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social disgust

Helena E A Aho-Özhan, Jürgen Keller, Johanna Heimrath, Ingo Uttner, Jan Kassubek, Niels Birbaumer, Albert C Ludolph, Dorothée Lulé
INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily impairs motor abilities but also affects cognition and emotional processing. We hypothesise that subjective ratings of emotional stimuli depicting social interactions and facial expressions is changed in ALS. It was found that recognition of negative emotions and ability to mentalize other's intentions is reduced. METHODS: Processing of emotions in faces was investigated. A behavioural test of Ekman faces expressing six basic emotions was presented to 30 ALS patients and 29 age-, gender and education matched healthy controls...
2016: PloS One
Nathalie P Boulet, Caylen J Cloutier, Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp, Martin Kavaliers
Disgust has been proposed to have evolved as a means to rid the body and mouth of noxious substances and toxins, as well as to motivate and facilitate avoidance of contact with disease-causing organisms and infectious materials. Nonemetic species, such as the rat, show distinctive facial expressions, including the gaping reaction, indicative of nausea-based disgust. These conditioned disgust responses can be used to model anticipatory nausea in humans, which is a learned response observed following chemotherapy treatment...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
David Gil-Sanz, Mar Fernández-Modamio, Rosario Bengochea-Seco, Marta Arrieta-Rodríguez, Gabriela Pérez-Fuentes
OBJECTIVE: Social cognition is recognized to be a deficit in individuals suffering from schizophrenia. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between social cognition and social functioning in outpatients with schizophrenia through the use of different social cognition training programs. This study examines the efficacy of the Social Cognition Training Program (PECS in Spanish) in adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. METHODS: Data were derived from a sample of 44 non-hospitalized adult patients who presented with a DSM-IV-TR Axis I diagnosis of schizophrenia and 39 healthy controls...
2016: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
Phil Hubbard, Rachela Colosi
The night-time economy is often described as repelling consumers fearful of the 'undesirable Others' imagined dominant within such time-spaces. In this paper we explore this by describing attitudes towards, and reactions to, one particularly contentious site: the 'lap dance' club. Often targeted by campaigners in England and Wales as a source of criminality and anti-sociality, in this paper we shift the focus from fear to disgust, and argue that Sexual Entertainment Venues (SEVs) are opposed on the basis of moral judgments that reflect distinctions of both class and gender...
November 2015: Sociological Review
Cindy Harmon-Jones, Brock Bastian, Eddie Harmon-Jones
Psychological research often yields null results on self-reported emotion as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), even when using manipulations that might intuitively be expected to be emotionally impactful. Three studies reported here support the hypothesis that changes in self-reported negative emotion may be detected more sensitively when discrete emotions are measured rather than by either PANAS NA or a measure created by combining discrete emotions, and when participants were instructed to report how they felt during an emotion-eliciting event versus how they felt afterward...
October 2016: Emotion
Nir Halevy
Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
L Manderino, M B Spitznagel, G Strain, M Devlin, R Cohen, R D Crosby, J E Mitchell, J Gunstad
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in traditional cognitive domains (e.g. executive function and memory) are common in persons with severe obesity, but it is unclear if this pattern of dysfunction extends to social cognition. The present study examined whether cognitive impairment was associated with poorer emotion recognition in bariatric surgery candidates. METHODS: One hundred sixteen bariatric surgery candidates (mean age = 43.62 ± 11.03; 81% female) completed the computerized Integneuro test battery as part of a larger study visit...
December 2015: Obesity Science & Practice
Mihriban Dalkıran, Akif Tasdemir, Tamer Salihoglu, Murat Emul, Alaattin Duran, Mufit Ugur, Ruhi Yavuz
People with schizophrenia have impairments in emotion recognition along with other social cognitive deficits. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the immediate benefits of ECT on facial emotion recognition ability. Thirty-two treatment resistant patients with schizophrenia who have been indicated for ECT enrolled in the study. Facial emotion stimuli were a set of 56 photographs that depicted seven basic emotions: sadness, anger, happiness, disgust, surprise, fear, and neutral faces. The average age of the participants was 33...
September 23, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
Carmelo M Vicario, Robert D Rafal, Sara Borgomaneri, Riccardo Paracampo, Ada Kritikos, Alessio Avenanti
The tongue holds a unique role in gustatory disgust. However, it is unclear whether the tongue representation in the motor cortex (tM1) is affected by the sight of distaste-related stimuli. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we recorded tongue motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) as an index of tM1 cortico-hypoglossal excitability. MEPs were recorded while participants viewed pictures associated with gustatory disgust and revulsion (i.e., rotten foods and faces expressing distaste), non oral-related disgusting stimuli (i...
September 10, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Milena Dzhelyova, Corentin Jacques, Bruno Rossion
Detecting brief changes of facial expression is vital for social communication. Yet, how reliably, how fast these changes are detected and how long they are processed in the human brain remain unknown. High-density electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in 18 participants presented with a neutral-expression face at a rate of 5.88 Hz (F) for 80 s. Every five faces, the face changed expression to fear, disgust or happiness (different stimulation sequences). The resulting 1.18 Hz (F/5) EEG response and its harmonics objectively indexed detection of a brief change of facial expression...
August 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Kathryn Graham, Sharon Bernards, Antonia Abbey, Tara M Dumas, Samantha Wells
Women frequently experience unwanted sexual touching and persistent advances at bars and parties. This study explored women's responses to these unwanted experiences through online surveys completed by 153 female bargoers (aged 19-29) randomly recruited from a bar district. More than 75% had experienced sexual touching or persistence (46% both). Most women used multiple deterrent strategies, including evasion, facial expressions, direct refusals, aggression, friends' help, and leaving the premises. Women experienced negative feelings (disrespected, violated, disgusted, angry, embarrassed), especially from incidents involving touching...
