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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905081/parasympathetic-cardio-regulation-during-social-interactions-in-individuals-with-obesity-the-influence-of-negative-body-image
#1
Anne Schrimpf, Jana Kube, Jane Neumann, Annette Horstmann, Arno Villringer, Michael Gaebler
Individuals with obesity in Western societies often face weight-related stigmatization and social exclusion. Recurrent exposure to prejudice and negative social feedback alters one's behavior in future social interactions. In this study, we aimed to investigate autonomic nervous system and affective responses to social interactions in individuals with obesity. Women and men with (n = 56) and without (n = 56) obesity participated in episodes of social inclusion and social exclusion using a virtual ball-tossing game...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903556/assessment-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-tunisia-applying-the-framingham-risk-score-to-national-survey-data
#2
O Saidi, D Malouche, M O'Flaherty, N Ben Mansour, H A Skhiri, H Ben Romdhane, L Bezdah
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to assess the socioeconomic determinants of a high 10 year cardiovascular risk in Tunisia. SETTING: We used a national population based cross sectional survey conducted in 2005 in Tunisia comprising 7780 subjects. We applied the non-laboratory version of the Framingham equation to estimate the 10 year cardiovascular risk. PARTICIPANTS: 8007 participants, aged 35-74 years, were included in the sample but effective exclusion of individuals with cardiovascular diseases and cancer resulted in 7780 subjects (3326 men and 4454 women) included in the analysis...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900556/an-investigation-of-relational-risk-and-promotive-factors-associated-with-adolescent-female-aggression
#3
Katie L Cotter, Paul R Smokowski
Despite growing trends in adolescent female aggression, much adolescent aggression research has focused on males to the exclusion of their female counterparts. Using relational-cultural and social role theories, the current study identifies the risk and promotive factors associated with adolescent female aggression. Using data from the Rural Adaptation Project (a 5 year longitudinal panel study of youth from two rural, ethnically diverse, low income counties in North Carolina), a 2-level hierarchical linear model was estimated (N = 3580)...
November 29, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898255/lgbt-identity-untreated-depression-and-unmet-need-for-mental-health-services-by-sexual-minority-women-and-trans-identified-people
#4
Leah S Steele, Andrea Daley, Deone Curling, Margaret F Gibson, Datejie C Green, Charmaine C Williams, Lori E Ross
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that transgender, lesbian, and bisexual people report poorer mental health relative to heterosexuals. However, available research provides little information about mental health service access among the highest need groups within these communities: bisexual women and transgender people. This study compared past year unmet need for mental health care and untreated depression between four groups: heterosexual cisgender (i.e., not transgender) women, cisgender lesbians, cisgender bisexual women, and transgender people...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894151/value-of-the-ultrasound-in-the-study-of-ovarian-reserve-for-prediction-of-oocyte-recovery
#5
Meire Spressão, Antonio Hélio Oliani, Denise Cristina Mós Vaz Oliani
Purpose To identify which methods used in the assessment of the ovarian reserve are exclusive or complementary to identify the best response to follicle development. Methods Retrospective cohort study, involving patients undergoing assisted reproduction treatment at the Instituto de Medicina Reprodutiva e Fetal, from April 2009 to July 2014. Age, biochemical tests, and ultrasound were assessed. The data were analyzed to predict the follicular development and the relation between them, using, for statistical analysis, Statistical Package for Social Sciences software...
October 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894007/infant-attention-to-same-and-other-race-faces
#6
Anantha Singarajah, Jill Chanley, Yoselin Gutierrez, Yoselin Cordon, Bryan Nguyen, Lauren Burakowski, Scott P Johnson
We recorded visual attention to same- and other-race faces in Hispanic and White 11-month-old infants, an age at which face processing is presumably biased by an own-race recognition advantage. Infants viewed pairs of faces differing in race or ethnicity as their eye movements were recorded. We discovered consistently greater attention to Black over Hispanic faces, to Black faces over White faces, and to Hispanic over White faces. Inversion of face stimuli, and infant ethnicity, had little effect on performance...
