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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908769/chronic-citalopram-administration-desensitizes-prefrontal-cortex-but-not-somatodendritic-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-in-rat-brain
#1
Begoña Fernández-Pastor, Jorge E Ortega, Laura Grandoso, Elena Castro, Luisa Ugedo, Ángel Pazos, J Javier Meana
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) regulate brain noradrenergic neurotransmission both at somatodendritic and nerve terminal areas. Previous studies have demonstrated that noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors are able to desensitize α2-adrenoceptor-mediated responses. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effects of repeated treatment with the SSRI citalopram on the α2-adrenoceptor sensitivity in locus coeruleus (LC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), by using in vivo microdialysis and electrophysiological techniques, and in vitro stimulation of [(35)S]GTPγS binding autoradiography...
November 28, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902931/human-presynaptic-receptors
#2
REVIEW
Eberhard Schlicker, Thomas Feuerstein
Presynaptic receptors are sites at which transmitters, locally formed mediators or hormones inhibit or facilitate the release of a given transmitter from its axon terminals. The interest in the identification of presynaptic receptors has faded in recent years and it may therefore be justified to give an overview of their occurrence in the autonomic and central nervous system; this review will focus on presynaptic receptors in human tissues. Autoreceptors are presynaptic receptors at which a given transmitter restrains its further release, though in some instances may also increase its release...
November 27, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900397/noradrenaline-receptor-mechanisms-modulate-the-angiotensin-ii-induced-water-intake-in-the-subfornical-organ-in-rats
#3
Makoto Takahashi, Junichi Tanaka
The present study was carried out to clarify the role of noradrenergic systems in the mediation of drinking response to angiotensin II (ANG II) in the rat subfornical organ (SFO). Microinjection of ANG II (10 pmol, 50 nl) into the SFO caused a robust drinking response (water volume, 1.8-8.7 ml for 20 min). Injections of either noradrenaline (NA; 0.1, 1 and 10 nmols, 50 nl) into the SFO did not produce a significant water intake. Phenylephrine (Phen; 0.1, 1, 10 nmols, 50 nl), an α1-adrenoceptor agonist, injected into the SFO elicited little drinking in the rats tested (water volume, 0...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896597/noradrenergic-inhibition-of-spinal-hyperexcitation-elicited-by-cutaneous-cold-stimuli-in-rats-with-oxaliplatin-induced-allodynia-electrophysiological-and-behavioral-assessments
#4
Seunghwan Choi, Akihiro Yamada, Woojin Kim, Sun Kwang Kim, Hidemasa Furue
We investigated the spinal action of noradrenaline on cold-elicited hyperexcitation detected in dorsal horn neurons of rats with allodynia induced by an oxaliplatin (6 mg/kg, i.p.) injection. In vivo extracellular recordings from the spinal dorsal horn showed that wide dynamic range neurons responded to cutaneous acetone (10 μl) stimulation in normal rats, and cold-elicited firings in oxaliplatin-administered rats were increased with a longer duration, correlated with behavioral responses. These responses were significantly attenuated by spinal administration (50 μM) of noradrenaline or its agonists, clonidine (α2), phenylephrine (α1) and isoprenaline (β), in descending order of efficacy...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896229/effect-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-agonists-and-antagonists-on-cytokine-release-from-human-lung-macrophages-cultured-in-vitro
#5
O Piazza, R I Staiano, E De Robertis, G Conti, V Di Crescenzo, S Loffredo, G Marone, G Zito Marinosci, M M Cataldi
The most trusted hypothesis to explain how α2-adrenergic agonists may preserve pulmonary functions in critically ill patients is that they directly act on macrophages by interfering with an autocrine/paracrine adrenergic system that controls cytokine release through locally synthetized noradrenaline and α1- and α2-adrenoreceptors. We tested this hypothesis in primary cultures of resident macrophages from human lung (HLMs). HLMs were isolated by centrifugation on percoll gradients from macroscopically healthy human lung tissue obtained from four different patients at the time of lung resection for cancer...
