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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406382/reading-what-the-mind-thinks-from-how-the-eye-sees
#1
Daniel H Lee, Adam K Anderson
Human eyes convey a remarkable variety of complex social and emotional information. However, it is unknown which physical eye features convey mental states and how that came about. In the current experiments, we tested the hypothesis that the receiver's perception of mental states is grounded in expressive eye appearance that serves an optical function for the sender. Specifically, opposing features of eye widening versus eye narrowing that regulate sensitivity versus discrimination not only conveyed their associated basic emotions (e...
April 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395642/disgust-sensitivity-accounts-for-some-but-not-all-gender-differences-in-death-attitudes
#2
Jonathan F Bassett
The present study investigated whether gender differences in death attitudes could be attributable to social desirability, locus of control, and disgust sensitivity. A total of 238 university students completed the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale and the Revised Death Attitude Profile in addition to measures of social desirability, locus of control, and disgust sensitivity. Women scored higher than men on many of the fear dimensions and also on approach and escape acceptance. There were no gender differences on locus of control or social desirability, but women reported more disgust sensitivity than did men...
May 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394427/opioid-system-and-human-emotions
#3
REVIEW
Lauri Nummenmaa, Lauri Tuominen
Emotions are states of vigilant readiness that guide human and animal behaviour during survival-salient situations. Categorical models of emotions posit neurally and physiologically distinct human basic emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and surprise) that govern different survival functions. Opioid receptors are expressed abundantly in the mammalian emotion circuit and the opioid system modulates a multitude of functions related to arousal and motivation. Yet, its specific contribution to different basic emotions has remained poorly understood...
April 10, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392773/gender-differences-in-the-difficulty-in-disengaging-from-threat-among-children-and-adolescents-with-social-anxiety
#4
Peng Zhang, Wenjin Ni, Ruibo Xie, Jiahua Xu, Xiangping Liu
There is some research showing that social anxiety is related with attentional bias to threat. However, others fail to find this relationship and propose that gender differences may play a role. The aim of this study was to investigate the gender differences in the subcomponents of attentional bias to threat (hypervigilance and difficulty in disengaging) among children and adolescents with social anxiety. Overall, 181 youngsters aged between 10 and 14 participated in the current study. Images of disgusted faces were used as threat stimuli in an Exogenous Cueing Task was used to measure the subcomponents of attentional bias...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384152/social-cognition-in-wilson-s-disease-a-new-phenotype
#5
Elodie Peyroux, Nelly Santaella, Emmanuel Broussolle, Caroline Rigard, Emilie Favre, Anne-Sophie Brunet, Muriel Bost, Alain Lachaux, Caroline Demily
Studies focusing on neuropsychological impairments in Wilson's disease (WD) have highlighted that patients showing neurological signs present significant deficits in a wide range of cognitive domains. Attentional and executive impairments have also been described in people with hepatic WD. However, social cognition abilities, i.e. cognitive processes required to perceive the emotions, intentions and dispositions of other people, have not been clearly investigated in WD. In this study we examined the social cognitive functioning in 19 patients with WD depending on their clinical status-Neurological versus Non-Neurological ("hepatic") forms-compared to 20 healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383634/influence-of-bitter-taste-on-affective-facial-processing-an-erp-study
#6
Anne Schienle, Matteo Giraldo, Benjamin Spiegl, Daniela Schwab
Previous research showed that a bitter taste in the mouth is able to enhance hostile response tendencies to social rejection. The present event-related potential (ERP) study sought to investigate neuronal components of this effect. We presented 52 participants (39 women and 13 men; mean age = 23.3 years) with images of facial expressions signaling social rejection (angry, disgusted) or no rejection (happy, neural), whereas they either experienced a bitter aftertaste (bitter group [BG]: n = 26) or rinsed their mouth with water (control group [CG]: n = 26)...
