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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116437/morality-and-soap-in-engineers-and-social-scientists-the-macbeth-effect-interacts-with-professions
#1
Michael Schaefer
Several studies demonstrate that physical cleansing is actually efficacious to cope with threatened morality, thus demonstrating that physical and moral purity are psychologically interwoven. This so-called Macbeth effect has been explained, for example, by the conceptual metaphor theory that suggests an embodiment of the moral purity metaphor. Recent research draws attention to individual differences when using conceptual metaphors. The present study shows that the moral purity link interacts with different professions...
November 7, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108463/td-the-case-of-diogenes-syndrome-deficit-or-denial
#2
Fiona Ashworth, Anita Rose, Barbara A Wilson
Diogenes Syndrome (DS) is characterised by extreme self-neglect, domestic squalor, hoarding, social withdrawal, and lack of concern and shame for the individual's residential situation. This paper describes TD who was unable to identify emotional expressions of disgust and was borderline-impaired for facial recognition associated with perceptual difficulties. Problems interpreting expressions of disgust were interesting as TD was living in squalor, neglecting himself, and lacked concern for his circumstances...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072188/body-dysmorphic-disorder-latest-neuroanatomical-and-neuropsychological-findings
#3
K Tasios, I Michopoulos
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by a preoccupation with a perceived defect or flaw in physical appearance that is not observable or appears slight to others. It leads to severe distress and functional impairment. Cognitive-behavioural and neurobiological similarities to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have led to its newly conceived classification as an obsessive compulsive related disorder (OCRD). In the process of investigating the neurobiology of BDD, neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have been conducted...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061602/cognitive-bias-modification-for-social-anxiety-in-adults-who-stutter-a-feasibility-study-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Jan McAllister, Sally Gascoine, Amy Carroll, Kate Humby, Mary Kingston, Lee Shepstone, Helen Risebro, Bundy Mackintosh, Tammy Davidson Thompson, Jo Hodgekins
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a computerised treatment for social anxiety disorder for adults who stutter including identification of recruitment, retention and completion rates, large cost drivers and selection of most appropriate outcome measure(s) to inform the design of a future definitive trial. DESIGN: Two-group parallel design (treatment vs placebo), double-blinded feasibility study. PARTICIPANTS: 31 adults who stutter...
October 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048304/trustworthiness-of-a-smile-as-a-function-of-changes-in-the-eye-expression
#5
Andrés Fernández-Martín, Patricia Álvarez-Plaza, Laura Carqué, Manuel G Calvo
BACKGROUND: Trusting other people is necessary for satisfactory and successful social interaction. A person’s perceived trustworthiness is related to perceived facial happiness. We investigated how trustworthy someone with a smiling face looks depending on changes in eye expression. METHOD: Video-clips of dynamic expressions were presented, with different combinations of the mouth (smiling vs. neutral) and the eyes (happy, neutral, surprised, sad, fearful, disgusted, or angry)...
November 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045812/facial-emotion-perception-in-patients-with-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Michelle Edwards, Elizabeth Stewart, Romina Palermo, Suncica Lah
Facial emotion perception is a fundamental social competency relying on a specialised, yet distributed, neural network. This review aimed to determine whether patients with epilepsy have facial emotion perception accuracy impairments overall, or for a subset of emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, sadness, fear, and surprise), and the relationship to epilepsy type, demographic/treatment variables, and brain organisation. Database searches used PRISMA guidelines with strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. Thirty included studies assessed patients with temporal lobe (TLE; n=709), frontocentral (FCE; n=22), and genetic generalised (GGE; n=48) epilepsy...
October 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041941/disentangling-the-effects-of-a-multiple-behaviour-change-intervention-for-diarrhoea-control-in-zambia-a-theory-based-process-evaluation
#7
Katie Greenland, Jenala Chipungu, Joyce Chilekwa, Roma Chilengi, Val Curtis
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death in Zambia. As elsewhere, the disease burden could be greatly reduced through caregiver uptake of existing prevention and treatment strategies. We recently reported the results of the Komboni Housewives intervention which tested a novel strategy employing motives including affiliation and disgust to improve caregiver practice of four diarrhoea control behaviours: exclusive breastfeeding; handwashing with soap; and correct preparation and use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc...
