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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639876/meta-analysis-of-social-cognition-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#1
Emre Bora, Görsev G Yener
Social cognitive abilities are impaired in Alzheimer disease and other dementias. Recent studies suggested that social cognitive abilities might be also impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Current meta-analysis aimed to summarize available evidence for deficits in theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition in MCI. In this meta-analysis of 17 studies, facial emotion recognition and ToM performances of 513 individuals with MCI and 693 healthy controls were compared. Mild cognitive impairment was associated with significant impairments falling in the medium effect sizes range in ToM ( d = 0...
July 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633464/hyposmia-and-disgust-gender-specific-effects
#2
Rottraut Ille, Axel Wolf, Peter Valentin Tomazic, Anne Schienle
Reduced olfactory function is associated with altered trait disgust in men. This study sought to determine whether hyposmic women show similar changes in disgust responsiveness. We compared patients with hyposmia (25 men, 23 women) and 50 normosmic individuals (25 men, 25 women) with regard to their tendency to experience disgust across different disgust domains (disgust proneness), their self-disgust and their tendency to perceive their own disgust feelings as difficult to control and embarrassing (disgust sensitivity)...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605709/facial-emotion-recognition-and-borderline-personality-pathology
#3
Kevin B Meehan, Chiara De Panfilis, Nicole M Cain, Camilla Antonucci, Antonio Soliani, John F Clarkin, Fabio Sambataro
The impact of borderline personality pathology on facial emotion recognition has been in dispute; with impaired, comparable, and enhanced accuracy found in high borderline personality groups. Discrepancies are likely driven by variations in facial emotion recognition tasks across studies (stimuli type/intensity) and heterogeneity in borderline personality pathology. This study evaluates facial emotion recognition for neutral and negative emotions (fear/sadness/disgust/anger) presented at varying intensities...
May 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594347/-hidden-habitus-a-qualitative-study-of-socio-ecological-influences-on-drinking-practices-and-social-identity-in-mid-adolescence
#4
Stephanie Scott, Janet Shucksmith, Rachel Baker, Eileen Kaner
This study explored mid-adolescents' views and experiences of socio-ecological influences on their drinking practices in order to help inform the development of interventions to reduce alcohol-related risk. We conducted 31 in-depth interviews with young people aged 13-17 in North East England. Verbatim interview transcripts and field notes were coded systematically and analysed thematically, following the principles of constant comparison. We adopted Bourdieu's idea of social game-playing and elements of his conceptual toolkit (particularly habitus, capital and field) during analysis...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554155/salivary-secretion-and-disgust-a-pilot-study
#5
Carmelo M Vicario, Werner Sommer, Karolina A Kuran, Robert D Rafal
Although a direct link has been established between self-experienced disgust and salivary secretion, it is unclear whether this physiological index is modulated by the social experience of disgust (i.e., exposure to the facial expression of disgust). We tested this issue in a pilot study by collecting salivary samples in a group of 20 healthy humans watching pictures of faces expressing disgust. Moreover, we tried to replicate previous evidence by testing saliva secretion in response to pictures of unpalatable (i...
