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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138105/adrenergic-receptor-agonists-modulation-of-dopaminergic-and-non-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#1
Kamil Pradel, Tomasz Blasiak, Wojciech B Solecki
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) neuronal population consists of dopaminergic (DAergic) and non-DAergic neurons (mainly GABAergic), the activity of which is intertwined with VTA behavioural functions. Both DAergic and GABAergic neurons in the VTA have been shown to express adrenergic receptors (ARs) and respond to AR stimulation. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effects of selective AR agonists on DAergic and non-DAergic neuronal activity in the central and lateral parts of the VTA using in vivo electrophysiological recording combined with microiontophoretic drug application in anaesthetized rats...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127057/quantitative-analysis-of-clonidine-and-ephedrine-by-a-microfluidic-system-on-chip-electromembrane-extraction-followed-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#2
Mahroo Baharfar, Yadollah Yamini, Shahram Seidi, Monireh Karami
In this work, a microfluidic device was developed for on-chip electromembrane extraction of trace amounts of ephedrine (EPH) and clonidine (CLO) in human urine and plasma samples followed by HPLC-UV analysis. Two polymethylmethacrylate plates were used as substrates and a microchannel was carved in each plate. The microchannel channel on the underneath plate provided the flow pass of the sample solution and the one on the upper plate dedicated to a compartment for the stagnant acceptor phase. A piece of polypropylene sheet was impregnated by an organic solvent and mounted between the two parts of the chip device...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125423/management-of-chronic-neuropathic-pain-with-single-and-compounded-topical-analgesics
#3
Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Tatiana Tverdohleb, Farid Nikibin, Ivana Knezevic, Kenneth D Candido
The goal of our review was to emphasize important aspects that physicians should take into consideration when prescribing topical analgesics as part of chronic neuropathic pain treatment. We discuss the dermatopharmacokinetics and microstructural components of the skin, differences between topical and transdermal drug delivery, and topical medication effects on peripheral neuropathy and central sensitization. Even though the US FDA approved topical analgesics are 8%-capsaicin and 5%-lidocaine patches for treating postherpetic neuralgia, there are many other studies conducted on the efficacy of topical ketamine cream, clonidine gel, topical gabapentin, topical baclofen and topical phenytoin for peripheral neuropathic pain, either alone or in combination with other formulations...
November 10, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120894/advances-in-pharmacotherapies-for-movement-disorders-in-children-current-limitations-and-future-progress
#4
Jean-Pierre Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In childhood, movement disorders are generated by a very large number of disorders of the nervous system, and the very different developmental ages at which these occur make studies of pharmacotherapy efficacy extremely difficult. In most clinical practices, medication used in management is by trial and error, and limited by lack of efficacy and/or adverse drug reactions leading to drug intolerance. Nevertheless, symptom reduction using polypharmacy must be balanced against any accompanying comorbidities such as poor attention and concentration, constipation, ileus, urinary retention, blurred vision sedation and respiratory depression...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109642/comparison-of-intra-articular-analgesics-in-arthroscopic-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-surgeries-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Vijayalakshmi Sivapurapu, Shishir Suranigi Murugharaj, Sai Saran Panathula Venkata
Background and Aims: Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is one of the most common knee surgeries done worldwide today. It involves immense pain at sites of graft harvest, tibial, and femoral tunnels, thereby delaying recovery and increased patient morbidity, and delayed rehabilitation. Various drugs and combination of drugs administered intra-articularly have been studied for analgesic efficacy. Our study gives an insight if there is any added advantage of additives morphine or clonidine to bupivacaine when compared to administering bupivacaine alone...
July 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109641/comparative-efficacy-of-clonidine-versus-magnesium-sulfate-as-an-adjunct-to-lignocaine-in-intravenous-regional-anesthesia-for-postoperative-analgesia-a-prospective-randomized-double-blind-study
#6
Parminder Kaur, Tanveer Singh Kundra, Dinesh Sood
Background and Aims: Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) is a very good technique to be used in unstable patients. Various adjuvants have been added, but till date, there is no ideal adjuvant. Clonidine is one of the most widely used adjuvants in IVRA. However, it has many side effects. Hence, the search continues for a better adjuvant. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of clonidine versus MgSO4 as an adjunct to lignocaine in IVRA for postoperative analgesia and to compare their side effect profile...
July 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094305/noradrenergic-fiber-sprouting-and-altered-transduction-in-neuropathic-prefrontal-cortex
#7
Steven Cordeiro Matos, Maria Zamfir, Geraldine Longo, Alfredo Ribeiro-da-Silva, Philippe Séguéla
Functional changes in hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels have been shown to contribute to medial prefrontal (mPFC) hyperexcitability after peripheral nerve injury. A reduction in the open probability of these neuronal channels might be relevant since this can enhance membrane input resistance and synaptic summation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuropathy-associated alterations in HCN channel activity remain elusive. Using the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain in Long-Evans rats, we first discovered a significant increase in noradrenergic innervation within the mPFC of nerve-injured compared to control animals...
