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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#1
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002755/meta-analysis-of-social-cognition-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#2
Emre Bora
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with executive dysfunction and behavioural impairment. Recent studies suggested that social cognitive deficits might also be a prominent feature of ALS. Current meta-analysis aimed to summarize available evidence for deficits in social cognition including theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition in ALS. In this meta-analysis of 15 studies, facial emotion recognition and ToM performances of 389 patients with ALS and 471 healthy controls were compared. ALS was associated with significant impairments with medium effect sizes in ToM (d = ...
December 5, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994562/the-tomenovela-a-photograph-based-stimulus-set-for-the-study-of-social-cognition-with-high-ecological-validity
#3
Maike C Herbort, Jenny Iseev, Christopher Stolz, Benedict Roeser, Nora Großkopf, Torsten Wüstenberg, Rainer Hellweg, Henrik Walter, Isabel Dziobek, Björn H Schott
We present the ToMenovela, a stimulus set that has been developed to provide a set of normatively rated socio-emotional stimuli showing varying amount of characters in emotionally laden interactions for experimental investigations of (i) cognitive and (ii) affective Theory of Mind (ToM), (iii) emotional reactivity, and (iv) complex emotion judgment with respect to Ekman's basic emotions (happiness, anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, Ekman and Friesen, 1975). Stimuli were generated with focus on ecological validity and consist of 190 scenes depicting daily-life situations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993262/-the-recognition-of-emotions-empathy-and-moral-judgment-in-the-national-mental-health-survey-in-colombia-2015
#4
Diana Matallana, Carlos Gómez-Restrepo, Paulina Ramirez, Nathalie Tamayo Martínez, Martin Rondon
BACKGROUND: Social cognition refers to the mental processes involved in social interactions. Different aspects, such as the perception of others, self-knowledge, motivation and the cultural context, can modulate empathy responses and moral judgments regarding the actions of others. The National Mental Health Survey (ENSM for its acronym in Spanish) explored aspects of social cognition such as the perception of emotions, empathy and moral judgment in situations in which another person experiences pain...
December 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942030/identification-of-emotional-facial-expressions-effects-of-expression-intensity-and-sex-on-eye-gaze
#5
Laura Jean Wells, Steven Mark Gillespie, Pia Rotshtein
The identification of emotional expressions is vital for social interaction, and can be affected by various factors, including the expressed emotion, the intensity of the expression, the sex of the face, and the gender of the observer. This study investigates how these factors affect the speed and accuracy of expression recognition, as well as dwell time on the two most significant areas of the face: the eyes and the mouth. Participants were asked to identify expressions from female and male faces displaying six expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise), each with three levels of intensity (low, moderate, and normal)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928745/perceived-emotion-genuineness-normative-ratings-for-popular-facial-expression-stimuli-and-the-development-of-perceived-as-genuine-and-perceived-as-fake-sets
#6
Amy Dawel, Luke Wright, Jessica Irons, Rachael Dumbleton, Romina Palermo, Richard O'Kearney, Elinor McKone
In everyday social interactions, people's facial expressions sometimes reflect genuine emotion (e.g., anger in response to a misbehaving child) and sometimes do not (e.g., smiling for a school photo). There is increasing theoretical interest in this distinction, but little is known about perceived emotion genuineness for existing facial expression databases. We present a new method for rating perceived genuineness using a neutral-midpoint scale (-7 = completely fake; 0 = don't know; +7 = completely genuine) that, unlike previous methods, provides data on both relative and absolute perceptions...
December 7, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917148/corrigendum-distrust-as-a-disease-avoidance-strategy-individual-differences-in-disgust-sensitivity-regulate-generalized-social-trust
#7
Lene Aarøe, Mathias Osmundsen, Michael Bang Petersen
[This corrects the article on p. 1038 in vol. 7, PMID: 27516744.].
