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Harshini Manohar, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder commonly associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the prevalence ranging from 14-70%. The current study attempted to assess the impact of comorbid ADHD in children with ASD, in terms of challenges in diagnosis, treatment, intervention outcomes and parental stress and coping through a naturalistic design. METHODS: Fifty children aged 2-6 years with ASD were recruited, assessed and followed up for six months...
March 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Nandkishor R Kotagale, Mir Touseef Ali, Chandrabhan T Chopde, Milind J Umekar, Brijesh G Taksande
Nicotine abstinence following chronic exposure is associated with impairments in memory and variety of cognitive functions. Daily nicotine (2 mg/kg, sc, four times daily) administration for 14 days and its abrupt withdrawal significantly impaired avoidance learning in inhibitory avoidance task as indicated by a significant decrease in the step through latency. Animals injected with agmatine (10-40 μg/rat, icv) from day 7 to 14 before the first daily dose of nicotine (2 mg/kg, sc) showed increased step through latencies during retrieval test...
March 9, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Dallas Duncan, Ashwin Sankar, W Scott Beattie, Duminda N Wijeysundera
BACKGROUND: The surgical stress response plays an important role on the pathogenesis of perioperative cardiac complications. Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists attenuate this response and may help prevent postoperative cardiac complications. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of α-2 adrenergic agonists for reducing mortality and cardiac complications in adults undergoing cardiac surgery and non-cardiac surgery. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (2017, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to April Week 4, 2017), Embase (1980 to May 2017), the Science Citation Index, clinical trial registries, and reference lists of included articles...
March 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Masayuki Uchida, Orie Kobayashi
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenaline have been thought to play important roles in the mechanism of hot flush. Then, to clarify the relation between serotonergic and adrenergic nervous systems on the mechanism of hot flush, the effect of paroxetine, 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) was evaluated on the yohimbine-induced hot flush increase of tail skin temperature in ovariectomized female rats. Yohimbine (adrenaline α2 antagonist) significantly increased the tail skin temperature in course of time. Clonidine (adrenaline α2 agonist) significantly attenuated this effect...
March 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Silvia Duong, Daniela Bravo, Keith J Todd, Roderick J Finlayson, De Q Tran
PURPOSE: Although multiple treatments have been advocated for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the levels of supportive evidence are variable and sometimes limited. The purpose of this updated review is to provide a critical analysis of the evidence pertaining to the treatment of CRPS derived from recent randomized-controlled trials (RCTs). SOURCE: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psychinfo, and CINAHL databases were searched to identify relevant RCTs conducted on human subjects and published in English between 1 May 2009 and 24 August 2017...
February 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Paolo Calzavacca, Lindsea C Booth, Yugeesh R Lankadeva, Simon R Bailey, Louise M Burrell, Michael Bailey, Rinaldo Bellomo, Clive N May
INTRODUCTION: Supra-clinical doses of clonidine appear beneficial in experimental sepsis, but there is limited understanding of the effects of clonidine at clinically relevant doses. METHODS: In conscious sheep, with implanted renal and pulmonary artery flow probes, sepsis was induced by infusion of live Escherichia coli. At 24 hours, a high clinical dose of clonidine (HCDC) [1.0 μg/kg/h], a low clinical dose of clonidine (LCDC) [0.25 μg/kg/h] or vehicle, was infused for 8 hours...
February 27, 2018: Shock
Kais Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
The phytochemical composition and the effect of the green and ripe Opuntia ficus-indica juice on some gastrointestinal (GI) physiological parameters such as stomach emptying and small-intestinal motility and permeability were determined in rats administered multiple concentrations of the prickly pear juice (5, 10, and 20 mL kg-1 , b.w., p.o.). Other separate groups of rats were received, respectively; sodium chloride (0.9%, b.w., p.o.), clonidine (α-2 -adrenergic agonist, 1 mg kg-1 , b.w., i.p.), yohimbine (α-2 -adrenergic antagonist, 2 mg kg-1 , b...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
M R Hoyt, U Shah, J Cooley, M Temple
OBJECTIVES: Management of labor analgesia and post-cesarean delivery pain is challenging in the patient taking buprenorphine as opioid addiction maintenance therapy. We observed whether substituting clonidine for fentanyl in an epidural solution would provide adequate analgesia for labor and after cesarean delivery. METHODS: We substituted our standard 2 µg/mL fentanyl in 0.0625% bupivacaine epidural solution with 2 µg/mL clonidine in 0.0625% bupivacaine, or 1...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Mehdi Trifa, Dmitry Tumin, Joseph D Tobias
BACKGROUND: The aim of this review was to evaluate the current evidence regarding the use of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to local anaesthetic agents (LAA) for caudal blockade anaesthesia and analgesia in children. METHODS: A literature search was performed of the Medline, Embase, and CINAHL databases using the keywords "dexmedetomidine" and "caudal". We included all studies that used caudal dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to a LAA in children, excluding case reports, reviews, expert opinions, and animal studies...