April 5, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375810/what-do-you-think-about-ink-an-examination-of-implicit-and-explicit-attitudes-toward-tattooed-individuals
#7
Colin A Zestcott, Tanya L Tompkins, Megan Kozak Williams, Kay Livesay, Kin L Chan
Tattoos are increasing in popularity, yet minimal research has examined implicit attitudes or the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes toward tattooed individuals. Seventy-seven online participants (Mage = 36.09, 52% women, 78% white, 26% tattooed) completed measures assessing implicit and explicit attitudes toward tattooed individuals. Results revealed evidence of negative implicit attitudes, which were associated with less perceived warmth, competence, and negative explicit evaluations. However, implicit attitudes were not correlated with measures of disgust or social distance...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358558/infant-differential-behavioral-responding-to-discrete-emotions
#8
Eric A Walle, Peter J Reschke, Linda A Camras, Joseph J Campos
Emotional communication regulates the behaviors of social partners. Research on individuals' responding to others' emotions typically compares responses to a single negative emotion compared with responses to a neutral or positive emotion. Furthermore, coding of such responses routinely measure surface level features of the behavior (e.g., approach vs. avoidance) rather than its underlying function (e.g., the goal of the approach or avoidant behavior). This investigation examined infants' responding to others' emotional displays across 5 discrete emotions: joy, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust...
March 30, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336503/tweet-for-behavior-change-using-social-media-for-the-dissemination-of-public-health-messages
#9
Aisling Gough, Ruth F Hunter, Oluwaseun Ajao, Anna Jurek, Gary McKeown, Jun Hong, Eimear Barrett, Marbeth Ferguson, Gerry McElwee, Miriam McCarthy, Frank Kee
BACKGROUND: Social media public health campaigns have the advantage of tailored messaging at low cost and large reach, but little is known about what would determine their feasibility as tools for inducing attitude and behavior change. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of designing, implementing, and evaluating a social media-enabled intervention for skin cancer prevention. METHODS: A quasi-experimental feasibility study used social media (Twitter) to disseminate different message "frames" related to care in the sun and cancer prevention...
March 23, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304290/the-efficacy-of-emotion-recognition-rehabilitation-for-people-with-alzheimer-s%C3%A2-disease
#10
J Antonio García-Casal, Miguel Goñi-Imizcoz, M Victoria Perea-Bartolomé, Felipe Soto-Pérez, Sarah Jane Smith, Sara Calvo-Simal, Manuel Franco-Martín
BACKGROUND: The ability to recognize emotional expression is essential for social interactions, adapting to the environment and quality of life. Emotion recognition is impaired in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus rehabilitation of these skills has the potential to elicit significant benefits. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to establish whether emotion recognition capacity could be rehabilitated in people with AD. METHODS: Thirty-six participants with AD were assigned to one of three conditions: an experimental group (EG) that received 20 sessions of rehabilitation of emotion recognition and 20 sessions of cognitive stimulation therapy (CST), a control group (CG) that received 40 sessions of CST, and a treatment as usual group (TAU)...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290062/understanding-negative-self-evaluations-in-borderline-personality-disorder-a-review-of-self-related-cognitions-emotions-and-motives
#11
REVIEW
Dorina Winter, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature...
March 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#12
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002755/meta-analysis-of-social-cognition-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
Emre Bora
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with executive dysfunction and behavioural impairment. Recent studies suggested that social cognitive deficits might also be a prominent feature of ALS. Current meta-analysis aimed to summarize available evidence for deficits in social cognition including theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition in ALS. In this meta-analysis of 15 studies, facial emotion recognition and ToM performances of 389 patients with ALS and 471 healthy controls were compared. ALS was associated with significant impairments with medium effect sizes in ToM (d = ...
