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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551394/facial-emotion-processing-in-pediatric-social-anxiety-disorder-relevance-of-situational-context
#1
Daniela Schwab, Anne Schienle
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) typically begins in childhood. Previous research has demonstrated that adult patients respond with elevated late positivity (LP) to negative facial expressions. In the present study on pediatric SAD, we investigated responses to negative facial expressions and the role of social context information. Fifteen children with SAD and 15 non-anxious controls were first presented with images of negative facial expressions with masked backgrounds. Following this, the complete images which included context information, were shown...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550624/social-contexts-modulate-neural-responses-in-the-processing-of-others-pain-an-event-related-potential-study
#2
Fang Cui, Xiangru Zhu, Yuejia Luo
Two hypotheses have been proposed regarding the response that is triggered by observing others' pain: the "empathizing hypothesis" and the "threat value of pain hypothesis." The former suggests that observing others' pain triggers an empathic response. The latter suggests that it activates the threat-detection system. In the present study, participants were instructed to observe pictures that showed an anonymous hand or foot in a painful or non-painful situation in a threatening or friendly social context. Event-related potentials were recorded when the participants passively observed these pictures in different contexts...
May 26, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550368/association-of-poverty-and-social-exclusion-with-body-mass-index-among-special-olympics-athletes-in-europe
#3
Pauli Rintala, Viviene A Temple, Meghann Lloyd, Chris Faro, John T Foley
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of a risk of poverty and social exclusion (AROPE), age, and gender with the body mass index (BMI) status of European Special Olympics athletes. METHODS: BMI records were available for 1905 children and youth and 5517 adults from the Special Olympics International (SOI) Health Promotion database. AROPE was extracted from EU Eurostat statistics. Logistic regression analyses were used to predict BMI status. RESULTS: For children/youth and adults, respectively, 9...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548580/a-review-of-the-impact-of-exclusion-criteria-on-the-generalizability-of-schizophrenia-treatment-research
#4
Keith Humphreys
Treatment research studies employ criteria that determine which patients are eligible to participate and which are not. When such exclusion criteria produce a treatment research sample that is a small and unrepresentative subset of all patients with a particular disease, clinicians may be hesitant to apply the research results in front-line clinical practice. Accordingly, the present paper reviews the English-language literature on exclusion criteria in schizophrenia treatment research and draws initial conclusions about their impact...
2017: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548011/sex-work-and-three-dimensions-of-self-esteem-self-worth-authenticity-and-self-efficacy
#5
Cecilia Benoit, Michaela Smith, Mikael Jansson, Samantha Magnus, Jackson Flagg, Renay Maurice
Sex work is assumed to have a negative effect on self-esteem, nearly exclusively expressed as low self-worth, due to its social unacceptability and despite the diversity of persons, positions and roles within the sex industry. In this study, we asked a heterogeneous sample of 218 Canadian sex workers delivering services in various venues about how their work affected their sense of self. Using thematic analysis based on a three-dimensional conception of self-esteem - self-worth (viewing oneself in a favourable light), authenticity (being one's true self) and self-efficacy (competency) - we shed light on the relationship between involvement in sex work and self-esteem...
May 26, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547852/the-comparative-study-of-empathy-sympathetic-concern-and-empathic-perspective-taking-in-non-human-animals
#6
Ana Pérez-Manrique, Antoni Gomila
While empathy is a century-old psychological concept, its study in non-human animals has become the focus of much recent scientific interest, as it promises to provide the clues to understand the evolutionary origins of our social and moral nature. A review of the comparative study of empathy is thus timely to complement and constrain anthropocentric views, and to integrate current findings. However, this is not an easy task. The study of animal empathy has developed using different paradigms, different concepts of the phenomena involved, and the absence of a systematic program...
May 25, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545574/initiating-change-locally-in-bullying-and-aggression-through-the-school-environment-inclusive-trial-update-to-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#7
Chris Bonell, Anne Mathiot, Elizabeth Allen, Leonardo Bevilacqua, Deborah Christie, Diana Elbourne, Adam Fletcher, Richard Grieve, Rosa Legood, Stephen Scott, Emily Warren, Meg Wiggins, Russell M Viner
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews suggest that multi-component interventions are effective in reducing bullying victimisation and perpetration. We are undertaking a phase III randomised trial of the INCLUSIVE multi-component intervention. This trial aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the INCLUSIVE intervention in reducing aggression and bullying victimisation in English secondary schools. This paper updates the original trial protocol published in 2014 (Trials 15:381, 2014) and presents the changes in the process evaluation protocol and the secondary outcome data collection...