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867367/mentalizing-and-information-propagation-through-social-network-evidence-from-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#8
Huijun Zhang, Lei Mo
Microblogs is one of the main social networking channels by which information is spread. Among them, Sina Weibo is one of the largest social networking channels in China. Millions of users repost information from Sina Weibo and share embedded emotion at the same time. The present study investigated participants' propensity to repost microblog messages of positive, negative, or neutral valence, and studied the neural correlates during resting state with the reposting rate of each type microblog messages. Participants preferred to repost negative messages relative to positive and neutral messages...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859959/when-preschoolers-follow-their-eyes-and-older-children-follow-their-noses-visuo-olfactory-social-affective-matching-in%C3%A2-childhood
#9
Annachiara Cavazzana, Christiane Wesarg, Julia Parish-Morris, Johan N Lundström, Valentina Parma
Recognition of emotional facial expressions is a crucial skill for adaptive behavior that most often occurs in a multi-sensory context. Affective matching tasks have been used across development to investigate how people integrate facial information with other senses. Given the relative affective strength of olfaction and its relevance in mediating social information since birth, we assessed olfactory-visual matching abilities in a group of 140 children between the ages of 3 and 11 years old. We presented one of three odor primes (rose, fish and no-odor, rated as pleasant or unpleasant by individual children) before a facial choice task (happy vs...
November 17, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856343/brain-response-to-masked-and-unmasked-facial-emotions-as-a-function-of-implicit-and-explicit-personality-self-concept-of-extraversion
#10
Thomas Suslow, Harald Kugel, Christian Lindner, Udo Dannlowski, Boris Egloff
Extraversion-introversion is a personality dimension referring to individual differences in social behavior. In the past, neurobiological research on extraversion was almost entirely based upon questionnaires which inform about the explicit self-concept. Today, indirect measures are available that tap into the implicit self-concept of extraversion which is assumed to result from automatic processing functions. In our study, brain activation while viewing facial expression of affiliation relevant (i.e., happiness, and disgust) and irrelevant (i...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832185/bats-and-academics-how-do-scientists-perceive-their-object-of-study
#11
Christophe Boëte, Serge Morand
Bats are associated with conflicting perceptions among humans, ranging from affection to disgust. If these attitudes can be associated with various factors among the general public (e.g. social norms, lack of knowledge), it is also important to understand the attitude of scientists who study bats. Such reflexive information on the researchers community itself could indeed help designing adequate mixed communication tools aimed at protecting bats and their ecosystems, as well as humans living in their vicinity that could be exposed to their pathogens...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791090/parasite-stress-and-pathogen-avoidance-relate-to-distinct-dimensions-of-political-ideology-across-30-nations
#12
Joshua M Tybur, Yoel Inbar, Lene Aarøe, Pat Barclay, Fiona Kate Barlow, Mícheál de Barra, D Vaughn Becker, Leah Borovoi, Incheol Choi, Jong An Choi, Nathan S Consedine, Alan Conway, Jane Rebecca Conway, Paul Conway, Vera Cubela Adoric, Dilara Ekin Demirci, Ana María Fernández, Diogo Conque Seco Ferreira, Keiko Ishii, Ivana Jakšić, Tingting Ji, Florian van Leeuwen, David M G Lewis, Norman P Li, Jason C McIntyre, Sumitava Mukherjee, Justin H Park, Boguslaw Pawlowski, Michael Bang Petersen, David Pizarro, Gerasimos Prodromitis, Pavol Prokop, Markus J Rantala, Lisa M Reynolds, Bonifacio Sandin, Bariş Sevi, Delphine De Smet, Narayanan Srinivasan, Shruti Tewari, Cameron Wilson, Jose C Yong, Iris Žeželj
People who are more avoidant of pathogens are more politically conservative, as are nations with greater parasite stress. In the current research, we test two prominent hypotheses that have been proposed as explanations for these relationships. The first, which is an intragroup account, holds that these relationships between pathogens and politics are based on motivations to adhere to local norms, which are sometimes shaped by cultural evolution to have pathogen-neutralizing properties. The second, which is an intergroup account, holds that these same relationships are based on motivations to avoid contact with outgroups, who might pose greater infectious disease threats than ingroup members...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741285/perception-of-emotional-facial-expressions-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-at-behavioural-and-brain-metabolic-level
#13
Helena E A Aho-Özhan, Jürgen Keller, Johanna Heimrath, Ingo Uttner, Jan Kassubek, Niels Birbaumer, Albert C Ludolph, Dorothée Lulé
INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily impairs motor abilities but also affects cognition and emotional processing. We hypothesise that subjective ratings of emotional stimuli depicting social interactions and facial expressions is changed in ALS. It was found that recognition of negative emotions and ability to mentalize other's intentions is reduced. METHODS: Processing of emotions in faces was investigated. A behavioural test of Ekman faces expressing six basic emotions was presented to 30 ALS patients and 29 age-, gender and education matched healthy controls...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740965/oxytocin-social-factors-and-the-expression-of-conditioned-disgust-anticipatory-nausea-in-male-rats
#14
Nathalie P Boulet, Caylen J Cloutier, Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp, Martin Kavaliers
Disgust has been proposed to have evolved as a means to rid the body and mouth of noxious substances and toxins, as well as to motivate and facilitate avoidance of contact with disease-causing organisms and infectious materials. Nonemetic species, such as the rat, show distinctive facial expressions, including the gaping reaction, indicative of nausea-based disgust. These conditioned disgust responses can be used to model anticipatory nausea in humans, which is a learned response observed following chemotherapy treatment...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732103/efficacy-of-the-social-cognition-training-program-in-a-sample-of-outpatients-with-schizophrenia
#15
David Gil-Sanz, Mar Fernández-Modamio, Rosario Bengochea-Seco, Marta Arrieta-Rodríguez, Gabriela Pérez-Fuentes
OBJECTIVE: Social cognition is recognized to be a deficit in individuals suffering from schizophrenia. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between social cognition and social functioning in outpatients with schizophrenia through the use of different social cognition training programs. This study examines the efficacy of the Social Cognition Training Program (PECS in Spanish) in adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. METHODS: Data were derived from a sample of 44 non-hospitalized adult patients who presented with a DSM-IV-TR Axis I diagnosis of schizophrenia and 39 healthy controls...
December 0: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708460/respectability-morality-and-disgust-in-the-night-time-economy-exploring-reactions-to-lap-dance-clubs-in-england-and-wales
#16
Phil Hubbard, Rachela Colosi
The night-time economy is often described as repelling consumers fearful of the 'undesirable Others' imagined dominant within such time-spaces. In this paper we explore this by describing attitudes towards, and reactions to, one particularly contentious site: the 'lap dance' club. Often targeted by campaigners in England and Wales as a source of criminality and anti-sociality, in this paper we shift the focus from fear to disgust, and argue that Sexual Entertainment Venues (SEVs) are opposed on the basis of moral judgments that reflect distinctions of both class and gender...
November 2015: Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685155/detecting-transient-emotional-responses-with-improved-self-report-measures-and-instructions
#17
Cindy Harmon-Jones, Brock Bastian, Eddie Harmon-Jones
Psychological research often yields null results on self-reported emotion as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), even when using manipulations that might intuitively be expected to be emotionally impactful. Three studies reported here support the hypothesis that changes in self-reported negative emotion may be detected more sensitively when discrete emotions are measured rather than by either PANAS NA or a measure created by combining discrete emotions, and when participants were instructed to report how they felt during an emotion-eliciting event versus how they felt afterward...
October 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684362/preemptive-strikes-fear-hope-and-defensive-aggression
#18
Nir Halevy
Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas...
February 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668086/cognitive-dysfunction-predicts-poorer-emotion-recognition-in-bariatric-surgery-candidates
#19
L Manderino, M B Spitznagel, G Strain, M Devlin, R Cohen, R D Crosby, J E Mitchell, J Gunstad
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in traditional cognitive domains (e.g. executive function and memory) are common in persons with severe obesity, but it is unclear if this pattern of dysfunction extends to social cognition. The present study examined whether cognitive impairment was associated with poorer emotion recognition in bariatric surgery candidates. METHODS: One hundred sixteen bariatric surgery candidates (mean age = 43.62 ± 11.03; 81% female) completed the computerized Integneuro test battery as part of a larger study visit...
December 2015: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663585/the-change-in-facial-emotion-recognition-ability-in-inpatients-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-after-electroconvulsive-therapy
#20
Mihriban Dalkıran, Akif Tasdemir, Tamer Salihoglu, Murat Emul, Alaattin Duran, Mufit Ugur, Ruhi Yavuz
People with schizophrenia have impairments in emotion recognition along with other social cognitive deficits. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the immediate benefits of ECT on facial emotion recognition ability. Thirty-two treatment resistant patients with schizophrenia who have been indicated for ECT enrolled in the study. Facial emotion stimuli were a set of 56 photographs that depicted seven basic emotions: sadness, anger, happiness, disgust, surprise, fear, and neutral faces. The average age of the participants was 33...
September 23, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
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