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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096583/addition-of-clonidine-to-bupivacaine-in-transversus-abdominis-plane-block-prolongs-postoperative-analgesia-after-cesarean-section
#1
Ranju Singh, Nishant Kumar, Aruna Jain, Sudipta Joy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim was to compare duration of postoperative analgesia with addition of clonidine to bupivacaine in bilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block after lower segment cesarean section (LSCS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade I and II pregnant patients undergoing LSCS under spinal anesthesia were randomly divided to receive either 20 ml bupivacaine 0.25% (Group B; n = 50) or 20 ml bupivacaine+1ug/kg clonidine bilaterally (Group BC; n = 50) in TAP block in a double-blind fashion...
October 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094445/presynaptic-inhibition-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-type-1-trpv1-receptors-by-norepinephrine-in-nociceptive-neurons
#2
Saikat Chakraborty, Vincent Elvezio, Martin Kaczocha, Mario Rebecchi, Michelino Puopolo
The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor is a well-known contributor to nociceptor excitability. To address whether norepinephrine can down-regulate TRPV1 channel activity in nociceptors and reduce their synaptic transmission, the effects of norepinephrine and clonidine were tested on the capsaicin-activated current recorded from acutely dissociated small diameter (<27 μm) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and on miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) recorded from large lamina I neurons in horizontal spinal cord slices...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093070/clonidine-is-effective-for-the-treatment-of-primary-idiopathic-hyperhidrosis-and-hot-flushes-a-case-report
#3
Ahmed Albadrani
BACKGROUND: While primary hyperhidrosis can be seen in men, accompanying hot flushes is rarely seen in men. Primary hyperhidrosis is thought to be related to overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system while hot flushes are believed to be related to altered peripheral vascular reactivity and a narrowed thermoregulatory zone. CASE PRESENTATION: I report the case of a 29-year-old man of Arab origin who presented to a dermatology clinic with a complaint of generalized sweating, with heavier involvement of his inguinal region, axilla, and lower back...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091926/effect-of-hypotensive-drugs-on-dynamics-of-nitroxide-producing-renal-function-in-rats-with-nephrogenic-hypertension
#4
E V Eliseeva, E F Romanchenko, I V Dyuizen, A V Tyrtyshnikova, Yu I Pigolkin
An original model of nephrogenic hypertension in rats was used for histochemical mapping of NADPH diaphorase (NO synthase) in various renal segments to examine the effect of hypotensive drugs furosemide, bendazol, and clonidine on the time course of nitroxide production in the kidneys. In various nephron segments, these drugs modulated NO synthesis in different ways. Clonidine induced a stable up-regulation of NO synthesis, which can maintain active vasodilation and gradually diminish the rennin production...
January 14, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086944/prenatal-treatment-for-opioid-dependency-observations-from-a-large-inner-city-clinic
#5
Kelley Saia, Sarah M Bagley, Elisha M Wachman, Payal P Patel, Marisa D Nadas, Susan B Brogly
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to review changes in the prevalence of opioid use disorder in pregnancy, and to describe the prenatal care and neonatal outcomes following the implementation of buprenorphine treatment at a large US obstetrical clinic during the on-going opioid epidemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 310 women (332 pregnancies) with opioid use disorders and their neonates delivered between June 2006 and December 2010 at an obstetrical clinic in the US...
January 13, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078682/population-pharmacokinetics-of-intravenous-clonidine-for-sedation-during-pediatric-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-ecmo-and-continuous-veno-venous-hemofiltration-cvvh
#6
Niina Kleiber, Ron A A Mathôt, Maurice J Ahsman, Enno D Wildschut, Dick Tibboel, Saskia N de Wildt
AIMS: Clonidine is used for sedation in the pediatric intensive care unit. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides temporary support if respiratory and cardiac function is threatened. ECMO influences the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Clonidine during pediatric ECMO cannot be effectively titrated as PK data are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe clonidine PK in a particular ECMO system and propose dosing guidelines for children on this particular ECMO circuit. METHODS: All children below the age of 18 who received clonidine during ECMO were eligible...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073796/comparative-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-pharmacological-interventions-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-adolescents-and-adults-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#7
Samuele Cortese, Nicoletta Adamo, Christina Mohr-Jensen, Adrian J Hayes, Sahar Bhatti, Sara Carucci, Cinzia Del Giovane, Lauren Z Atkinson, Tobias Banaschewski, Emily Simonoff, Alessandro Zuddas, Corrado Barbui, Marianna Purgato, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Farhad Shokraneh, Jun Xia, Andrea Cipriani, David Coghill
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a major public health issue. Pharmacological treatments play an important role in the multimodal treatment of ADHD. Currently, there is a lack of up-to-date and comprehensive evidence on how available ADHD drugs compare and rank in terms of efficacy and tolerability, in children or adolescents as well as in adults. We will conduct a network meta-analysis (NMA), integrating direct and indirect comparisons from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), to rank pharmacological treatments for ADHD according to their efficacy and tolerability profiles...
