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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210917/adjuvant-agents-in-regional-anesthesia-in-the-ambulatory-setting
#1
REVIEW
Veerandra Koyyalamudi, Sudipta Sen, Shilpadevi Patil, Justin B Creel, Elyse M Cornett, Charles J Fox, Alan D Kaye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A majority of surgical practice has involved ambulatory centers with the number of outpatient operations in the USA doubling to 26.8 million per year. Local anesthesia delivery provides numerous benefits, including increased satisfaction, earlier discharge, and reduction in unplanned hospital admission. Further, with the epidemic of opioid mediated overdoses, local anesthesia can be a key tool in providing an opportunity to reduce the need for other analgesics postoperatively...
January 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208979/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-bupivacaine-0-5-alone-or-with-clonidine-1%C3%AE-g-kg-versus-control-in-a-single-level-paravertebral-blockin-patients-undergoing-pcnl-procedure
#2
Trupti S Kamble, Charulata Mahesh Deshpande
INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a widely used procedure to remove complex upper tract renal calculi by means of a nephroscope. Although less invasive, PCNL is associated with significant pain owing to soft tissue injury. Most of these patients have mild to moderately compromised renal function. An anaesthesia plan that reduces intraoperative requirement of anaesthetics, analgesics, muscle relaxants and postoperative requirement of systemic analgesics is essential...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207646/translational-interpretations-of-combined-bupivacaine-clonidine-buprenorphine-dexamethasone
#3
Brian A Williams, James W Ibinson, Catalin S Ezaru, Hulimangala Rakesh, Michael P Mangione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162606/-365-pain-modulation-and-autonomic-function-the-effect-of-clonidine
#4
H Nahman-Averbuch, L Dayan, E Sprecher, U Hochberg, S Brill, D Yarnitsky, G Jacob
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151790/management-of-opioid-and-sedative-weaning-in-pediatric-congenital-heart-disease-patients-assessing-the-state-of-practice
#5
Caitlin O'Connell, Sonja Ziniel, Lauren Hartwell, Jean Connor
BACKGROUND: Opioid and sedative medications are commonly used to treat pediatric patients with congenital heart disease; however, their use is not without adverse effects. Symptoms of withdrawal can occur if the medications are discontinued abruptly or weaned too quickly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand and describe the current management of opioid and sedative weaning in pediatric congenital heart disease patients in freestanding children's hospitals across the United States...
March 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128088/gestational-pityriasis-rosea-suggestions-for-approaching-affected-pregnant-women
#6
Alexandra Monastirli, Efstathia Pasmatzi, George Badavanis, Dionysios Tsambaos
Dear Editor, Pityriasis rosea is a common, acute, and self-limiting dermatosis, which is associated with the endogenous systemic reactivation of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and/or HHV-7 (1). It predominantly affects individuals of both sexes in their second or third decade of life and is clinically characterized by the occurrence of an initial erythematosquamous plaque followed by the appearance of disseminated similar but smaller lesions one or two weeks later. Several patients develop systemic symptoms such as nausea, anorexia, malaise, headache, fever, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy that may precede or accompany the eruption; the latter follows the cleavage lines of the trunk creating the configuration of a Christmas tree and spontaneously resolves within 4 to 8 weeks...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125624/clonidine-versus-captopril-for-severe-postpartum-hypertension-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Carlos Noronha Neto C, Sabina S B Maia, Leila Katz, Isabela C Coutinho, Alex R Souza, Melania M Amorim
BACKGROUND: Changes during the puerperium are still unclear, particularly in women with hypertension. The choice of antihypertensives, both to control very high blood pressure episodes and to keep blood pressure stable, also requires further elucidation. Currently, there are no clear data to guide the decision for the choice of postpartum antihypertensives. Captopril plays an important role in the treatment of very high blood pressure episodes and may be used postpartum. Clonidine has been used as an alternative in pregnant or postpartum women with contraindications to captopril, with satisfactory effect...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124696/molecular-structure-of-clonidine-gas-phase-electron-diffraction-single-crystal-x-ray-diffraction-and-quantum-chemical-studies
#8
Inna N Kolesnikova, Anatolii N Rykov, Igor F Shishkov, Victor A Tafeenko, Leonid A Aslanov
This study presents the first determination of the molecular structure of the antihypertensive drug clonidine in the gas phase using gas electron diffraction (GED). The refinement was supported by quantum chemical calculations (QCs). The tautomeric and conformational distribution was investigated theoretically, providing an explanation for the presence of the single conformer in the gas phase. The molecular conformation of clonidine has been shown to have a nearly perpendicular arrangement of the phenyl and imidazolidine rings as described by the torsion angle C2-N6-C7-C8 = -72(6)°...
