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social disgust

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867367/mentalizing-and-information-propagation-through-social-network-evidence-from-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#1
Huijun Zhang, Lei Mo
Microblogs is one of the main social networking channels by which information is spread. Among them, Sina Weibo is one of the largest social networking channels in China. Millions of users repost information from Sina Weibo and share embedded emotion at the same time. The present study investigated participants' propensity to repost microblog messages of positive, negative, or neutral valence, and studied the neural correlates during resting state with the reposting rate of each type microblog messages. Participants preferred to repost negative messages relative to positive and neutral messages...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859959/when-preschoolers-follow-their-eyes-and-older-children-follow-their-noses-visuo-olfactory-social-affective-matching-in%C3%A2-childhood
#2
Annachiara Cavazzana, Christiane Wesarg, Julia Parish-Morris, Johan N Lundström, Valentina Parma
Recognition of emotional facial expressions is a crucial skill for adaptive behavior that most often occurs in a multi-sensory context. Affective matching tasks have been used across development to investigate how people integrate facial information with other senses. Given the relative affective strength of olfaction and its relevance in mediating social information since birth, we assessed olfactory-visual matching abilities in a group of 140 children between the ages of 3 and 11 years old. We presented one of three odor primes (rose, fish and no-odor, rated as pleasant or unpleasant by individual children) before a facial choice task (happy vs...
November 17, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856343/brain-response-to-masked-and-unmasked-facial-emotions-as-a-function-of-implicit-and-explicit-personality-self-concept-of-extraversion
#3
Thomas Suslow, Harald Kugel, Christian Lindner, Udo Dannlowski, Boris Egloff
Extraversion-introversion is a personality dimension referring to individual differences in social behavior. In the past, neurobiological research on extraversion was almost entirely based upon questionnaires which inform about the explicit self-concept. Today, indirect measures are available that tap into the implicit self-concept of extraversion which is assumed to result from automatic processing functions. In our study, brain activation while viewing facial expression of affiliation relevant (i.e., happiness, and disgust) and irrelevant (i...
November 14, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832185/bats-and-academics-how-do-scientists-perceive-their-object-of-study
#4
Christophe Boëte, Serge Morand
Bats are associated with conflicting perceptions among humans, ranging from affection to disgust. If these attitudes can be associated with various factors among the general public (e.g. social norms, lack of knowledge), it is also important to understand the attitude of scientists who study bats. Such reflexive information on the researchers community itself could indeed help designing adequate mixed communication tools aimed at protecting bats and their ecosystems, as well as humans living in their vicinity that could be exposed to their pathogens...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791090/parasite-stress-and-pathogen-avoidance-relate-to-distinct-dimensions-of-political-ideology-across-30-nations
#5
Joshua M Tybur, Yoel Inbar, Lene Aarøe, Pat Barclay, Fiona Kate Barlow, Mícheál de Barra, D Vaughn Becker, Leah Borovoi, Incheol Choi, Jong An Choi, Nathan S Consedine, Alan Conway, Jane Rebecca Conway, Paul Conway, Vera Cubela Adoric, Dilara Ekin Demirci, Ana María Fernández, Diogo Conque Seco Ferreira, Keiko Ishii, Ivana Jakšić, Tingting Ji, Florian van Leeuwen, David M G Lewis, Norman P Li, Jason C McIntyre, Sumitava Mukherjee, Justin H Park, Boguslaw Pawlowski, Michael Bang Petersen, David Pizarro, Gerasimos Prodromitis, Pavol Prokop, Markus J Rantala, Lisa M Reynolds, Bonifacio Sandin, Bariş Sevi, Delphine De Smet, Narayanan Srinivasan, Shruti Tewari, Cameron Wilson, Jose C Yong, Iris Žeželj
People who are more avoidant of pathogens are more politically conservative, as are nations with greater parasite stress. In the current research, we test two prominent hypotheses that have been proposed as explanations for these relationships. The first, which is an intragroup account, holds that these relationships between pathogens and politics are based on motivations to adhere to local norms, which are sometimes shaped by cultural evolution to have pathogen-neutralizing properties. The second, which is an intergroup account, holds that these same relationships are based on motivations to avoid contact with outgroups, who might pose greater infectious disease threats than ingroup members...