November 25, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893221/substance-use-and-psychological-distress-is-related-with-accommodation-status-among-homeless-immigrants
#7
Miguel Angel Navarro-Lashayas, Francisco Jose Eiroa-Orosa
Immigrant homelessness constitutes a cruel expression of social exclusion. We analyzed the relation of sociodemographic characteristics with stressful life events, substance use and psychological distress, giving a special importance to the influence of the time spent on the streets and the accommodation status of 107 homeless immigrants. To this end, both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined. Discussion groups with care resources practitioners and service users, were followed by in depth interviews combined with psychometric questionnaires...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892803/attitudes-of-heterosexual-men-and-women-towards-hiv-negative-and-positive-gay-men
#8
Andrea Norcini Pala, Paola Villano, Lauren Clinton
Attitudes of Italian heterosexual men and women towards gay men, both HIV positive and negative, are poorly investigated. Italian culture is still extremely conservative, and provides limited support to the gay community e.g. lack of same-sex marriage recognition. Consequently, gay men experience social exclusion and disparities. The present study explores the association between homophobia and closeness with sexual orientation and HIV status. 261 heterosexual Italian men and women were assessed for feelings of closeness and homophobia after reading a vignette where the character was: C1: heterosexual and HIV negative, C2: Gay and HIV negative or C3: Gay and HIV positive...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890032/ageism-we-are-our-own-worst-enemy
#9
Kerry Sargent-Cox
In 1969, Butler (1969) first coined the term "ageism" to confront "prejudice by one age group toward other age groups" (pp. 243). As with other "isms," such as racism and sexism, ageism leads to bigotry and discrimination, though it is a very distinct beast in that, for the most part, other "isms" refer to those different from ourselves: distinct, mutually exclusive, and impervious groups. Conversely, age is a fluid social construct in which we are all intimately bound as we move through the lifespan, transitioning in and out of different age-groups...
November 28, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889860/rich-but-poor-life-in-the-roman-period-with-extreme-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
REVIEW
Željana Bašić, Ivan Jerković, Ivana Kružić, Šimun Anđelinović
In a Sidonian sarcophagus, from the Late Antique/early Christian period, skeletal remains of two persons were found. One of them, male, 30-50 years old, was found almost completely ankylosed, with highly osteoporotic bones and prominent erosion of joint surfaces. We diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis based on the eroded odontoid process, mandibular condyles, distal humerus, proximal and distal ulna, as well ankylosed hand and foot bones. Despite the fact that ankyloses of vertebrae and sacroiliac joint could point towards ankylosing spondylitis, the lack of typical vertebral ankyloses and new bone formation led to exclusion...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888277/looking-the-world-in-the-face-the-benefits-and-challenges-of-facial-transplantation-for-blind-patients
#11
Katrina A Bramstedt, Jan A Plock
Total bilateral blindness in the setting of facial transplantation is a controversial matter. Some transplant teams exclude these candidates, while others accept them onto their facial transplant waiting list. Using 3 cases, the clinical and ethical complexity of total bilateral blindness is explored. Guidance (medical, psychological, and social) for total bilateral blindness as both an inclusion and exclusion criterion is provided, with the stipulation that total bilateral blindness should not be an automatic exclusion criterion for facial transplantation...
November 25, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888214/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-death-from-cancer-a-42-year-follow-up-from-the-copenhagen-male-study
#12
Magnus Thorsten Jensen, Andreas Holtermann, Hans Bay, Finn Gyntelberg
OBJECTIVES: Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with death from cancer. If follow-up time is short, this association may be confounded by subclinical disease already present at the time of CRF assessment. This study investigates the association between CRF and death from cancer and any cause with 42 years and 44 years of follow-up, respectively. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Middle-aged, employed and cancer-free Danish men from the prospective Copenhagen Male Study, enrolled in 1970-1971, were included...
November 25, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886740/local-peace-and-contemporary-conflict-constructing-commonality-and-exclusion-during-war-in-afghanistan
#13
Daniel Karell
Despite the "local turn" in international peacekeeping and the emphasis on community-centered development during the recent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, it remains poorly understood how local actors-both foreign and indigenous-shape local-level wartime settings. This article explores the processes and consequences of one military unit's efforts to "win hearts and minds" in Afghanistan during 2012-13. The first portion of the analysis examines original textual data with a novel methodological approach depicting the unit's perceptions of commonalities between itself and local actors...
January 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885294/infant-and-young-child-feeding-practices-among-mothers-at-chapagaun-vdc
#14
D Basnet
BACKGROUND: Since childhood under nutrition and mortality are high in Nepal, promotion of infant and young child feeding practices among children is most critical intervention,which contributes to improved nutrition, health and development of children ultimately having impact on child survival. The objective of the study was to identify infant and young child feeding practices. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among mothers visiting Chapagaun Primary Health Care and Resource Centre (PHCRC) with child aged 6-23 months between January1-14, 2016...