May 26, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522979/spontaneous-facial-actions-map-onto-emotional-experiences-in-a-non-social-context-toward-a-component-based-approach
#6
Shushi Namba, Russell S Kabir, Makoto Miyatani, Takashi Nakao
While numerous studies have examined the relationships between facial actions and emotions, they have yet to account for the ways that specific spontaneous facial expressions map onto emotional experiences induced without expressive intent. Moreover, previous studies emphasized that a fine-grained investigation of facial components could establish the coherence of facial actions with actual internal states. Therefore, this study aimed to accumulate evidence for the correspondence between spontaneous facial components and emotional experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506923/core-social-and-moral-disgust-are-bounded-a-review-on-behavioral-and-neural-bases-of-repugnance-in-clinical-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Carmelo M Vicario, Robert D Rafal, Davide Martino, Alessio Avenanti
Disgust is a multifaceted experience that might affect several aspects of life. Here, we reviewed research on neurological and psychiatric disorders that are characterized by abnormal disgust processing to test the hypothesis of a shared neurocognitive architecture in the representation of three disgust domains: i) personal experience of 'core disgust'; ii) social disgust, i.e., sensitivity to others' expressions of disgust; iii) moral disgust, i.e., sensitivity to ethical violations. Our review provides some support to the shared neurocognitive hypothesis and suggests that the insula might be the "hub" structure linking the three domains of disgust sensitivity, while other brain regions may subserve specific facets of the multidimensional experience...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504585/seven-to-11-year-olds-developing-ability-to-recognize-natural-facial-expressions-of-basic-emotions
#8
Kathleen Kang, Laura Anthoney, Peter Mitchell
Being able to recognize facial expressions of basic emotions is of great importance to social development. However, we still know surprisingly little about children's developing ability to interpret emotions that are expressed dynamically, naturally, and subtly, despite real-life expressions having such appearance in the vast majority of cases. The current research employs a new technique of capturing dynamic, subtly expressed natural emotional displays (happy, sad, angry, shocked, and disgusted). Children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (and adults) were systematically able to discriminate each emotional display from alternatives in a five-way choice...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499119/identification-of-emotions-in-mixed-disgusted-happy-faces-as-a-function-of-depressive-symptom-severity
#9
Alvaro Sanchez, Nuria Romero, Pierre Maurage, Rudi De Raedt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Interpersonal difficulties are common in depression, but their underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The role of depression in the identification of mixed emotional signals with a direct interpersonal value remains unclear. The present study aimed to clarify this question. METHODS: A sample of 39 individuals reporting a broad range of depression levels completed an emotion identification task where they viewed faces expressing three emotional categories (100% disgusted and 100% happy faces, as well as their morphed 50% disgusted - 50% happy exemplars)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486665/body-odor-trait-disgust-sensitivity-predicts-perception-of-sweat-biosamples
#10
Marco Tullio Liuzza, Jonas K Olofsson, Agnieszka Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka Sorokowska
Body odors are potent triggers of disgust and regulate social behaviors in many species. The role of olfaction in disgust-associated behaviors has received scant attention in the research literature, in part because olfactory disgust assessments have required laboratory testing with odors. We have devised the "Body Odor Disgust Scale" (BODS) to facilitate research on olfactory disgust. In this study, we evaluated whether individual differences in BODS scores would be associated with the perception of disgust for sweat samples in a laboratory setting...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486601/the-face-of-distaste-a-preliminary-study
#11
Hanah A Chapman, Daniel H Lee, Joshua M Susskind, Marni S Bartlett, Adam K Anderson
Distaste is a primitive rejection impulse triggered by the ingestion of unpleasant tasting substances, many of which are toxic. Theoretical work has suggested that distaste may be the evolutionary precursor for both physical disgust, which serves to defend against disease and other threats to biological fitness, and moral disgust, which defends against threats to the social order. Consistent with this proposal, recent work has found that the facial expression of distaste may be similar to that of disgust. Specifically, raising of the upper lip has been reported in distaste, physical disgust, and moral disgust...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476571/identification-and-intensity-of-disgust-distinguishing-visual-linguistic-and-facial-expressions-processing-in-parkinson-disease
#12
Anna Sedda, Sara Petito, Maria Guarino, Andrea Stracciari
OBJECTIVES & METHODS: Most of the studies since now show an impairment for facial displays of disgust recognition in Parkinson disease. A general impairment in disgust processing in patients with Parkinson disease might adversely affect their social interactions, given the relevance of this emotion for human relations. However, despite the importance of faces, disgust is also expressed through other format of visual stimuli such as sentences and visual images. The aim of our study was to explore disgust processing in a sample of patients affected by Parkinson disease, by means of various tests tackling not only facial recognition but also other format of visual stimuli through which disgust can be recognized...
May 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476013/deficits-in-recognizing-disgust-facial-expressions-and-internet-addiction-perceived-stress-as-a-mediator
#13
Zhongting Chen, Kai-Tak Poon, Cecilia Cheng
Studies have examined social maladjustment among individuals with Internet addiction, but little is known about their deficits in specific social skills and the underlying psychological mechanisms. The present study filled these gaps by (a) establishing a relationship between deficits in facial expression recognition and Internet addiction, and (b) examining the mediating role of perceived stress that explains this hypothesized relationship. Ninety-seven participants completed validated questionnaires that assessed their levels of Internet addiction and perceived stress, and performed a computer-based task that measured their facial expression recognition...