January 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068780/long-acting-injectable-naltrexone-induction-a-randomized-trial-of-outpatient-opioid-detoxification-with-naltrexone-versus-buprenorphine
#8
Maria Sullivan, Adam Bisaga, Martina Pavlicova, C Jean Choi, Kaitlyn Mishlen, Kenneth M Carpenter, Frances R Levin, Elias Dakwar, John J Mariani, Edward V Nunes
OBJECTIVE: At present there is no established optimal approach for transitioning opioid-dependent adults to extended-release injection naltrexone (XR-naltrexone) while preventing relapse. The authors conducted a trial examining the efficacy of two methods of outpatient opioid detoxification for induction to XR-naltrexone. METHOD: Participants were 150 opioid-dependent adults randomly assigned 2:1 to one of two outpatient detoxification regimens, naltrexone-assisted detoxification or buprenorphine-assisted detoxification, followed by an injection of XR-naltrexone...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067704/intravenous-ketamine-infusions-for-neuropathic-pain-management-a-promising-therapy-in-need-of-optimization
#9
Dermot P Maher, Lucy Chen, Jianren Mao
Intravenous ketamine infusions have been used extensively to treat often-intractable neuropathic pain conditions. Because there are many widely divergent ketamine infusion protocols described in the literature, the variation in these protocols presents a challenge for direct comparison of one protocol with another and in discerning an optimal protocol. Careful examination of the published literature suggests that ketamine infusions can be useful to treat neuropathic pain and that certain characteristics of ketamine infusions may be associated with better clinical outcomes...
February 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033670/a-mini-review-of-non-parenteral-clonidine-preparations-for-paediatric-sedation
#10
REVIEW
Sara M Hanning, Mine Orlu Gul, Irmgard Toni, Antje Neubert, Catherine Tuleu
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of non-parenteral clonidine formulations and assess the feasibility of their use for paediatric sedation. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using electronic databases and a combination of search terms. Forty articles met the inclusion criteria. Publications were grouped into different dosage forms and assessed for their potential application for sedation of children in intensive care. KEY FINDINGS: Several routes of clonidine administration have been investigated for numerous indications in children, including perioperative sedation and analgesia...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030955/reno-cerebral-reflex-activates-renin-angiotensin-system-promoting-oxidative-stress-and-renal-damage-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Wei Cao, Aiqing Li, Jiawen Li, Chunyi Wu, Shuang Cui, Zhanmei Zhou, Youhua Liu, Christopher Stuart Wilcox, Fan Fan Hou
AIMS: A kidney-brain interaction has been described in acute kidney injury but the mechanisms are uncertain. Since we recently described a reno-cerebral reflex, we tested the hypothesis that renal ischemia-reperfusion injury activates a sympathetic reflex that interlinks the renal and cerebral renin-angiotensin axis to promote oxidative stress and progression of the injury. RESULTS: Bilateral ischemia-reperfusion activated the intrarenal and cerebral, but not the circulating, renin-angiotensin system, increased sympathetic activity in the kidney and the cerebral sympathetic regulatory regions, and induced brain inflammation and kidney injury...
December 28, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000040/a-monitor-for-cellular-oxygen-metabolism-comet-monitoring-tissue-oxygenation-at-the-mitochondrial-level
#12
Rinse Ubbink, Mark A Wefers Bettink, Rineke Janse, Floor A Harms, Tanja Johannes, F Michael Münker, Egbert G Mik
After introduction of the protoporphyrin IX-triplet state lifetime technique as a new method to measure mitochondrial oxygen tension in vivo, the development of a clinical monitor was started. This monitor is the "COMET", an acronym for Cellular Oxygen METabolism. The COMET is a non-invasive electrically powered optical device that allows measurements on the skin. The COMET is easy to transport, due to its lightweight and compact size. After 5-aminolevulinic acid application on the human skin, a biocompatible sensor enables detection of PpIX in the mitochondria...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999253/treatment-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-nightmares-at-a-veterans-affairs-medical-center
#13
Mark B Detweiler, Bhuvaneshwar Pagadala, Joseph Candelario, Jennifer S Boyle, Jonna G Detweiler, Brian W Lutgens
The effectiveness of medications for PTSD in general has been well studied, but the effectiveness of medicatio.ns prescribed specifically for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nightmares is less well known. This retrospective chart review examined the efficacy of various medications used in actual treatment of PTSD nightmares at one Veteran Affairs Hospital. Records at the Salem, VA Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) were examined from 2009 to 2013 to check for the efficacy of actual treatments used in comparis...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998008/antihypertensive-methyldopa-labetalol-hydralazine-and-clonidine-reversed-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibited-enos-expression-in-endothelial-trophoblast-cellular-networks
#14
Bei Xu, Gabriele Bobek, Angela Makris, Annemarie Hennessy
Medications used to control hypertension in pregnancy also improve trophoblast and endothelial cellular interaction in vitro. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibits trophoblast and endothelial cellular interactions and simultaneously decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. This study investigated whether antihypertensive medications improved these cellular interactions by modulating eNOS and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Human uterine myometrial microvascular endothelial cells (UtMVECs) were pre-incubated with (or without) low dose TNF-α (0...
