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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150962/genotype-and-diet-affect-resistance-survival-and-fecundity-but-not-fecundity-tolerance
#1
Megan A M Kutzer, Joachim Kurtz, Sophie A O Armitage
Insects are exposed to a variety of potential pathogens in their environment, many of which can severely impact fitness and health. Consequently, hosts have evolved resistance and tolerance strategies to suppress or cope with infections. Hosts utilising resistance improve fitness by clearing or reducing pathogen loads and hosts utilising tolerance reduce harmful fitness effects per pathogen load. To understand variation in, and selective pressures on resistance and tolerance we asked to what degree they are shaped by host genetic background, whether plasticity in these responses depends upon dietary environment, and whether there are interactions between these two factors...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150592/the-influence-of-genetic-stability-on-aspergillus-fumigatus-virulence-and-azole-resistance
#2
Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Lilian Pereira Silva, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Pollyne Borborema Almeida de Lima, Rafaela Andrade do Carmo, Marjorie Mendes Marini, José Franco da Silveira, Beatriz Henriques Ferreira, Fernando Rodrigues, Iran Malavazi, Gustavo H Goldman
Genetic stability is extremely important for the survival of every living organism and a very complex set of genes have evolved to cope with DNA repair upon DNA damage. Here, we investigated the Aspergillus fumigatus AtmA (Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and AtrA kinases and how they impact virulence and the evolution of azole resistance. We demonstrated that A. fumigatus atmA and atrA null mutants are haploid and have a discrete chromosomal polymorphism. The ΔatmA and ΔatrA strains are sensitive to several DNA damaging agents but surprisingly both strains were more resistant than the wild-type strain to paraquat, menadione, and hydrogen peroxide...
November 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150234/-medical-studies-in-france-how-to-cope-with-such-a-disaster
#3
EDITORIAL
Patrice Diot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149891/how-do-occupational-rehabilitation-clinicians-approach-participants-on-long-term-sick-leave-in-order-to-facilitate-return-to-work-a-focus-group-study
#4
M Eftedal, A M Kvaal, E Ree, I Øyeflaten, S Maeland
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to explore occupational rehabilitation clinicians' experiences on how to approach their participants on long-term sick leave in order to facilitate return to work (RTW). METHODS: An exploratory qualitative design was used. Four focus groups were conducted with 29 clinicians working on interdisciplinary inpatient and outpatient occupational rehabilitation teams in Norway. The clinicians shared narratives from clinical practice...
November 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149877/key-bottlenecks-to-the-provision-of-safe-obstetric-anaesthesia-in-low-income-countries-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-64-hospitals-in-uganda
#5
Isabella Epiu, Agnes Wabule, Andrew Kambugu, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Jossy Verel Bahe Tindimwebwa, Gerald Dubowitz
BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in surgery and anaesthesia which significantly improve safety, many health facilities in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain chronically under-resourced with inability to cope effectively with serious obstetric complications (Knight et al., PLoS One 8:e63846, 2013). As a result many of these countries still have unacceptably high maternal and neonatal mortality rates. Recent data at the national referral hospitals in East Africa reported that none of the national referral hospitals met the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists (WFSA) international standards required to provide safe obstetric anaesthesia (Epiu I: Challenges of Anesthesia in Low-and Middle-Income Countries...
November 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149850/a-cross-sectional-examination-of-psychological-distress-positive-mental-health-and-their-predictors-in-medical-students-in-their-clinical-clerkships
#6
Inge van Dijk, Peter L B J Lucassen, Chris van Weel, Anne E M Speckens
BACKGROUND: Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called 'positive mental health'. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students...