May 25, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545417/community-level-characteristics-and-environmental-factors-of-child-respiratory-illnesses-in-southern-arizona
#8
Nathan Lothrop, Khaleel Hussaini, Dean Billheimer, Paloma Beamer
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory illnesses (LRIs) and asthma are common diseases in children <5 years of age. Few studies have investigated the relationships between multiple, home-based social and environmental risk factors and asthma and LRIs in children. Of those that have, none have focused exclusively on children <5 years of age, who are more physiologically vulnerable and spend more time at home compared to older children. Further, no studies have done so at the community level...
May 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544295/citation-indices-for-social-media-articles-in-urology
#9
Ross J S Calopedos, Cindy Garcia, Prem Rashid, Declan G Murphy, Nathan Lawrentschuk, Henry H Woo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of publications on urological participation in social media (SoMe) by virtue of citations in the urological and non-urological literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: On 15 March 2016, a PubMed search was undertaken using the names of the major SoMe platforms in current use and associated with the field of urology. The search term 'urolog*' was used to specifically capture articles that could be associated with 'urology', 'urologist' or 'urological'...
May 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541750/social-exclusion-in-old-age-a-validation-study-in-hong-kong
#10
Kee-Lee Chou
OBJECTIVES: To validate a measure of social exclusion for older people based on one already in use for the general population. METHODS: A random sample of 2281 older adults (age ranged from 65 to 89; mean age = 74.9; 52.6% females) were successfully interviewed face-to-face at their homes. The structured questionnaire included household income, household expenditure, asset, self-perceived poverty, household composition, socioeconomic characteristics of participants, and a measure of social exclusion...
May 25, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541062/antisocial-and-human-capital-pathways-to-socioeconomic-exclusion-a-42-year-prospective-study
#11
Jukka Savolainen, W Alex Mason, Anna-Liisa Lyyra, Lea Pulkkinen, Katja Kokko
Nordic welfare states have been very successful at reducing poverty and inequality among their citizens. However, the presence of a strong social safety net in these countries has not solved the problem of socioeconomic exclusion, manifesting in such outcomes as chronic unemployment and welfare dependency. In an effort to understand this phenomenon, the current study builds on the assumption that psychological risk factors emerge as important determinants of socioeconomic disadvantage in an environment where ascribed characteristics have less impact on educational and occupational attainment...
May 25, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540259/conceptual-models-of-social-determinants-of-health-a-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Sayyed Morteza Hosseini Shokouh, Mohammad Arab, Sara Emamgholipour, Arash Rashidian, Ali Montazeri, Rouhollah Zaboli
BACKGROUND: There are several conflicting conceptual models to explain social determinants of health (SDH) as responsible for most health inequalities. This study aimed to present these models in historical perspective and provide main component of SDH models as an SES indicators. METHODS: This was a narrative study using international databases to retrieve literature dealing with conceptual models of SDH. All publication in English language until Mar 2015 was included...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539192/shared-decision-making-and-the-promise-of-a-respectful-and-equitable-healthcare-system-in-peru
#13
Germán Málaga, Zoila O Romero, Ariana S Málaga, Sofia Cuba-Fuentes
Peru has achieved sustained development in the last two decades. However, despite this achievement, it has not been matched with improvements in the quality of education and health; investment in both sectors is among the lowest in the region. This situation perpetuates huge gaps in infrastructure and also conditions a poor literacy level of the population specifically in health. Currently, there is a fragmented model of patient care, in which the systems are exclusive of each other. They do not cooperate or communicate with each other; and if there is no vertical communication within the system, preventing referral of patients directly from the basic level to the complex level of care when needed...
