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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774788/emotions-as-guardians-of-group-norms-expressions-of-anger-and-disgust-drive-inferences-about-autonomy-and-purity-violations
#1
Marc W Heerdink, Lukas F Koning, Evert A van Doorn, Gerben A van Kleef
Other people's emotional reactions to a third person's behaviour are potentially informative about what is appropriate within a given situation. We investigated whether and how observers' inferences of such injunctive norms are shaped by expressions of anger and disgust. Building on the moral emotions literature, we hypothesised that angry and disgusted expressions produce relative differences in the strength of autonomy-based versus purity-based norm inferences. We report three studies (plus three supplementary studies) using different types of stimuli (vignette-based, video clips) to investigate how emotional reactions shape norms about potential norm violations (eating snacks, drinking alcohol), and contexts (groups of friends, a university, a company)...
May 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766462/disgust-and-fear-common-emotions-between-eating-and-phobic-disorders
#2
Rami Bou Khalil, Ibrahim R Bou-Orm, Yara Tabet, Lama Souaiby, Hayat Azouri
Eating disorders (ED) are prevalent mental illnesses composed mainly of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorders. Anxiety disorders are another set of mental illnesses, with phobic disorder (PD) being the most prevalent disorder. ED and PD are highly comorbid. The aim of this study is to assess, in 131 individuals attending an outpatient clinic for different health issues, the level of fear related to situations generating avoidance such as in social anxiety and specific phobias according to the fear questionnaire (FQ), the level of disgust according to the disgust scale (DS-R) and the vulnerability towards ED according to the SCOFF scale to demonstrate that high levels of both fear and disgust increase the vulnerability towards ED...
May 15, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758391/the-impact-bias-in-self-and-others-affective-and-empathic-forecasting-in-individuals-with-social-anxiety
#3
Kimberly A Arditte Hall, Jutta Joormann, Matthias Siemer, Kiara R Timpano
People tend to overestimate the intensity and duration of affect (i.e., impact bias) when making predictions about their own and others' responding, termed affective and empathic forecasting, respectively. Research links impact biases to clinical symptoms of affective disorders, but little work has been done to examine how social anxiety is related to affective and empathic forecasting biases. The current investigation included two studies examining these associations in independent samples of young adults with dimensionally distributed social anxiety symptoms...
May 7, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735197/effect-of-parkinson-disease-on-emotion-perception-using-the-persian-affective-voices-test
#4
Arezoo Saffarian, Yunes Amiri Shavaki, Gholam Ali Shahidi, Zahra Jafari
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Emotion perception plays a major role in proper communication with people in different social interactions. Nonverbal affect bursts can be used to evaluate vocal emotion perception. The present study was a preliminary step to establishing the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV) test, as well as to investigate the effect of Parkinson disease (PD) on vocal emotion perception. METHODS: The short, emotional sound made by pronouncing the vowel "a" in Persian was recorded by 22 actors and actresses to develop the Persian version of the MAV, the Persian Affective Voices (PAV), for emotions of happiness, sadness, pleasure, pain, anger, disgust, fear, surprise, and neutrality...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620406/visual-scanning-of-the-eye-region-of-human-faces-predicts-emotion-recognition-performance-in-huntington-s-disease
#5
Catarina C Kordsachia, Izelle Labuschagne, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has consistently shown that the ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions is impaired in Huntington's disease (HD). The aim of this study was to examine whether people with the gene expansion for HD visually scan the most emotionally informative features of human faces less than unaffected individuals, and whether altered visual scanning predicts emotion recognition in HD beyond general disease-related decline. METHOD: We recorded eye movements of 25 participants either in the late premanifest or early stage of HD and 25 age-matched healthy control participants during a face-viewing task...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602534/an-investigation-of-emotion-recognition-training-to-reduce-symptoms-of-social-anxiety-in-adolescence
#6
Caroline Rawdon, Daria Murphy, Gillian Motyer, Marcus R Munafò, Ian Penton-Voak, Amanda Fitzgerald
This study aimed to examine the effect of emotion recognition training on social anxiety symptoms among adolescents, aged 15-18 years. The study included a screening session, which identified participants who scored above a cut-off on a self-report measure of social anxiety for enrolment into a randomized controlled trial (Clinical Trials ID: NCT02550379). Participants were randomized to an intervention condition designed to increase the perception of happiness over disgust in ambiguous facial expressions or a sham intervention control condition, and completed self-report measures of social anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, anxiety-related disorders, and depressive symptoms...