October 17, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741285/perception-of-emotional-facial-expressions-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-at-behavioural-and-brain-metabolic-level
#6
Helena E A Aho-Özhan, Jürgen Keller, Johanna Heimrath, Ingo Uttner, Jan Kassubek, Niels Birbaumer, Albert C Ludolph, Dorothée Lulé
INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily impairs motor abilities but also affects cognition and emotional processing. We hypothesise that subjective ratings of emotional stimuli depicting social interactions and facial expressions is changed in ALS. It was found that recognition of negative emotions and ability to mentalize other's intentions is reduced. METHODS: Processing of emotions in faces was investigated. A behavioural test of Ekman faces expressing six basic emotions was presented to 30 ALS patients and 29 age-, gender and education matched healthy controls...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740965/oxytocin-social-factors-and-the-expression-of-conditioned-disgust-anticipatory-nausea-in-male-rats
#7
Nathalie P Boulet, Caylen J Cloutier, Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp, Martin Kavaliers
Disgust has been proposed to have evolved as a means to rid the body and mouth of noxious substances and toxins, as well as to motivate and facilitate avoidance of contact with disease-causing organisms and infectious materials. Nonemetic species, such as the rat, show distinctive facial expressions, including the gaping reaction, indicative of nausea-based disgust. These conditioned disgust responses can be used to model anticipatory nausea in humans, which is a learned response observed following chemotherapy treatment...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732103/efficacy-of-the-social-cognition-training-program-in-a-sample-of-outpatients-with-schizophrenia
#8
David Gil-Sanz, Mar Fernández-Modamio, Rosario Bengochea-Seco, Marta Arrieta-Rodríguez, Gabriela Pérez-Fuentes
OBJECTIVE: Social cognition is recognized to be a deficit in individuals suffering from schizophrenia. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between social cognition and social functioning in outpatients with schizophrenia through the use of different social cognition training programs. This study examines the efficacy of the Social Cognition Training Program (PECS in Spanish) in adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. METHODS: Data were derived from a sample of 44 non-hospitalized adult patients who presented with a DSM-IV-TR Axis I diagnosis of schizophrenia and 39 healthy controls...
2016: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708460/respectability-morality-and-disgust-in-the-night-time-economy-exploring-reactions-to-lap-dance-clubs-in-england-and-wales
#9
Phil Hubbard, Rachela Colosi
The night-time economy is often described as repelling consumers fearful of the 'undesirable Others' imagined dominant within such time-spaces. In this paper we explore this by describing attitudes towards, and reactions to, one particularly contentious site: the 'lap dance' club. Often targeted by campaigners in England and Wales as a source of criminality and anti-sociality, in this paper we shift the focus from fear to disgust, and argue that Sexual Entertainment Venues (SEVs) are opposed on the basis of moral judgments that reflect distinctions of both class and gender...
November 2015: Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685155/detecting-transient-emotional-responses-with-improved-self-report-measures-and-instructions
#10
Cindy Harmon-Jones, Brock Bastian, Eddie Harmon-Jones
Psychological research often yields null results on self-reported emotion as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), even when using manipulations that might intuitively be expected to be emotionally impactful. Three studies reported here support the hypothesis that changes in self-reported negative emotion may be detected more sensitively when discrete emotions are measured rather than by either PANAS NA or a measure created by combining discrete emotions, and when participants were instructed to report how they felt during an emotion-eliciting event versus how they felt afterward...
October 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684362/preemptive-strikes-fear-hope-and-defensive-aggression
#11
Nir Halevy
Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668086/cognitive-dysfunction-predicts-poorer-emotion-recognition-in-bariatric-surgery-candidates
#12
L Manderino, M B Spitznagel, G Strain, M Devlin, R Cohen, R D Crosby, J E Mitchell, J Gunstad
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in traditional cognitive domains (e.g. executive function and memory) are common in persons with severe obesity, but it is unclear if this pattern of dysfunction extends to social cognition. The present study examined whether cognitive impairment was associated with poorer emotion recognition in bariatric surgery candidates. METHODS: One hundred sixteen bariatric surgery candidates (mean age = 43.62 ± 11.03; 81% female) completed the computerized Integneuro test battery as part of a larger study visit...
December 2015: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663585/the-change-in-facial-emotion-recognition-ability-in-inpatients-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-after-electroconvulsive-therapy
#13
Mihriban Dalkıran, Akif Tasdemir, Tamer Salihoglu, Murat Emul, Alaattin Duran, Mufit Ugur, Ruhi Yavuz
People with schizophrenia have impairments in emotion recognition along with other social cognitive deficits. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the immediate benefits of ECT on facial emotion recognition ability. Thirty-two treatment resistant patients with schizophrenia who have been indicated for ECT enrolled in the study. Facial emotion stimuli were a set of 56 photographs that depicted seven basic emotions: sadness, anger, happiness, disgust, surprise, fear, and neutral faces. The average age of the participants was 33...