February 22, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
J Sorrieul, J Robert, V Gibory, M Collet, M Boutet, H Kieffer, C Folliard, D Dupoiron, C Devys
Intrathecal analgesia has increased over the past two decades in various indications: chronic refractory pain from cancerous or non-cancerous origins, spasticity. These different indications involve the use of different molecules alone or in combination such as morphine, ropivacaine, bupivacaine, fentanyl, sufentanil, clonidine, baclofen and ziconotide. Pump refills are prepared at the pharmacy under a laminar flow hood. An analytical control should be carried out before release of the preparation. A new method of analytical control by chromatography has been developed and validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization guideline in order to secure the production process...
February 22, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Kumiko Taguchi, Nanami Bessho, Mami Hasegawa, Haruka Narimatsu, Takayuki Matsumoto, Tsuneo Kobayashi
Hypertension and diabetes are associated with a risk of cardiovascular disease. Clonidine is currently used as a fourth-line drug therapy for hypertension because of its rebound hypertensive effect and short half-life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of an antihypertensive drug (clonidine) and a G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) inhibitor on rebound hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. The clonidine and/or GRK2 inhibitor were administered by continuous infusion for 14 days by using an osmotic pump that was implanted subcutaneously...
February 20, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Eduardo M Krieger, Luciano F Drager, Dante M A Giorgi, Alexandre C Pereira, José Augusto Soares Barreto-Filho, Armando R Nogueira, José Geraldo Mill, Paulo A Lotufo, Celso Amodeo, Marcelo C Batista, Luiz C Bodanese, Antônio C C Carvalho, Iran Castro, Hilton Chaves, Eduardo A S Costa, Gilson S Feitosa, Roberto J S Franco, Flávio D Fuchs, Armênio C Guimarães, Paulo C Jardim, Carlos A Machado, Maria E Magalhães, Décio Mion, Raimundo M Nascimento, Fernando Nobre, Antônio C Nóbrega, Antônio L P Ribeiro, Carlos R Rodrigues-Sobrinho, Antônio F Sanjuliani, Maria do Carmo B Teixeira, Jose E Krieger
The aim of this study is to compare spironolactone versus clonidine as the fourth drug in patients with resistant hypertension in a multicenter, randomized trial. Medical therapy adherence was checked by pill counting. Patients with resistant hypertension (no office and ambulatory blood pressure [BP] monitoring control, despite treatment with 3 drugs, including a diuretic, for 12 weeks) were randomized to an additional 12-week treatment with spironolactone (12.5-50 mg QD) or clonidine (0.1-0.3 mg BID). The primary end point was BP control during office (<140/90 mm Hg) and 24-h ambulatory (<130/80 mm Hg) BP monitoring...
February 20, 2018: Hypertension
Rupali Patnaik, Anjolie Chhabra, Rajeshwari Subramaniam, Mahesh K Arora, Devalina Goswami, Anurag Srivastava, Vuthaluru Seenu, Anita Dhar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Paravertebral block (PVB) is an established technique for providing anesthesia for breast surgery. The primary objective was to compare anatomical landmark technique (ALT) to the ultrasound-guided (USG) PVB block for providing surgical anesthesia. Secondary objectives included comparison of perioperative analgesia and complications. METHODS: This randomized, controlled, observer-blinded study included 72 females, aged 18 to 65 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, undergoing elective unilateral breast surgery...
