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social exclusion

Helen Louise Adams, Dharamveer Basude, Alison Kyle, Sarah Sandmann, Siba Prosad Paul
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common cause of non-organic recurrent abdominal pain in children. IBS is a clinical diagnosis, which is based on the Rome IV criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders in children, as well as the patient's history. The diagnosis of IBS is established following the exclusion of organic causes of recurrent abdominal pain. Staggered investigations should be avoided because they might increase the child's and family's anxiety in the absence of an organic diagnosis...
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
Sigrid Bosteels, Michel Vandenbroeck, Geert Van Hove
New-born screening programs for congenital disorders and chronic disease are expanding worldwide and children "at risk" are identified by nationwide tracking systems at the earliest possible stage. These practices are never neutral and raise important social and ethical questions. An emergent concern is that a reflexive professionalism should interrogate the ever earlier interference in children's lives. The Flemish community of Belgium was among the first to generalize the screening for hearing loss in young children and is an interesting case to study the public justification of early interventions for families with deaf children...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Alastair I Ward, Jason K Finney, Sarah E Beatham, Richard J Delahay, Peter A Robertson, David P Cowan
Increasing urbanisation and growth of many wild animal populations can result in a greater frequency of human-wildlife conflicts. However, traditional lethal methods of wildlife control are becoming less favoured than non-lethal approaches, particularly when problems involve charismatic species in urban areas. Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) excavate subterranean burrow systems (setts), which can become large and complex. Larger setts within which breeding takes place and that are in constant use are known as main setts...
2016: PeerJ
Sunny S Kim, Rahul Rawat, Edina M Mwangi, Roman Tesfaye, Yewelsew Abebe, Jean Baker, Edward A Frongillo, Marie T Ruel, Purnima Menon
Optimal breastfeeding (BF) practices in Ethiopia are far below the government's targets, and complementary feeding practices are poor. The Alive & Thrive initiative aimed to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices through large-scale implementation of social and behavior change communication interventions in four regions of Ethiopia. The study assessed the effects of the interventions on IYCF practices and anthropometry over time in two regions-Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region and Tigray...
2016: PloS One
Vijayan Pillai, Ya-Chien Wang, Arati Maleku
Globally, millions of people are affected by war and conflicts every year. However, women have increasingly suffered the greatest harm by war in more different ways than men. We conceptualize a reproductive rights approach toward examining the effects of war on women's reproductive health in developing countries. Given the rising concerns of exclusion to adequately address women's rights, sexual and gender-based violence, and post-conflict accountability, we specifically focus on the limitations of the Minimum Initial Service Package, a UN-sponsored reproductive health service program in conflict zones while offering a broad reproductive rights-based conceptual lens for examining reproductive health care services in war-torn areas...
October 18, 2016: Social Work in Health Care
Clayton P Mosher, Prisca E Zimmerman, Andrew J Fuglevand, Katalin M Gothard
The majority of neurophysiological studies that have explored the role of the primate amygdala in the evaluation of social signals have relied on visual stimuli such as images of facial expressions. Vision, however, is not the only sensory modality that carries social signals. Both humans and nonhuman primates exchange emotionally meaningful social signals through touch. Indeed, social grooming in nonhuman primates and caressing touch in humans is critical for building lasting and reassuring social bonds. To determine the role of the amygdala in processing touch, we recorded the responses of single neurons in the macaque amygdala while we applied tactile stimuli to the face...
September 2016: ENeuro
Juan Yang, Katherine E Atkins, Luzhao Feng, Mingfan Pang, Yaming Zheng, Xinxin Liu, Benjamin J Cowling, Hongjie Yu
BACKGROUND: To explore the current landscape of seasonal influenza vaccination across China, and estimate the budget of implementing a national "free-at-the-point-of-care" vaccination program for priority populations recommended by the World Health Organization. METHODS: In 2014 and 2016, we conducted a survey across provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to collect information on regional reimbursement policies for influenza vaccination, estimated the national uptake using distributed doses of influenza vaccines, and evaluated the budget using population size and vaccine cost obtained from official websites and literatures...
October 13, 2016: Vaccine
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Carsten Engelmann, Gudela Grote, Siegfried Geyer, Dzifa Ametowobla
PURPOSE: Algorithms for surgical operation planning are evidence-based. However, choices sometimes have to be made between medically equal solutions e.g. for staffing of sought-after operations. Such decisions are heavily influenced by micropolitics and power. The article examines the array of highly manipulated processes around operation theatre allocation of convenient time slots or staff, which play out in various ways in all of the world's main regional surgical cultures. METHOD: Essay supported by empiric data from an ethnographic power-analysis targeted to senior executive surgeons...
October 14, 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Yvonne L Hauck, Ingrid Blixt, Ingegerd Hildingsson, Louise Gallagher, Christine Rubertsson, Brooke Thomson, Lucy Lewis
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding initiation rates in some developed countries are high (98 % in Sweden and 96 % in Australia) whereas in others, they are not as favourable (46 % to 55 % in Ireland). Although the World Health Organization recommends exclusively breastfeeding for six months, 15 % of Australian women, 11 % of Swedish women and less than 7 % of Irish women achieve this goal. Awareness of what women in different countries perceive as essential breastfeeding support is a gap in our knowledge...
