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social exclusion

Mona S Khodeir, Mona A Hegazi, Marwa M Saleh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to standardize an Egyptian Arabic Pragmatic Language Test (EAPLT) using linguistically and socially suitable questions and pictures in order to be able to address specific deficits in this language domain. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Questions and pictures were designed for the EAPLT to assess 3 pragmatic language subsets: pragmatic skills, functions, and factors. Ten expert phoniatricians were asked to review the EAPLT and complete a questionnaire to assess the validity of the test items...
March 19, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
T Tiwari, L Jamieson, J Broughton, H P Lawrence, T S Batliner, R Arantes, J Albino
Indigenous populations around the world experience a disproportionate burden in terms of oral diseases and conditions. These inequalities are likely due to a complex web of social determinants that includes poverty, historical consequences of colonialism, social exclusion, government policies of assimilation, cultural annihilation, and racism in all its forms (societal, institutional). Despite documented oral health disparities, prevention interventions have been scarce in Indigenous communities. This review describes oral health interventions and their outcomes conducted for Indigenous populations of the United States, Canada, Brazil, Australia, and New Zealand...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
James Rourke, Shabnam Asghari, Oliver Hurley, Mohamed Ravalia, Michael Jong, Wanda Parsons, Norah Duggan, Katherine Stringer, Danielle O'Keefe, Scott Moffatt, Wendy Graham, Carolyn Sturge Sparkes, Janelle Hippe, Kristin Harris Walsh, Donald McKay, Asoka Samarasena
CONTEXT: This report describes the community context, concept and mission of The Faculty of Medicine at Memorial University of Newfoundland (Memorial), Canada, and its 'pathways to rural practice' approach, which includes influences at the pre-medical school, medical school experience, postgraduate residency training, and physician practice levels. Memorial's pathways to practice helped Memorial to fulfill its social accountability mandate to populate the province with highly skilled rural generalist practitioners...
March 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Israel Agaku, Satomi Odani, Constantine Vardavas, Linda Neff
BACKGROUND: We investigated tobacco-related self-identity and risk perceptions among adolescent tobacco users. METHODS: Data were analyzed for 20 675 US sixth- to 12th-graders from the 2016 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Students who reported past-30-day use of a specific tobacco product or ≥2 products but denied having used "any tobacco product" in the past 30 days were classified as not self-identifying as tobacco users. Tobacco product harm perceptions were further assessed across products...
March 15, 2018: Pediatrics
Nubia A Mayorga, Charles Jardin, Jafar Bakhshaie, Lorra Garey, Andres G Viana, Jodi Berger Cardoso, Michael Zvolensky
Although recent work has highlighted the relation of acculturative stress with depression and anxiety symptoms specifically among Latino/a university students, the potential mechanisms underlying these associations remain relatively unknown. The present study aims to examine difficulties in emotion regulation as an explanatory factor in the relation of acculturative stress with symptoms of depression, suicidality, social anxiety, and anxious arousal. A sample of 448 Latino/a college students (Mage = 20.67 years, SD = 1...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Bushra Akram, Juwairya Nawaz, Zeeshan Rafi, Abrar Akram
OBJECTIVE: To investigate social exclusion, mental health and demographic characteristics as risk and protective factors of suicidal ideation among adults with hearing loss. . METHODS: This analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted in Lahore, Pakistan, from June 2016 to January 2017, and comprised people with hearing loss. Multistage proportionate stratified sampling procedure was used. Mental Health Inventory, Social Exclusion Scale and Suicidal Ideation Attributes Scale were administered to the participants...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Marjorie da Silva, Fernando Barbosa Noll, Adriana C Morales-Corrêa E Castro
Swarm-founding wasps are endemic and common representatives of neotropical fauna and compose an interesting social tribe of vespids, presenting both complex social characteristics and uncommon traits for a eusocial group, such as the absence of castes with distinct morphology. The paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure) presents a broad distribution from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, occurring widespread in the Atlantic rainforest and arboreal Caatinga, being absent in the Amazon region. Given the peculiar distribution among swarm-founding wasps, an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of P...
2018: PloS One
Rosalyn E Maben-Feaster, R Brent Stansfield, AnneMarie Opipari, Maya M Hammoud
BACKGROUND: One-third of Americans use social media websites as a source of health care information. Twitter, a microblogging site that allows users to place 280-character posts-or tweets-on the Web, is emerging as an important social media platform for health care. However, most guidelines on medical professionalism on social media are based on expert opinion. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine if provider Twitter profiles with educational tweets were viewed as more professional than profiles with personal tweets or a mixture of the two, and to determine the impact of provider gender on perceptions of professionalism in an academic obstetrics and gynecology clinic...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Nick Wasylyshyn, Brett Hemenway Falk, Javier O Garcia, Christopher N Cascio, Matthew Brook O'Donnell, C Raymond Bingham, Bruce Simons-Morton, Jean M Vettel, Emily B Falk
Individuals react differently to social experiences; for example, people who are more sensitive to negative social experiences, such as being excluded, may be more likely to adapt their behavior to fit in with others. We examined whether functional brain connectivity during social exclusion in the fMRI scanner can be used to predict subsequent conformity to peer norms. Adolescent males (n = 57) completed a two-part study on teen driving risk: a social exclusion task (Cyberball) during an fMRI session and a subsequent driving simulator session in which they drove alone and in the presence of a peer who expressed risk-averse or risk-accepting driving norms...