October 17, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030410/shame-and-the-vulnerable-self-in-medical-contexts-the-compassionate-solution
#8
Paul Gilbert
Shame is a powerful experience that plays a vital role in a whole range of aspects of the clinical encounter. Shame experiences can have an impact on our psychological and physiological state and on how we experience ourselves, others and our relationships. The medical encounter is an obvious arena for shame because we are presenting (aspects of) our bodies and minds that can be seen as unattractive and undesirable, diseased, decayed and injured with the various excretions that typically might invite disgust...
October 13, 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020867/activation-of-the-behavioral-immune-system-putting-the-brakes-on-affiliation
#9
Natsumi Sawada, Emilie Auger, John E Lydon
Evolutionary psychologists propose that humans evolved a first line of defense against pathogens: the behavioral immune system (BIS). The BIS is thought to be functionally flexible such that the likelihood and magnitude of BIS activation depends on the individual's perceived vulnerability to disease (PVD). Because conspecifics are sources of infection, the BIS has implications for affiliation. By priming and measuring chronic levels of PVD, we examined PVD's relation to affiliation in zero-acquaintance situations in the laboratory, online, and during speed-dating events...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992398/impact-of-social-cognition-on-alcohol-dependence-treatment-outcome-poorer-facial-emotion-recognition-predicts-relapse-dropout
#10
Claudia I Rupp, Birgit Derntl, Friederike Osthaus, Georg Kemmler, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker
BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence for neurobehavioral deficits in social cognition in alcohol use disorder (AUD), the clinical relevance remains unclear, and little is known about its impact on treatment outcome. This study prospectively investigated the impact of neurocognitive social abilities at treatment onset and on treatment completion. METHODS: Fifty-nine alcohol-dependent patients were assessed with measures of social cognition including three core components of empathy via paradigms measuring: 1) emotion recognition (the ability to recognize emotions via facial expression), 2) emotional perspective taking, and 3) affective responsiveness at the beginning of inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence...
October 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961928/identification-and-perceived-intensity-of-facial-expressions-of-emotion-in-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depression
#11
L D Branco, C Cotrena, A Ponsoni, R Salvador-Silva, S J L Vasconcellos, R P Fonseca
Objective: This study aimed to examine the accuracy in identifying facial expressions and the perceived intensity of emotions of happiness, sadness, disgust, anger, fear, surprise in bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). Method: Ninety-three adult participants (n = 30 BD, 80% female; n = 18 MDD, 72.2% female; n = 45 C, 46.7% female) completed a facial expression task. Stimuli in the task were first presented for 200 ms, followed by 500 ms, and 1000 ms...
September 14, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961668/neurobiological-mediators-of-squalor-dwelling-behavior
#12
David A Kahn
Squalor-dwelling behavior has been characterized as living in conditions so unsanitary that feelings of revulsion are elicited among visitors. This behavior is commonly associated with an insensitivity to distress/disgust and a failure to understand the direness of one's living situation, which leads to social isolation and impairment in quality of life. Etiologically, several associations have been described in the literature, including age-related decline, lower socioeconomic status, and rural dwelling status...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961667/neurobiological-mediators-of-squalor-dwelling-behavior
#13
Manan Gupta, Ram J Bishnoi, Jason E Schillerstrom
Squalor-dwelling behavior has been characterized as living in conditions so unsanitary that feelings of revulsion are elicited among visitors. This behavior is commonly associated with an insensitivity to distress/disgust and a failure to understand the direness of one's living situation, which leads to social isolation and impairment in quality of life. Etiologically, several associations have been described in the literature, including age-related decline, lower socioeconomic status, and rural dwelling status...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960589/emotion-recognition-in-face-and-body-motion-in-bulimia-nervosa
#14
Marcela Marin Dapelo, Simon Surguladze, Robin Morris, Kate Tchanturia
Social cognition has been studied extensively in anorexia nervosa (AN), but there are few studies in bulimia nervosa (BN). This study investigated the ability of people with BN to recognise emotions in ambiguous facial expressions and in body movement. Participants were 26 women with BN, who were compared with 35 with AN, and 42 healthy controls. Participants completed an emotion recognition task by using faces portraying blended emotions, along with a body emotion recognition task by using videos of point-light walkers...