February 16, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Michael O Ogundele, Hani F Ayyash
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adolescents, with prevalence ranging between 5% and 12% in the developed countries. Tic disorders (TD) are common co-morbidities in paediatric ADHD patients with or without pharmacotherapy treatment. There has been conflicting evidence of the role of psychostimulants in either precipitating or exacerbating TDs in ADHD patients. We carried out a literature review relating to the management of TDs in children and adolescents with ADHD through a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Xi Han, Yang Liu, Wendy R Kam, David A Sullivan
We recently discovered that the anti-glaucoma pharmaceuticals timolol, a β adrenergic antagonist, and pilocarpine, a cholinergic compound, negatively influence the morphology, proliferative capacity and survival of human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGECs). We hypothesize that another class of anti-glaucoma drugs, the α2 adrenergic agonists, also acts directly on HMGECs to affect their structure and function. We tested this hypothesis. Immortalized (i) HMGECs were cultured with brimonidine, as well as clonidine (α2 agonist), phenylephrine (α1 agonist), RX821002 (inverse α2 agonist) and MK912 (neutral α2 agonist) for up to 7 days...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Nesreen M I M Elkomy, Islam A A E-H Ibrahim, Shimaa M Elshazly, Hassan M El-Fayoumi
Chronic alcoholism is a risk factor for kidney injury. Clonidine is an α 2 -adrenergic receptor/imidazoline-1 receptor agonist that can reduce blood pressure and maintain renal functions. This study aims to investigate the possible ameliorative effects of clonidine on ethanol induced kidney injury and its mechanism of action. Kidney injury was induced in rats by adding ethanol to drinking water for eight weeks. Clonidine effects on kidney functions and histopathology were measured. Moreover, phentolamine (α-adrenergic receptor antagonist), efaroxan (imidazoline-1 receptor antagonist) and rilmenidine (imidazoline-1 receptor agonist) were used to clarify the role of imidazoline-1 receptor in mediating renal ameliorative effects...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Ashraf T Soliman, Mohamed A Yassin, Vincenzo De Sanctis
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about endocrine function, bone mineral health, and growth during oral iron chelation therapy in β-thalassemia major patients (TM) on treatment with deferasirox. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To study the frequency of endocrine complications, IGF-1 levels and final adult standing height (FA-Ht) in patients with BTM in two groups of adult patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The first group (Group A; 15 patients, 6 females and 9 males) received oral iron chelation therapy (OIC) with deferasirox for 6 years before puberty; the second group (Group B;40 patients) attained the FA-Ht before the use of OIC (iron chelation therapy with deferoxamine (DFO) given subcutaneously, since the age of 2 years)...
February 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Jennifer L Marino, Helen C McNamara, Martha Hickey
Impaired ovarian function and menopausal symptoms are common after cancer treatment. Menopausal symptoms often occur at an earlier age in women with cancer, and may be more severe than in natural menopause; they may be the most persistent and troubling sequelae of cancer. A third of female patients with cancer report dissatisfaction with the quality and length of physician-patient discussions about reproductive health, including menopause. Systemic menopausal hormone therapy is the most effective treatment for menopausal symptoms, but it is not suitable for all patients after cancer - where it is unsuitable, alternative effective non-hormonal treatments are available...
February 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Alexander J Sandweiss, Christopher M Morrison, Anne Spichler, John Rozich
BACKGROUND: Clonidine is an imidazoline sympatholytic, acting on both α2 -adrenergic and imidazoline receptors in the brainstem to induce antihypertensive and negative chronotropic effects in the vasculature and heart respectively. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old gentleman with hypertension presented to the emergency department after multiple syncopal episodes over the past 12 months. Electrocardiogram demonstrated sinus bradycardia with a heart rate of 42 beats per minute...
February 13, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Yukiko Mine, Tomohiro Itakura, Seiko Oku, Reiko Asada, Isao Shimizu
The pharmacological profile of DSP-6952, a novel 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist, was investigated to evaluate the potential use for GI disorders, and to compare its effects in some GI dysfunction models with those of clinically efficacious prokinetic agents. DSP-6952 enhanced gastric motility and caused colonic giant migrating contractions (GMCs) associated with defecation in conscious dogs, having ED50 value for inducing GMCs of 1.56mg/kg. DSP-6952 (3-10mg/kg, i.g.) significantly enhanced colonic transit rate in guinea pigs; this enhancement was antagonized by SB-207266, a selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist...
February 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
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