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Marco Armando, Corrado Sandini, Maelle Chambaz, Marie Schaer, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Converging evidence suggests that psychosis emerges from the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Stressful life events (SLEs) play a prominent role in combination with coping strategies and with a dysfunctional hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). It has been proposed that the framework of schizotypy might help disentangle the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Similarly, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is considered as a genetic model of psychosis vulnerability...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Erika Obikane, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Daisuke Takagi, Norito Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is associated with adult suicidal behaviors, partially mediated by mental disorders. However, the direct effect of childhood abuse not mediated by mental disorders is uncertain because the same risk factors serve as mediators and confounders of mental disorders and suicidal behaviors. The aim of the study was to estimate the direct effect of childhood abuse not mediated by mental disorders on suicidal behaviors using marginal structural models. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data of Japanese adults in Tokyo and neighboring prefectures (The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Raymond Smith, Vari Drennan, Ann Mackenzie, Nan Greenwood
BACKGROUND: Volunteer led befriending and peer support is provided to a wide range of people with varying needs. Despite large numbers of such schemes for carers of people with dementia, there is little evidence for any benefits they may offer. The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of befriending and peer support on carers of people with dementia and to explore their experiences of receiving the interventions using a mixed methods approach. METHODS: Nineteen carers of people with dementia were recruited from befriending and peer support services...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Rebecca L Hagedorn, Melissa D Olfert
In order to investigate the impact of food insecurity on college students in a highly health disparate region we (1) assessed the prevalence of food insecurity among young adults at a large, rural university in Appalachia, and (2) investigated the relationship between food insecurity and behavioral characteristics including academic performance, coping strategies, and money expenditure. A cross-sectional design was used to capture a representative sample of young adults attending a large, central Appalachian university in Fall 2016...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
Thomas Lilienkamp, Ulrich Parlitz
Transient chaos in spatially extended systems can be characterized by the length of the transient phase, which typically grows quickly with the system size (supertransients). For a large class of these systems, the chaotic phase terminates abruptly, without any obvious precursors in commonly used observables. Here we investigate transient spatiotemporal chaos in two different models of this class. By probing the state space using perturbed trajectories we show the existence of a "terminal transient phase," which occurs prior to the abrupt collapse of chaotic dynamics...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Amelia Swanson, Jessica Geller, Kelly DeMartini, Anne Fernandez, Dwain Fehon
Without a transplant, end-stage liver disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Transplant candidates endure physical and psychological stress while awaiting surgery, yet little is known about the relationship between physical health and psychological resilience during the wait-list period. This study examined predictors of psychological resilience and mediators of the relationship between physical health and psychological resilience in liver transplant candidates. Wait-listed candidates (N = 120) from a single Northeast transplant center completed assessments of physical functioning, coping, perceived social support, and resilience...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Ron Stauder, Ralf Welsch, Maurizio Camagna, Wouter Kohlen, Gerd U Balcke, Alain Tissier, Michael H Walter
Strigolactones (SLs) are apocarotenoid phytohormones synthesized from carotenoid precursors. They are produced most abundantly in roots for exudation into the rhizosphere to cope with mineral nutrient starvation through support of root symbionts. Abscisic acid (ABA) is another apocarotenoid phytohormone synthesized in roots, which is involved in responses to abiotic stress. Typically low carotenoid levels in roots raise the issue of precursor supply for the biosynthesis of these two apocarotenoids in this organ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
J M Colley, M Harris, P Hellyer, D R Radford
Dentistry is recognised as a stressful profession. A number of studies focusing on undergraduate education have shown high levels of stress in dental students. However, despite calls to do so, little has been published on methods to teach future dental professionals about stress and how to manage it on a personal level. Psychological stress which is uncontrolled may have an effect on general health. It is recognised, however, that stress can be beneficial if channelled appropriately. Techniques and ways to teach management of potential stresses of a career in dentistry have still not been widely reported in either dental undergraduate or postgraduate education...
March 16, 2018: British Dental Journal
Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Ajit Ghosh, Zhong-Guang Li, Md Nurealam Siddiqui, Masayuki Fujita, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Abiotic stresses are the most common harmful factors, adversely affecting all aspects of plants' life. Plants have to elicit appropriate responses against multifaceted effects of abiotic stresses by reprogramming various cellular processes. Signaling molecules play vital roles in sensing environmental stimuli to modulate gene expression, metabolism and physiological processes in plants to cope with the adverse effects. Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound, is known to accumulate in cells as a byproduct of various metabolic pathways, including glycolysis...
March 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Mythily Subramaniam, Linda Wei Lin Tan, Edimansyah Abdin, Wei Yen Lim, Hwee Lin Wee, Siow Ann Chong, Rob Martinus van Dam
BACKGROUND: Measures of mental well-being and positive mental health (PMH) have been largely developed and used in Western populations, however, data on representative Asian communities are lacking. Using data from a population sample, this study sought to establish psychometric properties and norms of the PMH Instrument (PMH-I), a measure of positive mental health developed in Singapore. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative survey among 1925 adults aged 18-79 years of Chinese, Malay, Indian or other ethnicity...