August 23, 2016: Violence Against Women
Lawrence A Nnyanzi, Carolyn D Summerbell, Louisa Ells, Janet Shucksmith
BACKGROUND: Rising rates of childhood obesity have become a pressing issue in public health, threatening both the mental and physical well-being of children. Attempts to address this problem are multifaceted, and in England include the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) which assesses weight status in English primary school children in reception class (aged 4-5) and in year 6 (aged 10-11), with results being sent out to parents. However the effectiveness and impact of this routine parental feedback has yet to be fully understood...
2016: BMC Public Health
Juliana Paes, Leticia de Oliveira, Mirtes Garcia Pereira, Isabel David, Gabriela Guerra Leal Souza, Ana Paula Sobral, Walter Machado-Pinheiro, Izabela Mocaiber
It is well established that emotions are organized around two motivational systems: the defensive and the appetitive. Individual differences are relevant factors in emotional reactions, making them more flexible and less stereotyped. There is evidence that health professionals have lower emotional reactivity when viewing scenes of situations involving pain. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the rating of pictures of surgical procedure depends on their personal/occupational relevance. Fifty-two female Nursing (health discipline) and forty-eight Social Work (social science discipline) students participated in the experiment, which consisted of the presentation of 105 images of different categories (e...
2016: PloS One
Lene Aarøe, Mathias Osmundsen, Michael Bang Petersen
Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue that these motivations should prompt people to avoid others more broadly...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Sylvia van Beugen, Joyce Maas, Antoinette I M van Laarhoven, Tessel E Galesloot, Mike Rinck, Eni S Becker, Peter C M van de Kerkhof, Henriët van Middendorp, Andrea W M Evers
OBJECTIVE: Stigmatization is common in people with chronic skin conditions and may also affect their significant others (SOs). The fast and implicit processing of stigmatization-related stimuli has received little attention in these populations; however, such knowledge may offer indications for new treatment methods. This study aimed to investigate implicit processing of stigmatization-related stimuli in people with skin conditions and their SOs. METHOD: A modified Stroop task and 2 approach-avoidance tasks were administered to participants with chronic skin conditions (alopecia: n = 50 and psoriasis: n = 50); their significant others (alopecia SOs: n = 47 and psoriasis SOs: n = 50); and controls (n = 50)...
August 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Zoe Liberman, Amanda L Woodward, Kathleen R Sullivan, Katherine D Kinzler
Selecting appropriate foods is a complex and evolutionarily ancient problem, yet past studies have revealed little evidence of adaptations present in infancy that support sophisticated reasoning about perceptual properties of food. We propose that humans have an early-emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food selection. Specifically, infants' reasoning about food choice is tied to their thinking about agents' intentions and social relationships. Whereas infants do not expect people to like the same objects, infants view food preferences as meaningfully shared across individuals...
August 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Krzysztof A Bujarski, Laura Flashman, Zhongze Li, Tor D Tosteson, Barbara C Jobst, Vijay M Thadani, Erik J Kobylarz, David W Roberts, Robert M Roth
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective for this study was to assess social cognition in patients with focal epilepsy using a naturalistic task, which accurately models complex real-world social interaction. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of social cognition in 43 patients with focal epilepsy and in 22 controls. Patients and controls completed The Awareness of Social Inference Test, which measures both basic and advanced social cognition in a realistic video-based format...
September 2016: Epilepsia
Aida Gutiérrez-García, Manuel G Calvo
In social environments the smile can be driven by different motives and convey different emotions. This makes a smiling face ambiguous and amenable to alternative interpretations. We investigated how social anxiety is related to trustworthiness evaluation of morphed dynamic smiling faces depending on changes in the eye expression. Socially anxious and non-anxious participants judged the un/trustworthiness of people with different smiles. Social anxiety was related to reduced trustworthiness of (a) faces with a neutral mouth unfolding to a smile when the eyes were neutral at the beginning or end of the dynamic sequence, and (b) faces with a smiling mouth when happy eyes slightly changed towards neutrality, surprise, fear, sadness, disgust, or anger...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Clare A M Sutherland, Andrew W Young, Gillian Rhodes
First impressions made to photographs of faces can depend as much on momentary characteristics of the photographed image (within-person variability) as on consistent properties of the face of the person depicted (between-person variability). Here, we examine two important sources of within-person variability: emotional expression and viewpoint. We find more within-person variability than between-person variability for social impressions of key traits of trustworthiness, dominance, and attractiveness, which index the main dimensions in theoretical models of facial impressions...
July 22, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Mihriban Dalkıran, Gozde Gultekin, Erhan Yuksek, Nalan Varsak, Hesna Gul, Zeliha Kıncır, Akif Tasdemir, Murat Emul
OBJECTIVES: Although emotional cues like facial emotion expressions seem to be important in social interaction, there is no specific training about emotional cues for psychiatrists. Here, we aimed to investigate psychiatrists' ability of facial emotion recognition and relation with their clinical identification as psychotherapy-psychopharmacology oriented or being adult and childhood-adolescent psychiatrist. METHODS: Facial Emotion Recognition Test was performed to 130 psychiatrists that were constructed by a set of photographs (happy, sad, fearful, angry, surprised, disgusted and neutral faces) from Ekman and Friesen's...
August 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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