February 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595298/decision-making-and-socioeconomic-disparities-in-colonoscopy-screening-in-african-americans
#7
Marc T Kiviniemi, Lynne B Klasko-Foster, Deborah O Erwin, Lina Jandorf
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in colorectal cancer screening are persistent. Lower education and income are both associated with lower screening rates. Both cognitive (e.g., perceived barriers) and affective (e.g., disgust, fear) decision-making constructs are known determinants of colorectal cancer screening behavior. This study tests the hypotheses that SES may be related to decision-making constructs and that this SES-decision-making construct relation may contribute to explaining the SES-screening behavior disparity...
March 29, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587205/affective-impairments-in-binge-drinking-investigation-through-emotional-facial-expression-decoding
#8
Séverine Lannoy, Valérie Dormal, Mélanie Brion, Baptiste Gaudelus, Joël Billieux, Pierre Maurage
OBJECTIVE: Binge drinking, an excessive alcohol consumption pattern frequently observed in young people, is known to be associated with psychological and cerebral deficits. While cognitive dysfunctions have been widely investigated, emotional abilities have scarcely been explored. Such an exploration would however offer a more exhaustive understanding of the deficits associated with binge drinking, as well as of the possible transition towards alcohol-dependence. METHODS: 46 young adults (23 binge drinkers, 12 women; 23 control participants, 12 women) were recruited among university students...
March 16, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575660/subthreshold-social-cognitive-deficits-may-be-a-key-to-distinguish-22q11-2ds-from-schizophrenia
#9
Elodie Peyroux, Caroline Rigard, Guillaume Saucourt, Alice Poisson, Julien Plasse, Nicolas Franck, Caroline Demily
AIM: Social cognitive impairments are core features in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Indeed, adults with 22q.11.2 DS often have poorer social competence as well as poorer performance on measures of social cognitive skills (emotion recognition and theory of mind, ToM) compared with typically developing people. However, studies comparing specific social cognitive components in 22q11.2DS and SCZ have not yet been widely conducted. METHODS: In this study we compared performances of 22q11...
March 25, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515834/body-odour-disgust-sensitivity-predicts-authoritarian-attitudes
#10
Marco Tullio Liuzza, Torun Lindholm, Caitlin B Hawley, Marie Gustafsson Sendén, Ingrid Ekström, Mats J Olsson, Jonas K Olofsson
Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in authoritarianism...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414491/how-will-e-cigarettes-affect-health-inequalities-applying-bourdieu-to-smoking-and-cessation
#11
Frances Thirlway
This paper uses the work of Bourdieu to theorise smoking and cessation through a class lens, showing that the struggle for distinction created the social gradient in smoking, with smoking stigma operating as a proxy for class stigma. This led to increased policy focus on the health of bystanders and children and later also to concerns about electronic cigarettes. Bourdieu's concept of habitus is deployed to argue that the e-cigarette helps middle-class smokers resolve smoking as a symptom of cleft habitus associated with social mobility or particular subcultures...
April 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413820/the-influence-of-non-clinical-eating-related-psychopathology-on-the-recognition-of-emotion-from-static-faces-and-realistic-social-interactions
#12
Deborah J Wallis, Nathan Ridout, Emma Sharpe
Emotion recognition deficits have consistently been reported in clinical and sub-clinical disordered eating. However, most studies have used static faces, despite the dynamic nature of everyday social interactions. The current aims were to confirm previous findings of emotion recognition deficits in non-clinical disordered eating and to determine if these deficits would be more evident in response to static as compared to dynamic emotional stimuli. We also aimed to establish if these emotion recognition deficits could be explained by comorbid psychopathology (depression, anxiety or alexithymia)...
January 31, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334821/development-and-validation-of-a-facial-expression-database-based-on-the-dimensional-and-categorical-model-of-emotions
#13
Tomomi Fujimura, Hiroyuki Umemura
The present study describes the development and validation of a facial expression database comprising five different horizontal face angles in dynamic and static presentations. The database includes twelve expression types portrayed by eight Japanese models. This database was inspired by the dimensional and categorical model of emotions: surprise, fear, sadness, anger with open mouth, anger with closed mouth, disgust with open mouth, disgust with closed mouth, excitement, happiness, relaxation, sleepiness, and neutral (static only)...