May 20, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539119/towards-the-concept-of-disease-modifier-in-post-stroke-or-vascular-cognitive-impairment-a-consensus-report
#14
Régis Bordet, Ralf Ihl, Amos D Korczyn, Giuseppe Lanza, Jelka Jansa, Robert Hoerr, Alla Guekht
BACKGROUND: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a complex spectrum encompassing post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) and small vessel disease-related cognitive impairment. Despite the growing health, social, and economic burden of VCI, to date, no specific treatment is available, prompting the introduction of the concept of a disease modifier. CONSENSUS AND SUGGESTIONS: Within this clinical spectrum, VCI and PSCI remain advancing conditions as neurodegenerative diseases with progression of both vascular and degenerative lesions accounting for cognitive decline...
May 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537958/everyday-life-after-colon-cancer-the-visible-and-invisible-challenges
#15
Susanne Stuhlfauth, Line Melby, Ragnhild Hellesø
BACKGROUND: There is little research regarding how everyday life is affected by colon cancer treatment. Few studies exist that exclusively examine patients with Dukes C colon cancer. Most studies include other types of bowel cancer and different stages. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to explore and describe how colon cancer survivors experience everyday life in general and sexuality in particular after treatment of Dukes C colon cancer. METHODS: The study is exploratory and descriptive and uses semistructured interviews to collect data...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535967/how-the-brain-reacts-to-social-stress-exclusion-a-scoping-review
#16
REVIEW
Huiying Wang, Christoph Braun, Paul Enck
OBJECTIVES: The Cyberball paradigm is often used to study social stress by exclusion/rejection. We aimed to review the existing neuroimaging literatures in order to provide an overview of the neurophysiological mechanisms of social exclusion. METHOD: Literature search was conducted to identify neurophysiological studies that investigated effects of social exclusion on neural activity using the Cyberball game and the relevant influential factors on these effects...
May 20, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535822/social-determinants-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-north-american-indigenous-population-a-review
#17
Kaitlin J Zeiler, Frederick A Zeiler
OBJECTIVE: Given the difficult to navigate literature on social determinants in Indigenous traumatic brain injury (TBI) we wished to identify all available literature on the social determinants of health linked to TBI in the North American Indigenous populations. METHODS: We performed a systematically conducted review. We searched MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Library from inception to January 2016. A two-step review process of the search results was performed, applying defined inclusion/exclusion criteria...
May 24, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531176/stigma-of-addiction-and-mental-illness-in-healthcare-the-case-of-patients-experiences-in-dental-settings
#18
Mario A Brondani, Rana Alan, Leeann Donnelly
OBJECTIVE: To explore the ways in which stigma is experienced in healthcare and dental settings by patients with a history of addiction and mental illness. METHODS: Audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews with a purposefully selected convenience sample of residents from two community treatment centres in Vancouver, Canada were conducted. The interview guide contained questions about experiences while seeking health and dental care and was based on an existing framework of labeling, stereotyping, exclusion, discrimination, and power imbalance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530114/patients-and-healthcare-professionals-perceptions-of-self-management-support-interactions-systematic-review-and-qualitative-synthesis
#19
Marika Franklin, Sophie Lewis, Karen Willis, Helen Bourke-Taylor, Lorraine Smith
Objective To review studies examining the experience of self-management support in patient-provider interactions and the shaping of goals through interactions. Methods We undertook a systematic review and thematic synthesis of the qualitative literature. We searched six databases (2004-2015) for published studies on the provision of self-management support in one-to-one, face-to-face, patient-provider interactions for obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with 14 articles meeting inclusion criteria...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528425/neet-adolescents-grown-up-eight-year-longitudinal-follow-up-of-education-employment-and-mental-health-from-adolescence-to-early-adulthood-in-mexico-city
#20
Raúl A Gutiérrez-García, Corina Benjet, Guilherme Borges, Enrique Méndez Ríos, María Elena Medina-Mora
The purpose is to examine the socio-demographic and mental health outcomes in early adulthood of those who as adolescents were not in education, employment or training, termed NEET, compared to their counterparts who studied, worked, or both. One thousand and seventy-one youth residing in Mexico City participated in a representative, prospective, longitudinal 8-year two-Wave cohort study. At Wave I the participants were aged 12-17 and at Wave II aged 19 and 26. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed psychiatric disorders, substance use and abuse, suicidal behavior, interpersonal relationships, employment and education...
May 20, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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