January 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122088/preventing-corneal-calcification-associated-with-xylazine-for-longitudinal-optical-coherence-tomography-in-young-rodents
#9
Tianwei Ellen Zhou, Diane N Sayah, Baraa Noueihed, Javier Mazzaferri, Santiago Costantino, Isabelle Brunette, Sylvain Chemtob
Purpose: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is widely used in clinical ophthalmology and recently gained popularity in laboratory research involving small rodents. Its noninvasive nature allows repeated measurements, thereby decreasing the number of animals required. However, when used at a conventional dosage, xylazine (an α2-adrenoceptor) can cause irreversible corneal calcification, especially among young rodents. In the present study, we test whether corneal calcification associated with xylazine is mediated by the α2-adrenoceptor...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120104/adjuncts-to-local-anaesthetics-in-tonsillectomy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
R Vlok, T M Melhuish, C Chong, T Ryan, Leigh D White
The infiltration of local anaesthetic agents has been shown to reduce post-tonsillectomy pain. A number of recent studies have shown that the addition of agents such as clonidine and dexamethasone improve the efficacy of nerve blocks and spinal anaesthesia. The aim of this review was to determine whether additives to local anaesthetic agents improve post-tonsillectomy outcomes. Four major databases were systematically searched for all relevant studies published up to August 2016. All study designs with a control group receiving local anaesthetic infiltration and an intervention receiving the same infiltration with an added agent were included in this review...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115640/clonidine-induces-apoptosis-of-human-corneal-epithelial-cells-through-death-receptors-mediated-mitochondria-dependent-signaling-pathway
#11
Dan Fan, Ting-Jun Fan
Clonidine, an α2-adrenoreceptor agonist, is an anti-glaucoma drug clinically used in many developing countries, and its abuse might damage the cornea and impair human vision. However, its cytotoxicity and precise mechanisms need to be elucidated. Herein, we investigated the cytotoxicity of clonidine and its underlying mechanisms, using an in vitro model of human corneal epithelial (HCEP) cells and an in vivo model of cat corneas, respectively. HCEP cells were treated with various doses of clonidine for 1-28 h, resulting in abnormal morphology, decline of cell viability and G1 phase arrest in a time- and/or dose- dependent manner...
January 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107093/adult-clonidine-overdose-prolonged-bradycardia-and-central-nervous-system-depression-but-not-severe-toxicity
#12
Geoffrey K Isbister, Simon P Heppell, Colin B Page, Nicole M Ryan
CONTEXT: There are limited reports of adult clonidine overdose. We aimed to describe the clinical effects and treatment of clonidine overdose in adults. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of a prospective cohort of poisoned patients who took clonidine overdoses (>200 μg). Demographic information, clinical effects, treatment, complications (central nervous system and cardiovascular effects) and length of stay (LOS) were extracted from a clinical database or medical records...
March 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096583/addition-of-clonidine-to-bupivacaine-in-transversus-abdominis-plane-block-prolongs-postoperative-analgesia-after-cesarean-section
#13
Ranju Singh, Nishant Kumar, Aruna Jain, Sudipta Joy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim was to compare duration of postoperative analgesia with addition of clonidine to bupivacaine in bilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block after lower segment cesarean section (LSCS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade I and II pregnant patients undergoing LSCS under spinal anesthesia were randomly divided to receive either 20 ml bupivacaine 0.25% (Group B; n = 50) or 20 ml bupivacaine+1ug/kg clonidine bilaterally (Group BC; n = 50) in TAP block in a double-blind fashion...