November 2016: Translational Medicine @ UniSa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895591/comparison-in-conscious-rabbits-of-the-baroreceptor-heart-rate-reflex-effects-of-chronic-treatment-with-rilmenidine-moxonidine-and-clonidine
#6
Monique L Parkin, Kyungjoon Lim, Sandra L Burke, Geoffrey A Head
We investigated the effects of chronic subcutaneous treatment with centrally-acting antihypertensive agents moxonidine, rilmenidine, and clonidine on the baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) in conscious normotensive rabbits over 3 weeks. Infusions of phenylephrine and nitroprusside were performed at week 0 and at weeks 1 and 3 of treatment to determine mean arterial pressure (MAP)-HR baroreflex relationships. A second curve was performed after intravenous methscopolamine to determine the sympathetic baroreflex relationship...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891620/modulation-of-formalin-induced-pain-related-behaviour-by-clonidine-and-yohimbine-in-the-speke-s-hinged-tortoise-kiniskys-spekii
#7
C M Makau, P K Towett, K S P Abelson, T I Kanui
The study was designed to investigate the involvement of noradrenergic and serotonergic receptor systems in the modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Intradermal injection of 100 μL of formalin at a dilution of 12.5% caused pain-related behaviour (hindlimb withdrawal) that lasted for a mean time of 19.28 min (monophasic response). Intrathecal administration of clonidine (α2 -adrenergic receptor agonist) and yohimbine (α2 -adrenergic receptor antagonist) at a dose of 40 μg/kg and 37...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888979/corrigendum-to-a-comparison-of-suboxone-and-clonidine-treatment-outcomes-in-opiate-detoxification-archives-of-psychiatric-nursing-26-4-2012-316-323
#8
Anthony Steele, Patricia Cunningham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872944/-multiple-eccrine-hidrocystomas-on-the-lower-forehead-and-nose-of-a%C3%A2-60-year-old-man
#9
J K Winkler, W Hartschuh, A Enk, F Toberer
Multiple eccrine hidrocystomas are benign cystic skin lesions which originate from the sweat gland ducts and typically affect women's midfacial area. Sweating may lead to an increase in size of the translucent papules. In some cases hidrocystomas are associated with other diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Treatment options include laser, topical and systemic anticholinergic drugs (glycopyrrolate, clonidine, atropine, and oxybutynin), whereby therapeutic success is limited in most cases.
November 21, 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865152/psychoactive-medications-and-disengagement-from-office-based-opioid-treatment-obot-with-buprenorphine
#10
Zoe M Weinstein, Debbie M Cheng, Emily Quinn, David Hui, Hyunjoong Kim, Gabriela Gryczynski, Jeffrey H Samet
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of psychoactive medications (PAMs) use in patients enrolled in Office Based Opioid Treatment (OBOT) and its association with engagement in this care is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of PAMs, including those medications with emerging evidence of misuse ("emerging PAMs" - gabapentin, clonidine and promethazine) among patients on buprenorphine, and its association with disengagement from OBOT. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of adults on buprenorphine from January 2002 to February 2014...
November 5, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856110/role-of-gastrointestinal-motility-inhibition-and-antioxidant-properties-of-myrtle-berries-myrtus-communis-l-juice-in-diarrhea-treatment
#11
Mohamed-Amine Jabri, Kais Rtibi, Mohsen Sakly, Lamjed Marzouki, Hichem Sebai
INTRODUCTION: The myrtle (Myrtus communis) belongs to the Myrtaceae family; it is one of the central plants as part of the list of medicinal plants in the Tunisian Pharmacopoeia. Myrtle berry was used for its astringent, tonic, and antiseptic properties, to treat diarrhea, hemorrhoids, and gastrointestinal injury. METHODS: Adult male wistar rats were used to evaluate the normal gastro-intestinal transit and gastric emptying as well as castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling tests, and small intestine oxidative stress...
November 14, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852630/changing-from-continuous-sc-to-transdermal-clonidine-to-treat-dystonia-in-a-teenage-boy-with-end-stage-leucodystrophy
#12
Heather Louise McCluggage
This case report discusses the problems encountered with dystonia in a teenage boy with end-stage calcifying leucodystrophy. It records the successful use of prolonged continuous subcutaneous clonidine and the change to thrice weekly transdermal clonidine.