March 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994562/the-tomenovela-a-photograph-based-stimulus-set-for-the-study-of-social-cognition-with-high-ecological-validity
#14
Maike C Herbort, Jenny Iseev, Christopher Stolz, Benedict Roeser, Nora Großkopf, Torsten Wüstenberg, Rainer Hellweg, Henrik Walter, Isabel Dziobek, Björn H Schott
We present the ToMenovela, a stimulus set that has been developed to provide a set of normatively rated socio-emotional stimuli showing varying amount of characters in emotionally laden interactions for experimental investigations of (i) cognitive and (ii) affective Theory of Mind (ToM), (iii) emotional reactivity, and (iv) complex emotion judgment with respect to Ekman's basic emotions (happiness, anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, Ekman and Friesen, 1975). Stimuli were generated with focus on ecological validity and consist of 190 scenes depicting daily-life situations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993262/-the-recognition-of-emotions-empathy-and-moral-judgment-in-the-national-mental-health-survey-in-colombia-2015
#15
Diana Matallana, Carlos Gómez-Restrepo, Paulina Ramirez, Nathalie Tamayo Martínez, Martin Rondon
BACKGROUND: Social cognition refers to the mental processes involved in social interactions. Different aspects, such as the perception of others, self-knowledge, motivation and the cultural context, can modulate empathy responses and moral judgments regarding the actions of others. The National Mental Health Survey (ENSM for its acronym in Spanish) explored aspects of social cognition such as the perception of emotions, empathy and moral judgment in situations in which another person experiences pain...
December 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942030/identification-of-emotional-facial-expressions-effects-of-expression-intensity-and-sex-on-eye-gaze
#16
Laura Jean Wells, Steven Mark Gillespie, Pia Rotshtein
The identification of emotional expressions is vital for social interaction, and can be affected by various factors, including the expressed emotion, the intensity of the expression, the sex of the face, and the gender of the observer. This study investigates how these factors affect the speed and accuracy of expression recognition, as well as dwell time on the two most significant areas of the face: the eyes and the mouth. Participants were asked to identify expressions from female and male faces displaying six expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise), each with three levels of intensity (low, moderate, and normal)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928745/perceived-emotion-genuineness-normative-ratings-for-popular-facial-expression-stimuli-and-the-development-of-perceived-as-genuine-and-perceived-as-fake-sets
#17
Amy Dawel, Luke Wright, Jessica Irons, Rachael Dumbleton, Romina Palermo, Richard O'Kearney, Elinor McKone
In everyday social interactions, people's facial expressions sometimes reflect genuine emotion (e.g., anger in response to a misbehaving child) and sometimes do not (e.g., smiling for a school photo). There is increasing theoretical interest in this distinction, but little is known about perceived emotion genuineness for existing facial expression databases. We present a new method for rating perceived genuineness using a neutral-midpoint scale (-7 = completely fake; 0 = don't know; +7 = completely genuine) that, unlike previous methods, provides data on both relative and absolute perceptions...
December 7, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917148/corrigendum-distrust-as-a-disease-avoidance-strategy-individual-differences-in-disgust-sensitivity-regulate-generalized-social-trust
#18
Lene Aarøe, Mathias Osmundsen, Michael Bang Petersen
[This corrects the article on p. 1038 in vol. 7, PMID: 27516744.].
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867367/mentalizing-and-information-propagation-through-social-network-evidence-from-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#19
Huijun Zhang, Lei Mo
Microblogs is one of the main social networking channels by which information is spread. Among them, Sina Weibo is one of the largest social networking channels in China. Millions of users repost information from Sina Weibo and share embedded emotion at the same time. The present study investigated participants' propensity to repost microblog messages of positive, negative, or neutral valence, and studied the neural correlates during resting state with the reposting rate of each type microblog messages. Participants preferred to repost negative messages relative to positive and neutral messages...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859959/when-preschoolers-follow-their-eyes-and-older-children-follow-their-noses-visuo-olfactory-social-affective-matching-in%C3%A2-childhood
#20
Annachiara Cavazzana, Christiane Wesarg, Julia Parish-Morris, Johan N Lundström, Valentina Parma
Recognition of emotional facial expressions is a crucial skill for adaptive behavior that most often occurs in a multi-sensory context. Affective matching tasks have been used across development to investigate how people integrate facial information with other senses. Given the relative affective strength of olfaction and its relevance in mediating social information since birth, we assessed olfactory-visual matching abilities in a group of 140 children between the ages of 3 and 11 years old. We presented one of three odor primes (rose, fish and no-odor, rated as pleasant or unpleasant by individual children) before a facial choice task (happy vs...
November 17, 2016: Developmental Science
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