October 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094445/presynaptic-inhibition-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-type-1-trpv1-receptors-by-norepinephrine-in-nociceptive-neurons
#14
Saikat Chakraborty, Vincent Elvezio, Martin Kaczocha, Mario Rebecchi, Michelino Puopolo
The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor is a well-known contributor to nociceptor excitability. To address whether norepinephrine can down-regulate TRPV1 channel activity in nociceptors and reduce their synaptic transmission, the effects of norepinephrine and clonidine were tested on the capsaicin-activated current recorded from acutely dissociated small diameter (<27 μm) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and on miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) recorded from large lamina I neurons in horizontal spinal cord slices...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093070/clonidine-is-effective-for-the-treatment-of-primary-idiopathic-hyperhidrosis-and-hot-flushes-a-case-report
#15
Ahmed Albadrani
BACKGROUND: While primary hyperhidrosis can be seen in men, accompanying hot flushes is rarely seen in men. Primary hyperhidrosis is thought to be related to overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system while hot flushes are believed to be related to altered peripheral vascular reactivity and a narrowed thermoregulatory zone. CASE PRESENTATION: I report the case of a 29-year-old man of Arab origin who presented to a dermatology clinic with a complaint of generalized sweating, with heavier involvement of his inguinal region, axilla, and lower back...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091926/effect-of-hypotensive-drugs-on-dynamics-of-nitroxide-producing-renal-function-in-rats-with-nephrogenic-hypertension
#16
E V Eliseeva, E F Romanchenko, I V Dyuizen, A V Tyrtyshnikova, Yu I Pigolkin
An original model of nephrogenic hypertension in rats was used for histochemical mapping of NADPH diaphorase (NO synthase) in various renal segments to examine the effect of hypotensive drugs furosemide, bendazol, and clonidine on the time course of nitroxide production in the kidneys. In various nephron segments, these drugs modulated NO synthesis in different ways. Clonidine induced a stable up-regulation of NO synthesis, which can maintain active vasodilation and gradually diminish the rennin production...
January 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086944/prenatal-treatment-for-opioid-dependency-observations-from-a-large-inner-city-clinic
#17
Kelley Saia, Sarah M Bagley, Elisha M Wachman, Payal P Patel, Marisa D Nadas, Susan B Brogly
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to review changes in the prevalence of opioid use disorder in pregnancy, and to describe the prenatal care and neonatal outcomes following the implementation of buprenorphine treatment at a large US obstetrical clinic during the on-going opioid epidemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 310 women (332 pregnancies) with opioid use disorders and their neonates delivered between June 2006 and December 2010 at an obstetrical clinic in the US...
January 13, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078682/population-pharmacokinetics-of-intravenous-clonidine-for-sedation-during-pediatric-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-ecmo-and-continuous-veno-venous-hemofiltration-cvvh
#18
Niina Kleiber, Ron A A Mathôt, Maurice J Ahsman, Enno D Wildschut, Dick Tibboel, Saskia N de Wildt
AIMS: Clonidine is used for sedation in the pediatric intensive care unit. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides temporary support if respiratory and cardiac function is threatened. ECMO influences the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Clonidine during pediatric ECMO cannot be effectively titrated as PK data are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe clonidine PK in a particular ECMO system and propose dosing guidelines for children on this particular ECMO circuit. METHODS: All children below the age of 18 who received clonidine during ECMO were eligible...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073796/comparative-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-pharmacological-interventions-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-adolescents-and-adults-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#19
Samuele Cortese, Nicoletta Adamo, Christina Mohr-Jensen, Adrian J Hayes, Sahar Bhatti, Sara Carucci, Cinzia Del Giovane, Lauren Z Atkinson, Tobias Banaschewski, Emily Simonoff, Alessandro Zuddas, Corrado Barbui, Marianna Purgato, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Farhad Shokraneh, Jun Xia, Andrea Cipriani, David Coghill
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a major public health issue. Pharmacological treatments play an important role in the multimodal treatment of ADHD. Currently, there is a lack of up-to-date and comprehensive evidence on how available ADHD drugs compare and rank in terms of efficacy and tolerability, in children or adolescents as well as in adults. We will conduct a network meta-analysis (NMA), integrating direct and indirect comparisons from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), to rank pharmacological treatments for ADHD according to their efficacy and tolerability profiles...
January 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068780/long-acting-injectable-naltrexone-induction-a-randomized-trial-of-outpatient-opioid-detoxification-with-naltrexone-versus-buprenorphine
#20
Maria Sullivan, Adam Bisaga, Martina Pavlicova, C Jean Choi, Kaitlyn Mishlen, Kenneth M Carpenter, Frances R Levin, Elias Dakwar, John J Mariani, Edward V Nunes
OBJECTIVE: At present there is no established optimal approach for transitioning opioid-dependent adults to extended-release injection naltrexone (XR-naltrexone) while preventing relapse. The authors conducted a trial examining the efficacy of two methods of outpatient opioid detoxification for induction to XR-naltrexone. METHOD: Participants were 150 opioid-dependent adults randomly assigned 2:1 to one of two outpatient detoxification regimens, naltrexone-assisted detoxification or buprenorphine-assisted detoxification, followed by an injection of XR-naltrexone...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
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