April 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450841/gaze-behavior-consistency-among-older-and-younger-adults-when-looking-at-emotional-faces
#14
Laurence Chaby, Isabelle Hupont, Marie Avril, Viviane Luherne-du Boullay, Mohamed Chetouani
The identification of non-verbal emotional signals, and especially of facial expressions, is essential for successful social communication among humans. Previous research has reported an age-related decline in facial emotion identification, and argued for socio-emotional or aging-brain model explanations. However, more perceptual differences in the gaze strategies that accompany facial emotional processing with advancing age have been under-explored yet. In this study, 22 young (22.2 years) and 22 older (70...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432314/the-effect-of-acute-social-stress-on-the-recognition-of-facial-expression-of-emotions
#15
Camille Daudelin-Peltier, Hélène Forget, Caroline Blais, Andréa Deschênes, Daniel Fiset
This study investigates the effect of acute social stress on the recognition of facial expression of emotions in healthy young men. Participants underwent both a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (TSST-G) and a control condition. Then, they performed a homemade version of the facial expressions megamix. All six basic emotions were included in the task. First, our results show a systematic increase in the intensity threshold for disgust following stress, meaning that the participants' performance with this emotion was impaired...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406382/reading-what-the-mind-thinks-from-how-the-eye-sees
#16
Daniel H Lee, Adam K Anderson
Human eyes convey a remarkable variety of complex social and emotional information. However, it is unknown which physical eye features convey mental states and how that came about. In the current experiments, we tested the hypothesis that the receiver's perception of mental states is grounded in expressive eye appearance that serves an optical function for the sender. Specifically, opposing features of eye widening versus eye narrowing that regulate sensitivity versus discrimination not only conveyed their associated basic emotions (e...
April 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395642/disgust-sensitivity-accounts-for-some-but-not-all-gender-differences-in-death-attitudes
#17
Jonathan F Bassett
The present study investigated whether gender differences in death attitudes could be attributable to social desirability, locus of control, and disgust sensitivity. A total of 238 university students completed the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale and the Revised Death Attitude Profile in addition to measures of social desirability, locus of control, and disgust sensitivity. Women scored higher than men on many of the fear dimensions and also on approach and escape acceptance. There were no gender differences on locus of control or social desirability, but women reported more disgust sensitivity than did men...
May 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394427/opioid-system-and-human-emotions
#18
REVIEW
Lauri Nummenmaa, Lauri Tuominen
Emotions are states of vigilant readiness that guide human and animal behaviour during survival-salient situations. Categorical models of emotions posit neurally and physiologically distinct basic human emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness and surprise) that govern different survival functions. Opioid receptors are expressed abundantly in the mammalian emotion circuit, and the opioid system modulates a variety of functions related to arousal and motivation. Yet, its specific contribution to different basic emotions has remained poorly understood...
April 10, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392773/gender-differences-in-the-difficulty-in-disengaging-from-threat-among-children-and-adolescents-with-social-anxiety
#19
Peng Zhang, Wenjin Ni, Ruibo Xie, Jiahua Xu, Xiangping Liu
There is some research showing that social anxiety is related with attentional bias to threat. However, others fail to find this relationship and propose that gender differences may play a role. The aim of this study was to investigate the gender differences in the subcomponents of attentional bias to threat (hypervigilance and difficulty in disengaging) among children and adolescents with social anxiety. Overall, 181 youngsters aged between 10 and 14 participated in the current study. Images of disgusted faces were used as threat stimuli in an Exogenous Cueing Task was used to measure the subcomponents of attentional bias...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384152/social-cognition-in-wilson-s-disease-a-new-phenotype
#20
Elodie Peyroux, Nelly Santaella, Emmanuel Broussolle, Caroline Rigard, Emilie Favre, Anne-Sophie Brunet, Muriel Bost, Alain Lachaux, Caroline Demily
Studies focusing on neuropsychological impairments in Wilson's disease (WD) have highlighted that patients showing neurological signs present significant deficits in a wide range of cognitive domains. Attentional and executive impairments have also been described in people with hepatic WD. However, social cognition abilities, i.e. cognitive processes required to perceive the emotions, intentions and dispositions of other people, have not been clearly investigated in WD. In this study we examined the social cognitive functioning in 19 patients with WD depending on their clinical status-Neurological versus Non-Neurological ("hepatic") forms-compared to 20 healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
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