May 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884729/rationale-and-design-of-the-coronary-artery-calcium-consortium-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#15
Michael J Blaha, Seamus P Whelton, Mahmoud Al Rifai, Zeina A Dardari, Leslee J Shaw, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Kuni Matsushita, John A Rumberger, Daniel S Berman, Matthew J Budoff, Michael D Miedema, Khurram Nasir
BACKGROUND: Although coronary artery calcium (CAC) has been investigated for over two decades, there is very limited data on the association of CAC with cause of death. The CAC Consortium is a large ongoing multi-center observational cohort of individuals who underwent non-contrast cardiac-gated CAC testing and systematic, prospective, long-term follow-up for mortality with ascertainment of cause of death. METHODS: Four participating institutions from three states within the US (California, Minnesota, and Ohio) have contributed individual-level patient data to the CAC Consortium (spanning years 1991-2010)...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884461/reactivity-to-social-stress-in-ethnic-minority-men
#16
Martin Gevonden, Inez Myin-Germeys, Marieke Wichers, Jan Booij, Wim van den Brink, Ruud van Winkel, Jean-Paul Selten
Repeated exposures to social exclusion, through a process of sensitization, may result in larger responses to experiences of social stress. The current study tested the hypothesis that healthy Moroccan-Dutch men respond stronger to social stress than Dutch controls 1) in daily life, and 2) in an experimental set-up. A general population sample of 50 Moroccan-Dutch and 50 Dutch young adult males were tested with 1) the Experience Sampling Method, a structured diary technique, assessing reactivity to social stress in daily life, and 2) an experimental exposure to social peer evaluation...
November 2, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884216/honour-and-subsistence-invention-credit-and-surgery-in-the-nineteenth-century
#17
Sally Frampton
The origins of contemporary exclusion of surgical methods from patenting lie in the complexities of managing credit claims in operative surgery, recognized in the nineteenth century. While surgical methods were not deemed patentable, surgeons were nevertheless embedded within patent culture. In an atmosphere of heightened awareness about the importance of 'inventors', how surgeons should be recognized and rewarded for their inventions was an important question. I examine an episode during the 1840s which seemed to concretize the inapplicability of patents to surgical practice, before looking at alternatives to patenting, used by surgeons to gain social and financial credit for inventions...
November 25, 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884130/a-profile-of-the-clinical-course-of-cognition-and-comorbidity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-study-the-4c-study-two-complementary-longitudinal-clinical-cohorts-in-the-netherlands
#18
Weiqi Liao, Renske E G Hamel, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Saskia M Oosterveld, Pauline Aalten, Frans R J Verhey, Philip Scheltens, Nicole Sistermans, Yolande A L Pijnenburg, Wiesje M van der Flier, Inez H G B Ramakers, René J F Melis
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous disease trajectories of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia are frequently encountered in clinical practice, but there is still insufficient knowledge to understand the reasons and mechanisms causing this heterogeneity. In addition to correlates of the disorder, patient characteristics such as their health status, social environment, comorbidities and frailty may contribute to variability in trajectories over time. The current paper outlines the study design and the study population of and provides an overview of the data collected in the Clinical Course of Cognition and Comorbidity in Mild Cognitive Impairment (4C-MCI cohort, n = 315) and Dementia (4C-Dementia cohort, n = 331) Study...
November 25, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884095/in-pursuit-of-truth-a-critical-examination-of-meta-analyses-of-cognitive-behavior-therapy
#19
Bruce E Wampold, Christoph Flückiger, A C Del Re, Noah E Yulish, Nickolas D Frost, Brian T Pace, Simon B Goldberg, Scott D Miller, Timothy P Baardseth, Kevin M Laska, Mark J Hilsenroth
OBJECTIVE: Three recent meta-analyses have made the claim, albeit with some caveats, that cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBT) are superior to other psychotherapies, in general or for specific disorders (e.g., social phobia). METHOD: The purpose of the present article was to examine four issues in meta-analysis that mitigate claims of CBT superiority: (a) effect size, power, and statistical significance, (b) focusing on disorder-specific symptom measures and ignoring other important indicators of psychological functioning, (c) problems inherent in classifying treatments provided in primary studies into classes of treatments, and (d) the inclusion of problematic trials, which biases the results, and the exclusion of trials that fail to find differences among treatments...
January 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882247/living-on-the-edge-social-exclusion-and-the-receipt-of-informal-care-in-older-people
#20
Lena Dahlberg, Kevin J McKee
Older people have been identified as being at risk of social exclusion. However, despite the fact that care is commonly required in later life and the majority of that care is provided by informal carers, a connection between social exclusion and informal care-receipt has rarely been considered. The aim of this study was to examine how informal care-receipt is related to social exclusion. A face-to-face questionnaire survey on social exclusion and informal care-receipt was carried out among older people (n = 1255) living in Barnsley, United Kingdom...
2016: Journal of Aging Research
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