November 17, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149795/development-of-a-psycho-educational-support-program-for-individuals-with-primary-progressive-aphasia-and-their-care-partners
#7
Darby J Morhardt, Mary C O'Hara, Kristine Zachrich, Christina Wieneke, Emily J Rogalski
Primary progressive aphasia is a language-based dementia that initially spares other cognitive domains; however, aphasia interferes with many life roles such as work and interpersonal relationships. Psycho-educational programs, such as support groups have been shown to be effective for persons with Alzheimer's dementia; however, little is known regarding their effectiveness for persons with primary progressive aphasia. This paper describes the development of a program that offers support, education and activities for persons with primary progressive aphasia and their care-partners and its feasibility...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149743/multigenerational-effects-of-salinity-in-six-clonal-lineages-of-daphnia-longispina
#8
C Venâncio, R Ribeiro, A M V M Soares, I Lopes
Sea level rise, as a consequence of climate changes, is already causing seawater intrusion in some freshwater coastal ecosystems worldwide. The increase in salinity at these freshwater coastal ecosystems may occur gradually (through groundwater) or abruptly (through extreme weather events). Moreover, many of them are also being altered and threatened by anthropogenic activities. Accordingly, the present study aimed at assessing the multigenerational lethal and sublethal effects caused by increased salinity in six clonal lineages of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia longispina differing in their sensitivity to lethal levels of copper...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149677/effects-of-deslorelin-implants-on-reproduction-and-feeding-behavior-in-tasmanian-devils-sarcophilus-harrisii-housed-in-free-range-enclosures
#9
Holly R Cope, Carolyn J Hogg, Karen Fagg, Olivia Barnard, Peter J White, Catherine A Herbert
In captive breeding programs, it is becoming increasingly important to maximize the retention of genetic diversity by managing the reproductive contribution of each individual, which can be facilitated through the use of selective contraception. This becomes critical when captive populations are held for several generations, and managers must prevent the confines of housing space and financial support from compromising genetic integrity. For example, the Tasmanian devil insurance population, established in 2006, is strategically managed to equalize founder representation...
November 4, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149316/use-of-information-and-communication-technologies-in-the-formal-and-informal-health-system-responses-to-the-2015-nepal-earthquakes
#10
Olivia Crane, Julie Balen, Bhimsen Devkota, Sudha Ghimire, Simon Rushton
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are increasingly recognized for their potential contributions to health service delivery in Low-and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). As well as playing a role in improving the provision of health services under everyday 'normal' circumstances, ICTs can also be important in preparing for, mitigating, responding to and recovering from disasters. This research explores the use of ICTs in a natural disaster situation in Nepal, a country affected by a series of strong earthquakes in 2015...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149313/how-do-health-workers-experience-and-cope-with-shocks-learning-from-four-fragile-and-conflict-affected-health-systems-in-uganda-sierra-leone-zimbabwe-and-cambodia
#11
Sophie Witter, Haja Wurie, Pamela Chandiwana, Justine Namakula, Sovannarith So, Alvaro Alonso-Garbayo, Freddie Ssengooba, Joanna Raven
This article is grounded in a research programme which set out to understand how to rebuild health systems post-conflict. Four countries were studied-Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe and Cambodia-which were at different distances from conflict and crisis, as well as having unique conflict stories. During the research process, the Ebola epidemic broke out in West Africa. Zimbabwe has continued to face a profound economic crisis. Within our research on health worker incentives, we captured insights from 128 life histories and in-depth interviews with a variety of staff that had remained in service...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148973/the-somatically-generated-portion-of-the-t-cell-receptor-cdr3%C3%AE-contributes-to-the-mhc-allele-specificity-of-the-t-cell-receptor
#12
Philippa Marrack, Sai Harsha Krovi, Daniel Silberman, Janice White, Eleanor Kushnir, Maki Nakayama, James Crooks, Thomas Danhorn, Sonia Leach, Randy Anselment, James Scott-Browne, Laurent Gapin, John Kappler
Mature T cells bearing αβ T cell receptors react with foreign antigens bound to alleles of major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC) that they were exposed to during their development in the thymus, a phenomenon known as positive selection. The structural basis for positive selection has long been debated. Here, using mice expressing one of two different T cell receptor β chains and various MHC alleles, we show that positive selection-induced MHC bias of T cell receptors is affected both by the germline encoded elements of the T cell receptor α and β chain and, surprisingly, dramatically affected by the non germ line encoded portions of CDR3 of the T cell receptor α chain...
November 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148614/double-regioselective-asymmetric-c-allylation-of-isoxazolinones-iridium-catalyzed-n-allylation-followed-by-an-aza-cope-rearrangement
#13
Stefan Rieckhoff, Jan Meisner, Johannes Kästner, Wolfgang Frey, René Peters
Isoxazolinones are biologically and synthetically interesting densely functionalized heterocycles, which for a long time were not accessible in enantioenriched form by asymmetric catalysis. Next to the deficit of enantioselective methods, the functionalization of isoxazolinones is often plagued by regioselectivity issues due to the competition of various nucleophilic centers within the heterocycles. Here we report the first regio- and enantioselective C-allylations of isoxazolinones. They also allowed for high regioselectivity in favor of the linear allylation products, although Ir phosphoramidite catalysts were used, which commonly result in branched isomers...