November 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093170/locus-coeruleus-phasic-discharge-is-essential-for-stimulus-induced-gamma-oscillations-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#8
Ricardo M Neves, Silvia van Keulen, Mingyu Yang, Nikos K Logothetis, Oxana Eschenko
The Locus Coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic (NE) neuromodulatory system is critically involved in regulation of neural excitability via its diffuse ascending projections. Tonic NE release in the forebrain is essential for maintenance of vigilant states and increases the signal-to-noise ratio of cortical sensory responses. The impact of phasic NE release on cortical activity and sensory processing is less explored. We have previously reported that LC microstimulation caused a transient desynchronization of the population activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), similar to noxious somatosensory stimuli...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074416/clonidine-preconditioning-improved-cerebral-ischemia-induced-learning-and-memory-deficits-in-rats-via-erk1-2-creb-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nr2b-pathway
#9
Yanli Li, Min Yu, Bo Zhao, Yan Wang, Yunhong Zha, Zicheng Li, Lingling Yu, Lingling Yan, Zhangao Chen, Wenjuan Zhang, Xiaoli Zeng, Zhi He
Clonidine, a classical α-2 adrenergic agonists, has been shown to antagonize brain damage caused by hypoxia, cerebral ischemia and excitotoxicity and reduce cerebral infarction volume in recent studies. We herein investigate the regulatory effect and possible underlying mechanism of clonidine on learning and memory in rats with cerebral ischemia. The cerebral ischemia rat model was established by right middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2h and reperfusion for 28 days. Drugs were administrated to the rats for consecutive 7 days intraperitoneally and once again on the day of surgery...
October 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067285/decreasing-total-medication-exposure-and-length-of-stay-while-completing-withdrawal-for-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-during-the-neonatal-hospital-stay
#10
Lori A Devlin, Timothy Lau, Paula G Radmacher
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a rapidly growing public health concern that has considerably increased health-care utilization and health-care costs. In an effort to curtail costs, attempts have been made to complete withdrawal as an outpatient. Outpatient therapy has been shown to prolong exposure to medications, which may negatively impact neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes. We hypothesized that the implementation of a modified NAS protocol would decrease total drug exposure and length of stay while allowing for complete acute drug withdrawal during the neonatal hospital stay...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064725/%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-ir-neurons-density-changes-after-single-dose-of-clonidine-and-yohimbine-administration-in-the-hippocampus-of-male-rat
#11
M Jahanshahi, E Nikmahzar, L Elyasi, F Babakordi, E Hooshmand
OBJECTIVE: Despite the important role of α2-adrenoceptors in pain modulation processes, the impact of administration of α2-adrenoceptor agonist and antagonist on density of hippocampal α2-adrenoceptor-immunoreative neurons has not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of single doses of clonidine and yohimbine on the density of α2-adrenoceptorimmunoreactive neurons in rat hippocampus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats received a single dose of clonidine (0...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063727/nurse-driven-analgesia-and-sedation-in-pediatric-patients-with-univentricular-hearts-requiring-extracorporeal-life-support-after-first-stage-palliation-surgery-a-pilot-study
#12
Jörg Michel, Michael Hofbeck, Ines Gerbig, Vanya Icheva, Ellen Heimberg, Walter Jost, Christian Schlensak, Matthias Kumpf, Gunnar Blumenstock, Felix Neunhoeffer
BACKGROUND: Few data are available regarding requirements of sedation and analgesia in children during extracorporeal life support. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate if children with functionally univentricular hearts on extracorporeal life support after first-stage palliation surgery have higher requirement of analgesics and sedatives compared with children without extracorporeal life support using a goal-directed nurse-driven analgesia and sedation protocol...