February 1, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Deepa Singal, Chantalle Menard, Christine J Neilson, Marni Brownell, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Albert Chudley, Ryan Zarychanski, Ahmed Abou-Setta
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this paper is to provide a protocol for a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of evidence from randomised controlled trials comparing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions with placebo/dummy interventions or usual standards of care in children and adolescents (<18 years old). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The following electronic databases will be searched: Medline (Ovid), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Plus with Full text (EBSCO), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library-Wiley), PsycINFO (ProQuest) and Proquest DissertationsandTheses will be searched from inception to March 2017 for relevant citations of published trials using individualised search strategies prepared for database...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Narges Alianmoghaddam, Suzanne Phibbs, Cheryl Benn
PURPOSE: Scant published qualitative literature exists focusing on why exclusive breastfeeding rates decline between three and six months. This study aims to develop an understanding of why exclusive breastfeeding tails off so dramatically between three and six months after birth in New Zealand. DESIGN AND METHODS: A generic qualitative methodology was employed in this study and social constructionism selected as the main epistemological framework underpinning the research...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Viliam Kováč, Beáta Gavurová
AIM: Poverty and social exclusion is measured through different criteria and one of them is the health sector. The relationship between Roma population and the health sector is on the edge of researchers' interest in the Slovak Republic. The purpose of this paper is a quantification of the regional disparities in the development of mortality which is causally linked with selected infrastructural determinants - namely access to water and sewerage. These determinants differently participate in the structure of mortality in marginalised and segregated communities and they deepen regional disparities in health...
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
John F Hunter, Emily D Hooker, Nicolas Rohleder, Sarah D Pressman
OBJECTIVE: Mobile phones are increasingly becoming a part of the social environment, and when an individual feels excluded during a socially stressful situation, they often retreat to the comfort of their phone to ameliorate the negativity. This study tests whether smartphone presence does, in fact, alter psychological and physiological responses to social stress. METHODS: Participants (N=148, 84% female, mean age=20.4) were subjected to a peer, social-exclusion stressor...
March 8, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Gro Beate Samdal, Eivind Meland, Geir Egil Eide, Sveinung Berntsen, Eirik Abildsnes, Tonje H Stea, Thomas Mildestvedt
AIMS: We examine the characteristics of participants entering Norwegian Healthy Life Centres, their reasons for attending and whether socio-economic status, motivation, self-efficacy and social support relate to physical activity and sedentary behaviour. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is part of a randomised controlled trial. Inclusion criteria are that participants should be ≥ 18 years old and able to take part in a physical activity group intervention. Exclusion criteria are severe mental illness and general learning disability...
March 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Munirah Bangee, Pamela Qualter
Prior research has shown that loneliness is associated with hypervigilance to social threats, with eye-tracking research showing lonely people display a specific attentional bias when viewing social rejection and social exclusion video footage (Bangee, Harris, Bridges, Rotenberg & Qualter, 2014; Qualter, Rotenberg, Barrett et al., 2013). The current study uses eye-tracker methodology to examine whether that attentional bias extends to negative emotional faces and negative social non-rejecting stimuli, or whether it could be explained only as a specific bias to social rejection/exclusion...
March 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Catherine Rex, Marjorie H Charlop, Vicki Spector
In the present study, we used a multiple baseline design across participants to assess the efficacy of a video modeling intervention to teach six children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to assertively respond to bullying. During baseline, the children made few appropriate responses upon viewing video clips of bullying scenarios. During the video modeling intervention, participants viewed videos of models assertively responding to three types of bullying: physical, verbal bullying, and social exclusion...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
S D Dolzani, M V Baratta, J M Moss, N L Leslie, S G Tilden, A T Sørensen, L R Watkins, Y Lin, S F Maier
Stress is a potent etiological factor in the onset of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, significant efforts have been made to identify factors that produce resilience to the outcomes of a later stressor, in hopes of preventing untoward clinical outcomes. The NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has recently emerged as a prophylactic capable of preventing neurochemical and behavioral outcomes of a future stressor. Despite promising results of preclinical studies performed in male rats, the effects of proactive ketamine in female rats remains unknown...
January 2018: ENeuro
Carina Curti Galhardi, Thelma Simões Matsukura
This study aimed to shed light on the daily reality of adolescents in relation to drugs, at a Center for Psychosocial Care for Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAPSad) and the other contexts in which they circulate, analyzed from their own perspective. The study included eight adolescents 12 to 18 years of age enrolled in the CAPSad in a medium-sized city in the interior of São Paulo State, Brazil. Data collection used an identification form for the adolescents and family network and a semi-structured interview. Data analysis used the collective subject discourse (CSD) technique...
March 5, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Marie Juanchich, Lukasz Walasek, Miroslav Sirota
A growing body of evidence suggests that social exclusion impairs people's capacity for active deliberation and logical reasoning. Building on this finding and on the postulate from the dual-process theory that analytical thinking is essential in order to make good judgements and decisions, we hypothesized that social exclusion will alter judgement and choice behaviour. We tested this hypothesis in three experiments in which social exclusion was manipulated using the Cyberball paradigm, an online ball-tossing game in which participants either received the ball a fair number of times or were excluded by the other two players...
March 6, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Kimia Seifi, Hossein Ebrahimi Moghaddam
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of self-care plan on the life quality of patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS). The samples in this study included all the patients with MS under medical coverage of Iranian Association of supporting patients with MS in Tehran in 2015 who were studied as Convenience sampling and based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In this study, Dr. Madani's self-care program as an intervention and The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF for assessment of consequences were used...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
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