November 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949019/flashing-a-smile-startle-eyeblink-modulation-by-masked-affective-faces
#15
Elizabeth R Duval, Christopher T Lovelace, Katherine Gimmestad, Justin Aarant, Diane L Filion
Affective faces are important stimuli with relevance to healthy and abnormal social and affective information processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of brief presentations of affective faces on attention and emotional state across the time course of stimulus processing, as indexed by startle eyeblink response modulation. Healthy adults were presented with happy, neutral, and disgusted male and female faces that were backward masked by neutral faces. Startle responses were elicited at 300, 800, and 3,500 ms following stimulus presentation to probe early and late startle eyeblink modulation, indicative of attention allocation and emotional state, respectively...
September 26, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947180/oxytocin-selectively-modulates-brain-processing-of-disgust-in-huntington-s-disease-gene-carriers
#16
Izelle Labuschagne, Govinda Poudel, Catarina Kordsachia, Qizhu Wu, Hannah Thomson, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Julie C Stout
People with Huntington's disease (HD) exhibit altered processing of emotional information, especially disgust and other negative emotions. These impairments are likely due to the effects of the disease on underlying brain networks. We examined whether oxytocin, when given intranasally, would normalise aberrant brain reactivity to emotional faces in participants with the gene-expansion for HD. In a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, we measured brain activity, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, whilst nine medication-free HD carriers, and ten control participants viewed emotional (disgust, fear, angry, sad, surprise, happy) and neutral faces, following acute intranasal oxytocin (24IU) and placebo...
September 23, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917441/recognition-of-peer-emotions-in-children-with-adhd-evidence-from-an-animated-facial-expressions-task
#17
Aiste Jusyte, Marco Daniel Gulewitsch, Michael Schönenberg
A growing body of literature suggests that ADHD is associated with emotion recognition impairments that may be linked to deficient interpersonal functioning. However, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these recognition impairments is extremely limited. Here, we used dynamic stimuli to investigate whether impaired emotion recognition in children with ADHD may be associated with impairments in perceptual sensitivity. Participants (ADHD: N = 26; Controls: N = 26) viewed video sequences of neutral faces slowly developing into one of the six basic emotional expressions (angry, happy, fearful, sad, disgusted and surprised) and were instructed to indicate via a button press the precise moment at which they were able to correctly recognize the emotional expression...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903674/social-traces-of-generic-humans-increase-the-value-of-everyday-objects
#18
Veronika Job, Jana Nikitin, Sophia X Zhang, Priyanka B Carr, Gregory M Walton
Past research finds that people behave as though the particular qualities of specific, strongly valenced individuals "rub off" on objects. People thus value a sweater worn by George Clooney but are disgusted by one worn by Hitler. We hypothesized that social traces of generic humans can also adhere to objects, increasing their value. Experiments 1 and 2 found that simply marking that consumer products (mugs, giftwrap) were made by generic strangers (e.g., "by people using machines" vs. "by machines run by people") increased their perceived value...
June 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887795/social-anxiety-and-attentional-biases-a-top-down-contribution
#19
Hannah L Boal, B K Christensen, S C Goodhew
Selective attention toward threatening facial expressions has been found to precipitate and maintain symptoms of social anxiety. However, the automaticity of this bias is under debate. In the present study, we aimed to test whether top-down (controlled) engagement and disengagement of attention toward threatening faces is associated with social anxiety. This was examined by testing the impact of a secondary working memory (WM) load on attentional biases. In a variation of the dot-probe task, participants' attention was initially cued to the left or right of fixation before an upright face paired with an inverted face was presented (displaying a disgust or neutral expression), and participants responded to a subsequently presented probe...
September 8, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883626/moral-judgment-modulation-by-disgust-priming-via-altered-fronto-temporal-functional-connectivity
#20
Julian Lim, Yoanna A Kurnianingsih, How Hwee Ong, O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman
Moral judgments are not just the product of conscious reasoning, but also involve the integration of social and emotional information. Irrelevant disgust stimuli modulate moral judgments, with individual sensitivity determining the direction and size of effects across both hypothetical and incentive-compatible experimental designs. We investigated the neural circuitry underlying this modulation using fMRI in 19 individuals performing a moral judgment task with subliminal priming of disgust facial expressions...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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