September 23, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614770/pictures-of-disgusting-foods-and-disgusted-facial-expressions-suppress-the-tongue-motor-cortex
#14
Carmelo M Vicario, Robert D Rafal, Sara Borgomaneri, Riccardo Paracampo, Ada Kritikos, Alessio Avenanti
The tongue holds a unique role in gustatory disgust. However, it is unclear whether the tongue representation in the motor cortex (tM1) is affected by the sight of distaste-related stimuli. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we recorded tongue motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) as an index of tM1 cortico-hypoglossal excitability. MEPs were recorded while participants viewed pictures associated with gustatory disgust and revulsion (i.e., rotten foods and faces expressing distaste), non oral-related disgusting stimuli (i...
September 10, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578496/at-a-single-glance-fast-periodic-visual-stimulation-uncovers-the-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-brief-facial-expression-changes-in-the-human-brain
#15
Milena Dzhelyova, Corentin Jacques, Bruno Rossion
Detecting brief changes of facial expression is vital for social communication. Yet, how reliably, how fast these changes are detected and how long they are processed in the human brain remain unknown. High-density electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in 18 participants presented with a neutral-expression face at a rate of 5.88 Hz (F) for 80 s. Every five faces, the face changed expression to fear, disgust or happiness (different stimulation sequences). The resulting 1.18 Hz (F/5) EEG response and its harmonics objectively indexed detection of a brief change of facial expression...
August 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555597/when-women-do-not-want-it-young-female-bargoers-experiences-with-and-responses-to-sexual-harassment-in-social-drinking-contexts
#16
Kathryn Graham, Sharon Bernards, Antonia Abbey, Tara M Dumas, Samantha Wells
Women frequently experience unwanted sexual touching and persistent advances at bars and parties. This study explored women's responses to these unwanted experiences through online surveys completed by 153 female bargoers (aged 19-29) randomly recruited from a bar district. More than 75% had experienced sexual touching or persistence (46% both). Most women used multiple deterrent strategies, including evasion, facial expressions, direct refusals, aggression, friends' help, and leaving the premises. Women experienced negative feelings (disrespected, violated, disgusted, angry, embarrassed), especially from incidents involving touching...
August 23, 2016: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544538/parental-response-to-a-letter-reporting-child-overweight-measured-as-part-of-a-routine-national-programme-in-england-results-from-interviews-with-parents
#17
Lawrence A Nnyanzi, Carolyn D Summerbell, Louisa Ells, Janet Shucksmith
BACKGROUND: Rising rates of childhood obesity have become a pressing issue in public health, threatening both the mental and physical well-being of children. Attempts to address this problem are multifaceted, and in England include the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) which assesses weight status in English primary school children in reception class (aged 4-5) and in year 6 (aged 10-11), with results being sent out to parents. However the effectiveness and impact of this routine parental feedback has yet to be fully understood...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518897/the-perception-of-aversiveness-of-surgical-procedure-pictures-is-modulated-by-personal-occupational-relevance
#18
Juliana Paes, Leticia de Oliveira, Mirtes Garcia Pereira, Isabel David, Gabriela Guerra Leal Souza, Ana Paula Sobral, Walter Machado-Pinheiro, Izabela Mocaiber
It is well established that emotions are organized around two motivational systems: the defensive and the appetitive. Individual differences are relevant factors in emotional reactions, making them more flexible and less stereotyped. There is evidence that health professionals have lower emotional reactivity when viewing scenes of situations involving pain. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the rating of pictures of surgical procedure depends on their personal/occupational relevance. Fifty-two female Nursing (health discipline) and forty-eight Social Work (social science discipline) students participated in the experiment, which consisted of the presentation of 105 images of different categories (e...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516744/distrust-as-a-disease-avoidance-strategy-individual-differences-in-disgust-sensitivity-regulate-generalized-social-trust
#19
Lene Aarøe, Mathias Osmundsen, Michael Bang Petersen
Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue that these motivations should prompt people to avoid others more broadly...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505208/implicit-stigmatization-related-biases-in-individuals-with-skin-conditions-and-their-significant-others
#20
Sylvia van Beugen, Joyce Maas, Antoinette I M van Laarhoven, Tessel E Galesloot, Mike Rinck, Eni S Becker, Peter C M van de Kerkhof, Henriët van Middendorp, Andrea W M Evers
OBJECTIVE: Stigmatization is common in people with chronic skin conditions and may also affect their significant others (SOs). The fast and implicit processing of stigmatization-related stimuli has received little attention in these populations; however, such knowledge may offer indications for new treatment methods. This study aimed to investigate implicit processing of stigmatization-related stimuli in people with skin conditions and their SOs. METHOD: A modified Stroop task and 2 approach-avoidance tasks were administered to participants with chronic skin conditions (alopecia: n = 50 and psoriasis: n = 50); their significant others (alopecia SOs: n = 47 and psoriasis SOs: n = 50); and controls (n = 50)...
August 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
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