January 15, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334020/gender-atypical-personality-or-sexual-behavior-what-is-disgusting-about-male-homosexuality
#14
T Andrew Caswell, Kyrsten Sackett-Fox
Research consistently finds that homosexuality elicits strong feelings of disgust, but the reasons remain unclear. In the current research, we investigate responses to gay men who violate social norms governing the expression of gender and sexuality. Two hundred forty-three college undergraduates read a vignette about a gay male college student whose personality traits (masculine, feminine, or neutral) and sexual behavior (active vs. passive) varied and reported their affective responses to and cognitive appraisals of the target...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331756/-you-re-repulsive-limits-to-acceptable-drunken-comportment-for-young-adults
#15
Sarah MacLean, Amy Pennay, Robin Room
BACKGROUND: Researchers have described a 'culture of intoxication' among young people. Yet drunkenness remains a socially risky practice with potential to evoke emotions of irritation and even disgust. We consider intoxicated practices that young adults in Melbourne, Australia, described as distasteful, to identify contemporary cultural forces that constrain intoxication and limit how it is enacted. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with 60 participants in Melbourne, Australia, each with recent drinking experience...
March 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274008/selective-impairment-of-basic-emotion-recognition-in-people-with-autism-discrimination-thresholds-for-recognition-of-facial-expressions-of-varying-intensities
#16
Yongning Song, Yuji Hakoda
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by early onset qualitative impairments in reciprocal social development. However, whether individuals with ASD exhibit impaired recognition of facial expressions corresponding to basic emotions is debatable. To investigate subtle deficits in facial emotion recognition, we asked 14 children diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA)/AS and 17 typically developing peers to complete a new highly sensitive test of facial emotion recognition. The test stimuli comprised faces expressing increasing degrees of emotional intensity that slowly changed from a neutral to a full-intensity happiness, sadness, surprise, anger, disgust, or fear expression...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249960/behavioral-and-neuroimaging-evidence-for-facial-emotion-recognition-in-elderly-korean-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia
#17
Soowon Park, Taehoon Kim, Seong A Shin, Yu Kyeong Kim, Bo Kyung Sohn, Hyeon-Ju Park, Jung-Hae Youn, Jun-Young Lee
Background: Facial emotion recognition (FER) is impaired in individuals with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) when compared to healthy older adults. Since deficits in emotion recognition are closely related to caregiver burden or social interactions, researchers have fundamental interest in FER performance in patients with dementia. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the performance profiles of six facial emotions (i.e., fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, and happiness) and neutral faces measured among Korean healthy control (HCs), and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and FTD...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218819/a-conceptual-model-of-the-risk-of-elder-abuse-posed-by-incontinence-and-care-dependence
#18
Joan Ostaszkiewicz
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe and critically analyse the thinking that led to the concept of an association between incontinence, care dependence and elder abuse. BACKGROUND: Coercive or abusive continence care practices include chastising a person for their incontinence and overriding their attempts to resist continence care. Neglect in continence care is characterised by withholding or delaying responding to requests for help to maintain continence or to manage incontinence, and restricting a person's access to toileting assistance, incontinence aids or hygiene care...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159755/emotions-and-cognitions-associated-with-the-stigma-of-non-offending-pedophilia-a-vignette-experiment
#19
Sara Jahnke
Cognitive and affective antecedents of the desire to avoid or punish non-offending pedophilic individuals are not well understood. In this article, we examined the effects of non-offending motivation (internal vs. external) and sexual orientation (pedophilic vs. teleiophilic) on cognitive apprehensions (amorality, dangerousness, abnormality), emotions (fear, anger, disgust), punitive attitudes, and social distance toward a man experiencing a sexually transgressive impulse. A total of 205 U.S.-based MTurk workers were randomly assigned to one of four groups in this 2 × 2 factorial vignette study...
February 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116437/morality-and-soap-in-engineers-and-social-scientists-the-macbeth-effect-interacts-with-professions
#20
Michael Schaefer
Several studies demonstrate that physical cleansing is actually efficacious to cope with threatened morality, thus demonstrating that physical and moral purity are psychologically interwoven. This so-called Macbeth effect has been explained, for example, by the conceptual metaphor theory that suggests an embodiment of the moral purity metaphor. Recent research draws attention to individual differences when using conceptual metaphors. The present study shows that the moral purity link interacts with different professions...
November 7, 2017: Psychological Research
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