October 10, 2016: BMC Public Health
Anteneh Girma Minas, Makombo Ganga-Limando
BACKGROUND: Despite the presence of high impact interventions to improve infant and young child feeding, only about 52% of mothers in Ethiopia exclusively breastfeed their child for the first six months after delivery. Although the decision to breastfeed a child is ultimately that of the mother, this decision could be influenced by a variety of factors including social-cognitive ones. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to describe the breastfeeding behaviour of primiparous mothers during their prenatal period in terms of intentions/goals, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and socio-structural factors and assess their exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practices as well as identify the social-cognitive predictors of EBF practices among these mothers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
2016: PloS One
Anat Freund, Tova Band-Winterstein
Community is a complex issue, especially in two particular populations overlap: Haredi society, which embraces cultural codes common to closed communities, and the mental health population characterized by its own unique needs. The present study explores the encounter experience of social workers with the cultural perceptions of mental health clients in the Haredi community in light of Community Cultural Psychiatry. A qualitative-phenomenological approach was adopted. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 social workers, mental health professionals, who are in contact with ultra-Orthodox Jewish clients...
October 8, 2016: Community Mental Health Journal
Maninder Ahuja
INTRODUCTION: Age of menopause is a very important biomarker of not only the loss of fertility but also an increased risk for various mid-life diseases and problems. Many of these diseases can be prevented by timely intervention of lifestyle modification, menopausal hormone therapy, or other supplementations such as calcium, Vitamin D, and micronutrients. In India age of menopause is less than our counterparts in the Western world. This means that the fertility potential of Indian women starts compromising early, so we need to start with the preventive measures much early...
July 2016: Journal of Mid-life Health
Tao Jiang, Liuna Geng, Yanmei Tang, Lijuan Ye
The present study examined how negative feedback influenced implicit self-evaluations and how individuals' level of relational self-construal (RelSC) moderated these relationships. One hundred Chinese university students completed the relational-interdependent self-construal scale and were randomly assigned into one of three conditions (social exclusion, personal failure, or control). After receiving the manipulation, participants completed two Brief Implicit Association Tests (BIATs) that measured their implicit self-liking and self-competence...
September 26, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Pia Maier, Martin E Kaiser, Valery Grinevich, Andreas Draguhn, Martin Both
The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) controls childbirth and lactation, is involved in social behaviors, plays a role in various psychiatric disorders, and has effects on learning and memory. Although behavioral effects of OT have been extensively studied, much less is known about its effects on neuronal and network activity patterns. Here, we investigate the effect of OT on two major patterns of hippocampal network activity in mouse hippocampal slices. We studied different in vitro models of gamma-frequency oscillations and sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R), two patterns implicated in spatial memory formation and memory consolidation respectively...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Leonardo Pozza Santos, Maria Cecília Formoso Assunção, Alicia Matijasevich, Iná S Santos, Aluísio J D Barros
BACKGROUND: Dietary intake patterns of children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study have been described at 12, 24 and 48 months of age, but there is no information about dietary patterns of these children at 6 years. Then, we aimed to identify and describe dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years as well as to assess their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and BMI z-score at 6 years. METHODS: We used principal components analysis to identify dietary intake patterns of 3,427 children from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study...
October 6, 2016: BMC Public Health
Edwine W Barasa, Susan Cleary, Mike English, Sassy Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Priority setting and resource allocation in healthcare organizations often involves the balancing of competing interests and values in the context of hierarchical and politically complex settings with multiple interacting actor relationships. Despite this, few studies have examined the influence of actor and power dynamics on priority setting practices in healthcare organizations. This paper examines the influence of power relations among different actors on the implementation of priority setting and resource allocation processes in public hospitals in Kenya...
September 30, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Sophia Komninou, Victoria Fallon, Jason Christian Grovenor Halford, Joanne Alison Harrold
The majority of research examining the barriers to breastfeeding focuses on the physical challenges faced by mothers rather than the risks of encountering negative emotional and practical feeding experiences. We aimed to quantify the emotional and practical experiences of the overall sample of breastfeeding mothers and identify the differences in the emotional and practical experiences of exclusively breastfeeding mothers and combination feeding mothers, by feeding type and intention. Eight hundred forty-five mothers with infants up to 26 weeks of age and who had initiated breastfeeding were recruited through relevant social media via advertisements providing a link to an online survey...
October 7, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
John P Hegarty, Bradley J Ferguson, Rachel M Zamzow, Landon J Rohowetz, Jeffrey D Johnson, Shawn E Christ, David Q Beversdorf
The beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol benefits some social and communication domains affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and these benefits appear to be associated with increased functional connectivity (FC) in the brain during task performance. FC is implicated in ASD, with the majority of studies suggesting long distance hypo-connectivity combined with regionally specific local hyper-connectivity. The objective in the current investigation was to examine the effect of propranolol on FC at rest and determine whether ASD-specific effects exist...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Benjamin L Compton, Jonathan M Bowman
For individuals in exclusive romantic relationships, the dynamics of sexual experimentation are nuanced. Extradyadic behavior outside of a relationship may be perceived as cheating or infidelity, with much of those perceptions driven by the biological sex of the perceiver. This study significantly reframes seminal research on perceptions of cheating with third-party friends by Kruger et al. (2013), in order to further nuance an evolutionary threat-based model. In doing so, this furthers our understanding of the associated perceptions of individuals in heterosexual relationships when confronted by partners' cheating with their same-sex cross-orientation friends...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
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