December 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929741/cerebral-microvascular-dysfunction-and-inflammation-are-improved-by-centrally-acting-antihypertensive-drugs-in-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Vanessa Estato, Alessandro Nascimento, Barbara Antunes, Fabiana Gomes, Laura Coelho, Raquel Rangel, Luciana Garzoni, Anissa Daliry, Pascal Bousquet, Eduardo Tibiriçá
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the effects of chronic oral treatment with centrally acting antihypertensive drugs, such as clonidine (CLO), an α2-adrenoceptor agonist, or LNP599, a selective I1 imidazoline receptor agonist, on brain microvascular function in rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto rats were maintained on a normal diet (CON) or a HFD for 20 weeks. After this period, the HFD group received oral CLO (0...
December 8, 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929541/non-amyloidogenic-effects-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-agonists-implications-for-brimonidine-mediated-neuroprotection
#16
Shereen Nizari, Li Guo, Benjamin M Davis, Eduardo M Normando, Joana Galvao, Lisa A Turner, Mukhtar Bizrah, Mohammad Dehabadi, Kailin Tian, M Francesca Cordeiro
The amyloid beta (Aβ) pathway is strongly implicated in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and more recently, glaucoma. Here, we identify the α2 adrenergic receptor agonists (α2ARA) used to lower intraocular pressure can prevent retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death via the non-amyloidogenic Aβ-pathway. Neuroprotective effects were confirmed in vivo and in vitro in different glaucoma-related models using α2ARAs brimonidine (BMD), clonidine (Clo) and dexmedetomidine. α2ARA treatment significantly reduced RGC apoptosis in experimental-glaucoma models by 97...
December 8, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916533/activation-of-beta-and-alpha-2-adrenoceptors-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-has-opposing-effects-on-hippocampal-prefrontal-long-term-potentiation
#17
Ee Peng Lim, Gavin S Dawe, Thérèse M Jay
Noradrenaline (NA), released by the locus coeruleus (LC), plays a key role in mediating the effects of stress on memory functions. The LC provides diffuse projections to many forebrain nuclei including the hippocampus, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). These three structures are intricately interlinked. The hippocampal-prefrontal (H-PFC) pathway is involved in various cognitive functions. The first aim of this study was to examine the role of BLA in H-PFC plasticity by infusion of drugs to activate and inactivate the BLA and studying the effects on H-PFC long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat in vivo...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908769/chronic-citalopram-administration-desensitizes-prefrontal-cortex-but-not-somatodendritic-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-in-rat-brain
#18
Begoña Fernández-Pastor, Jorge E Ortega, Laura Grandoso, Elena Castro, Luisa Ugedo, Ángel Pazos, J Javier Meana
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) regulate brain noradrenergic neurotransmission both at somatodendritic and nerve terminal areas. Previous studies have demonstrated that noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors are able to desensitize α2-adrenoceptor-mediated responses. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effects of repeated treatment with the SSRI citalopram on the α2-adrenoceptor sensitivity in locus coeruleus (LC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), by using in vivo microdialysis and electrophysiological techniques, and in vitro stimulation of [(35)S]GTPγS binding autoradiography...
March 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902931/human-presynaptic-receptors
#19
REVIEW
Eberhard Schlicker, Thomas Feuerstein
Presynaptic receptors are sites at which transmitters, locally formed mediators or hormones inhibit or facilitate the release of a given transmitter from its axon terminals. The interest in the identification of presynaptic receptors has faded in recent years and it may therefore be justified to give an overview of their occurrence in the autonomic and central nervous system; this review will focus on presynaptic receptors in human tissues. Autoreceptors are presynaptic receptors at which a given transmitter restrains its further release, though in some instances may also increase its release...
November 27, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900397/noradrenaline-receptor-mechanisms-modulate-the-angiotensin-ii-induced-water-intake-in-the-subfornical-organ-in-rats
#20
Makoto Takahashi, Junichi Tanaka
The present study was carried out to clarify the role of noradrenergic systems in the mediation of drinking response to angiotensin II (ANG II) in the rat subfornical organ (SFO). Microinjection of ANG II (10 pmol, 50 nl) into the SFO caused a robust drinking response (water volume, 1.8-8.7 ml for 20 min). Injections of either noradrenaline (NA; 0.1, 1 and 10 nmols, 50 nl) into the SFO did not produce a significant water intake. Phenylephrine (Phen; 0.1, 1, 10 nmols, 50 nl), an α1-adrenoceptor agonist, injected into the SFO elicited little drinking in the rats tested (water volume, 0...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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