November 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148413/variable-impacts-of-different-remission-states-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
Margaret H Y Ma, Fowzia Ibrahim, Gabrielle H Kingsley, Andrew Cope, David L Scott
OBJECTIVES: Targeting remission in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) improves health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and disability. However, the impacts of different remission criteria and durations and their frequencies are uncertain. Our observational study assessed these factors. METHODS: We recruited RA patients with disease durations <10 years, stable suppressive therapies and stable disease activity scores for 28 joints using ESR (DAS28-ESR) ≤3.2. Intermittent and sustained remisisons were classified using DAS28ESR, simple disease activity index (SDAI) and ACR/EULAR Boolean criteria...
October 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148230/personality-traits-such-as-neuroticism-and-disability-predict-psychological-distress-in-medically-unexplained-symptoms-a-three-year-experience-from-a-single-centre
#15
Vikas Menon, Balasubramanian Shanmuganathan, Jaiganesh Selvapandian Thamizh, Anand Babu Arun, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Siddharth Sarkar
BACKGROUND: People with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) may have psychological co-morbidities. AIMS: Our objectives were to assess the rates and identify correlates of psychological distress in MUS. METHODS: A total of 171 subjects with MUS seeking treatment at a tertiary care facility were assessed over a 3-year period. Psychological distress was assessed using the Tamil version of General Health Questionnaire-12. Apart from socio-demographic factors, personality, coping, perceived social support and subjective disability were assessed using standard instruments...
November 17, 2017: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148110/stress-and-ways-of-coping-among-nurse-managers-an-integrative-review
#16
REVIEW
Leodoro J Labrague, Denise M McEnroe-Petitte, Michael Leocadio, Peter Van Bogaert, Greta G Cummings
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To appraise and synthesize empirical studies examining sources of occupational stress and ways of coping utilized by Nurse Managers (NMs) when dealing with stress. BACKGROUND: The Nurse Manager's role is challenging yet draining and stressful and has adverse consequences on an individual's overall health and well -being, patients' outcomes, and organizational productivity. Considerable research has been done; however, an updated and broader perspective on this critical organizational issue has not been performed...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148082/insights-into-flood-coping-appraisals-of-protection-motivation-theory-empirical-evidence-from-germany-and-france
#17
Philip Bubeck, W J Wouter Botzen, Jonas Laudan, Jeroen C J H Aerts, Annegret H Thieken
Protection motivation theory (PMT) has become a popular theory to explain the risk-reducing behavior of residents against natural hazards. PMT captures the two main cognitive processes that individuals undergo when faced with a threat, namely, threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The latter describes the evaluation of possible response measures that may reduce or avert the perceived threat. Although the coping appraisal component of PMT was found to be a better predictor of protective intentions and behavior, little is known about the factors that influence individuals' coping appraisals of natural hazards...
November 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147822/psychiatric-sequelae-of-concussions
#18
REVIEW
David A Brent, Jeffrey Max
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to review the frequency, risk factors, phenomenology, and course of prolonged recovery from concussion and of psychiatric sequelae in pediatric populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Youth with prolonged recovery from concussions have higher initial symptoms, a history of multiple and/or recent concussions, and a tendency to somatization. Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, behavioral disorders, and perhaps, suicidal behavior disorder are more common as both short- and longer-term sequelae of concussions...
November 17, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147725/-stigma-risk-factor-and-consequence-of-suicidal-behavior-implications-for-suicide-prevention
#19
REVIEW
N Oexle, N Rüsch
Mental illness, previous suicidal behavior and loss of a relative by suicide are strong risk factors for suicidality. Both mental illness and suicide are stigmatized, which is a burden for those affected and potentially contributes to suicidality among stigmatized individuals. Many consequences of stigma, e. g. social isolation, low self-esteem and hopelessness, are well-known predictors of suicidality. Interventions to reduce stigmatization might therefore be an important component of successful suicide prevention...
November 16, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147112/do-changes-in-welfare-and-health-policy-affect-life-satisfaction-of-older-citizens-in-europe
#20
Marinela Olaroiu, Ioana Dana Alexa, Wim J A van den Heuvel
Objectives: Ageing of societies causes serious political concerns on well-being of old citizens and care for the (frail) old. These concerns increased with the economic crisis of 2008. In European countries policy measures were taken to deal with the consequences of this crisis. This study explores the possible effects of these measures on life satisfaction of older citizens. Methods: Life satisfaction was assessed through international surveys in 2007 and 2013 and changes in societal conditions, using eight indicators on demography, welfare, and health, are assessed in 31 European countries in 2006 and in 2014...
2017: Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research
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