November 15, 2016: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851179/1543-the-effects-of-beta-blockade-and-clonidine-on-persistent-injury-associated-anemia
#13
Tyler Loftus, Juan Mira, Scott Brakenridge, Philip Efron, Frederick Moore, Alicia Mohr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830713/efficacy-and-acceptability-of-different-auxiliary-drugs-in-pediatric-sevoflurane-anesthesia-a-network-meta-analysis-of-mixed-treatment-comparisons
#14
Wuchao Wang, Panchuan Huang, Weiwei Gao, Fangli Cao, Mingling Yi, Liyong Chen, Xiaoli Guo
Emergence agitation preventive medicine should be combined with pediatric anesthesia because of the high frequency of emergence agitation. However, it is challenging to determine the most appropriate medication that can be introduced into pediatric anesthesia for the sake of emergence agitation prevention. We reviewed and retrieved the data from PubMed and Embase. Various medications were assessed based on several endpoints including Emergence agitation outcomes (EA), postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), the number of patients who required analgesic (RA), pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium (PAED), the extubation time, the emergency time and the duration of post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828696/current-and-investigational-medication-delivery-systems-for-treating-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Rakesh Jain, Alain Katic
OBJECTIVE: To review currently available formulations and emphasize unmet needs in the pharmacologic management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). DATA SOURCES: Publications and clinical trials were identified through PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov, respectively. A Web-based search identified prescribing information for approved agents for treating ADHD, along with relevant guidelines and diagnostic criteria. STUDY SELECTION: The following search terms were used: (1) ADHD or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or (2) amphetamine or methylphenidate or atomoxetine or guanfacine or clonidine...
August 18, 2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826897/interactions-between-%C3%AE-adrenergic-vasodilation-and-cervical-sympathetic-nerves-are-mediated-by-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-in-the-rat-masseter-muscle
#16
Hisayoshi Ishii, Toshiya Sato
Neural and humoral autonomic mechanisms may be important in the maintenance of blood flow in the masseter muscle (MBF). However, their interactions remain unclear. In this study, we examined interactions between neural and humoral regulation of MBF and investigated the mechanisms mediating these interactions in urethane-anesthetized rats. Stimulation of the adrenal nerve (AN) projecting to the adrenal medulla increased MBF, and this increase was mediated by β-adrenoceptors. Sectioning of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) significantly inhibited increases in MBF induced by AN stimulation during high activity in the CST, but not during low activity...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815834/preventing-emergence-agitation-using-ancillary-drugs-with-sevoflurane-for-pediatric-anesthesia-a-network-meta-analysis
#17
Xin Wang, Qi Deng, Bin Liu, Xiangdi Yu
Using sevoflurane for pediatric anesthesia plays a pivotal role in surgeries. Emergence agitation (EA) is a major adverse event accompanied with pediatric anesthesia. Other anesthetic adjuvants can be combined with sevoflurane in clinical practices for different purposes. However, it is uncertain that such a practice may have substantial influence on the risk of EA. We conducted a literature search in online databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials. Key data were extracted from eligible randomized control trials (RCTs)...
November 4, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807804/tourette-syndrome-increases-risk-of-bone-fractures-a-population-based-cohort-study
#18
Yuan-Yuan Lu, Ming-Yu Wang, I-Hua Wei, Che-Chen Lin, Chih-Chia Huang
This study assesses the risk of fractures among children with Tourette syndrome (TS), and identifies the effects of comorbidities and antipsychotics. We randomly sampled the claims data of 1 million enrollees in the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan, and identified 1258 children with TS diagnosed between 2000 and 2010. Additionally, 12,580 children without TS who were frequency matched for sex, age, residential area, parental occupation, and index year were identified for comparison. The children's cases were followed until December 31, 2010, or censored to ascertain incident fractures cases and associations with comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and treatments with antipsychotics, antidepressants, or clonidine...
November 2, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806917/clonidine-preconditioning-alleviated-focal-cerebral-ischemic-insult-in-rats-via-up-regulating-p-nmdar1-and-down-regulating-nmdar2a-p-nmdar2b
#19
Li Yanli, Zhang Xizhou, Wang Yan, Zhao Bo, Zha Yunhong, Li Zicheng, Yu Lingling, Yan Lingling, Chen Zhangao, Zheng Min, He Zhi
A brain ischemia rat model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2h and reperfusion for 4h to investigate the underlying mechanism of the neuroprotection action of clonidine, a classical alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, on cerebral ischemia. Clonidine and yohimbine were intraperitoneally given to the rats each day for a week before ischemia. Neurological deficits evaluations were carried out at 6h after operation. TTC staining method was used to measure the volume of brain infarction. Expression levels of NMDAR1, NMDAR2A, NMDAR2B were assayed by western blotting...
October 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798810/emergence-delirium-in-pediatric-anesthesia
#20
REVIEW
Arthura D Moore, Doralina L Anghelescu
Emergence delirium (ED) is a complex of perceptual disturbances and psychomotor agitation that occurs most commonly in preschool-aged children in the early postanesthetic period. The incidence of ED varies between 10 and 80% in children and is perceived as a troublesome clinical situation by 42% of pediatric anesthesiologists. Although these events are often short lived, they increase the risk of self-injury and delayed discharge, require additional nursing staff and can increase medical care costs, all of which are causes for concern...
October 31, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
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