March 15, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Heidi Lourens, Brian Watermeyer, Leslie Swartz
PURPOSE: Scholars agree that effective rehabilitation relies on a bedrock of reciprocity, relational trust, and authenticity. It is therefore essential for practitioners to develop insight into the complex dynamics within helping relationships. This study aims to provide an in-depth understanding of visually impaired students' experience of informal helping relationships. METHODS: Ten visually impaired students at a South African university participated in one of two semi-structured focus group interviews (six and four in each group, respectively) wherein we explored their experience of informal helping relationships...
March 16, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Schirin Akhbari Ziegler, Tineke Dirks, Mijna Hadders-Algra
BACKGROUND: Coaching is en vogue in pediatric physiotherapy, but often applied rather unspecific and undefined. METHODS: This paper aims to describe coaching in early physiotherapy intervention, taking the specific coaching approach of the family-centered program "COPing with and CAring for infants with special needs" (COPCA) as a case in point. RESULTS: The theoretical underpinnings of coaching in COPCA, including a meta-model, family-centered practice, the Neuronal Group Selection Theory and the goal-oriented coaching approach, are discussed...
March 16, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Casey R Guillot, Heidemarie Blumenthal, Michael J Zvolensky, Norman B Schmidt
Anxiety sensitivity (AS)- fear of anxiety symptoms and their potential negative consequences-has been implicated in the development of substance use problems and motivation to use substances for coping with distress, though the AS components (physical, cognitive, and social concerns) have not been studied extensively in relation to alcohol- and cannabis-related variables. In a cross-sectional design, self-report measures of AS and alcohol and cannabis use, motives, and problems were administered to 364 treatment-seeking cigarette smokers with a history of alcohol and cannabis use...
March 8, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Harshini Manohar, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder commonly associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the prevalence ranging from 14-70%. The current study attempted to assess the impact of comorbid ADHD in children with ASD, in terms of challenges in diagnosis, treatment, intervention outcomes and parental stress and coping through a naturalistic design. METHODS: Fifty children aged 2-6 years with ASD were recruited, assessed and followed up for six months...
March 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Frank Niemeyer, Lutz Claes, Anita Ignatius, Nicholaus Meyers, Ulrich Simon
Distraction osteogenesis is an effective method for generating large amounts of bone in situ for treating pathologies such as large bone defects or skeletal malformations, for instance leg-length discrepancies. While an optimized distraction procedure might have the potential to reduce the rate of complications significantly, our knowledge of the underlying mechanobiological processes is still insufficient for systematic optimization of treatment parameters such as distraction rate or fixation stiffness. We present a novel numerical model of lateral distraction osteogenesis, based on a mechanically well-controlled in vivo experiment...
2018: PloS One
Armando Andres Roca Suarez, Nicolaas Van Renne, Thomas F Baumert, Joachim Lupberger
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a key regulator of numerous physiological functions, including the immune response. As pathogens elicit an acute phase response with concerted activation of STAT3, they are confronted with two evolutionary options: either curtail it or employ it. This has important consequences for the host, since abnormal STAT3 function is associated with cancer development and other diseases. This review provides a comprehensive outline of how human viruses cope with STAT3-mediated inflammation and how this affects the host...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Daniel L Riddle, Mark P Jensen, Dennis Ang, James Slover, Robert Perera, Levent Dumenci
BACKGROUND: Pain-coping strategies and appraisals are responses to the pain experience. They can influence patient-reported and physical performance outcome measures in a variety of disorders, but the associations between a comprehensive profile of pain-coping responses and preoperative pain/function and physical performance measures in patients scheduled for knee arthroplasty have not been examined. Patients with moderate to high pain catastrophizing (a pain appraisal approach associated with an exaggerated focus on the threat value of pain) may represent an excellent study population in which to address this knowledge gap...
April 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Alessandro Bosco, Justine Schneider, Donna Maria Coleston-Shields, Lidia Sousa, Martin Orrell
OBJECTIVES: Good interaction with family caregivers helps maintain positive identity in people with dementia. However, research in this area is limited. We aimed to systematically review the dyadic experience of dementia caring. METHOD: We searched on five databases: MedLine, EMBASE, PsycInfo, ASSIA, and CINAHL. Eligible studies employed qualitative or mixed method design, reported the experience of dyads of dementia with no comorbid organic or psychiatric disorders...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Delida Sanchez, Whitney N Adams, Sarah C Arango, Alaina E Flannigan
The current study examined the link between racial-ethnic microaggressions and psychological distress among 308 Asian American (n = 164) and Latinx American (n = 144) college students (54% female). Additionally, coping strategies (engagement and disengagement) were examined as potential mediators in this link. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the Racial-Ethnic Microaggressions Scale (REMS) was conducted to test the factor structure with an Asian American and Latinx American emerging adult population (Ages 18-26)...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
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