms-of-mutant-huntingtin-toxicity-in-different-yeast-strains
#17
Genrikh V Serpionov, Alexander I Alexandrov, Michael D Ter-Avanesyan
Expansion of polyglutamine stretches in several proteins cause neurodegenerative amyloidoses, including Huntington disease. In yeast, mutant huntingtin (mHtt) with a stretch of 103 glutamine residues (HttQ103) forms toxic aggregates. A range of yeast strains have been used to elucidate the mechanisms of mHtt toxicity, and have revealed perturbations of various unrelated processes. HttQ103 aggregates can induce aggregation of cellular proteins, many of which contain glutamine/asparagine-rich regions, including Sup35 and Def1...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915212/rapid-detection-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-legionella-pneumophila-serogroup-1-sequence-type-47
#18
M Mentasti, P Cassier, S David, C Ginevra, L Gomez-Valero, A Underwood, B Afshar, J Etienne, J Parkhill, V Chalker, C Buchrieser, T G Harrison, S Jarraud
OBJECTIVES: Legionella pneumophia serogroup 1 (Lp1) sequence type 47 is the leading cause of legionellosis in North-Western Europe but surprisingly it is rarely isolated from environmental samples. Comparative genomics was applied to develop a PCR assay and to better understand the evolution of this strain. METHODS: Comparative analysis of 36 genomes representative of the Lp species was used to identify specific PCR targets which were then evaluated in silico on 545 sequenced genomes, and in vitro on 436 Legionella strains, 106 respiratory samples and three environmental samples from proven ST47 sources...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915107/association-between-the-agr-locus-and-the-presence-of-virulence-genes-and-pathogenesis-in-s-aureus-using-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-model
#19
Terissa A Thompson, Paul D Brown
BACKGROUND: S. aureus is a commensal pathogen with a virulon that is under agr control. agr dysfunction has been seen in clinical strains that do not respond positively to treatment. AIM: This study aimed to establish the association between the presence of genes in the virulon with agr present and to determine the relationship between agr presence or absence with pathogenicity. METHODS: PCR was used to identify the presence of the agr operon in 101 clinical S...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915106/insights-gained-from-ancient-biomolecules-into-past-and-present-tuberculosis-a-personal-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Helen D Donoghue
Ancient and historical tuberculosis (TB) can be recognized by its typical paleopathology in human remains. Using paleomicrobiology, it is possible to detect many more individuals infected with TB but with no visible lesions. Due to advances in molecular analysis over the past two decades, it is clear that TB was widespread in humans from the Neolithic period until the present day. Past human populations were associated with different lineages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex, thereby elucidating early human migrations...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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