December 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052226/translational-high-dimensional-drug-interaction-discovery-and-validation-using-health-record-databases-and-pharmacokinetics-models
#13
Chien-Wei Chiang, Pengyue Zhang, Xueying Wang, Lei Wang, Shijun Zhang, Xia Ning, Li Shen, Sara K Quinney, Lang Li
Polypharmacy increases the risk of drug-drug interactions (DDI's). Combining epidemiological studies with pharmacokinetic modeling, we detected and evaluated high-dimensional DDI's among thirty frequent drugs. Multi-drug combinations that increased risk of myopathy were identified in the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and electronic medical record (EMR) databases by a mixture drug-count response model. CYP450 inhibition was estimated among the 30 drugs in the presence of 1 to 4 inhibitors using in vitro in vivo extrapolation...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049110/evidence-for-the-efficacy-of-systemic-opioid-sparing-analgesics-in-pediatric-surgical-populations-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Alyssa Zhu, Hubert A Benzon, T Anthony Anderson
While a large number of studies has examined the efficacy of opioid-sparing analgesics in adult surgical populations, fewer studies are available to guide postoperative pain treatment in pediatric patients. We systematically reviewed available publications on the use of systemic nonopioid agents for postoperative analgesia in pediatric surgical populations. A comprehensive literature search identified meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of systemic, nonopioid agents on postoperative narcotic requirements or pain scores in pediatric surgical populations...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026504/loperamide-dependency-a-case-report
#15
Mehran Zarghami, Maryam Rezapour
BACKGROUND: Loperamide is used as an antidiarrheal drug and is available over-the-counter. It cannot pass the blood-brain barrier and it does not have a considerable abuse potential. It can lead to dangerous cardiac arrhythmia. CASE REPORT: Herein, we report a 35-year-old man with a 13-year history of abusing opioids who had undergone detoxification for four times during this period. He underwent detoxification for using 200 mg loperamide daily with anticholinergic agents, clonidine, non-steroidal analgesics, and diazepam...
January 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990851/stability-study-of-a-clonidine-oral-solution-in-a-novel-vehicle-designed-for-pediatric-patients
#16
Arnaud Potier, Julien Voyat, Alain Nicolas
Clonidine hydrochloride is administered to opioid-addicted mothers' neonates to reduce neonatal abstinence syndrome. It is prescribed off-label to neonates at 0.5-1 µg/kg/6 h, alone or in combination. The commercially injectable form of clonidine-Catapressan(®) 0.15 mg/mL-is being orally given after an appropriate dilution in water. However, this practice is not suitable for a perfectly safe and accurate administration. The objectives were to design a 10 µg/mL oral solution of clonidine hydrochloride in Inorpha(®) and to study the stability of this solution by a validated stability-indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method...
October 24, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984477/pediatric-pharmacoepidemiology-safety-and-effectiveness-of-medicines-for-adhd
#17
Antonio Clavenna, Maurizio Bonati
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder in children and adolescents that comprises core symptoms of developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. Stimulant (methylphenidate, amphetamines) and non stimulant (atomoxetine, clonidine and guanfacine) are the treatment usually prescribed for ADHD. Area covered: This review covers the safety of ADHD medications in children and adolescents. MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched with the aim to retrieve prospective studies that monitored the incidence of adverse events (AEs) in children receiving drug therapy for ADHD...
October 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981572/spinal-anaesthesia-in-neonates-and-infants-what-about-the-cerebral-oxygen-saturation
#18
C Sola, L Hertz, S Bringuier, P De La Arena, C Macq, S Deziel-Malouin, O Raux, C Dadure
Background: Spinal Anaesthesia (SA) has been firmly established as an efficient and safe technique, with minimal cardio-respiratory disturbance when administered in the neonatal period. Our objective was to assess the haemodynamic consequences of SA in infants, particularly its impact on cerebral perfusion using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based cerebral oximetry (rSco2). Methods: All infants up to 60 weeks' postmenstrual age, whether formerly preterm or not, and undergoing spinal anaesthesia, were enrolled...
November 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979194/the-locus-coeruleus-norepinephrine-system-mediates-empathy-for-pain-through-selective-up-regulation-of-p2x3-receptor-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-in-rats
#19
Yun-Fei Lü, Yan Yang, Chun-Li Li, Yan Wang, Zhen Li, Jun Chen
Empathy for pain (vicariously felt pain), an ability to feel, recognize, understand and share the painful emotions of others, has been gradually accepted to be a common identity in both humans and rodents, however, the underlying neural and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Recently, we have developed a rat model of empathy for pain in which pain can be transferred from a cagemate demonstrator (CD) in pain to a naïve cagemate observer (CO) after 30 min dyadic priming social interaction. The naïve CO rats display both mechanical pain hypersensitivity (hyperalgesia) and enhanced spinal nociception...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973650/bupivacaine-field-block-with-clonidine-for-postoperative-pain-control-in-posterior-spine-approaches-a-randomized-double-blind-trial
#20
Joe Abdel Hay, Sandra Kobaiter-Maarrawi, Patrick Tabet, Ronald Moussa, Tony Rizk, Georges Nohra, Nabil Okais, Elie Samaha, Jospeh Maarrawi
BACKGROUND: The synergistic effect of clonidine with bupivacaine, well established in peripheral nerve blocks, remains controversial in local field block for postoperative analgesia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential analgesic benefit of adding clonidine to bupivacaine during preincisional field block in posterior approaches for spine surgeries. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-five patients were enrolled in this study and underwent lumbar spinal fusion (n = 80), lumbar laminectomy (n = 25), lumbar microdiscectomy (n = 94), or cervical laminectomy (n = 26)...
July 21, 2017: Neurosurgery
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