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Emma Dargie, Ronald R Holden, Caroline F Pukall
Millions suffer from chronic vulvar pain (ie, vulvodynia). Vulvodynia represents the intersection of 2 difficult subjects for health care professionals to tackle: sexuality and chronic pain. Those with chronic vulvar pain are often uncomfortable seeking help, and many who do so fail to receive proper diagnoses. The current research developed a multidimensional assessment questionnaire, the Vulvar Pain Assessment Questionnaire (VPAQ) inventory, to assist in the assessment and diagnosis of those with vulvar pain...
August 1, 2016: Pain
Malachi W Gillick-Healy, Elizabeth V Jennings, Helge Muller-Bunz, Yannick Ortin, Kirill Nikitin, Declan G Gilheany
The energy barriers in our recently discovered Walden inversion of chlorophosphonium salts are similar to those in Cope rearrangements of caged cyclic hydrocarbons. We have therefore designed a molecular system integrating the two processes, thereby producing the first embodiment in a chemical species of two entirely different and independent stereomutation mechanisms at the same nominal asymmetric centre. Thus, the energy barrier to the rearrangement of 9-phenyl-9-phosphabarbaralane oxide, easily prepared by a new high-yielding synthesis, was found to be ca...
October 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jan Lidbeck
Central sensitisation and chronic organ-related pain Central sensitisation is an essential mechanism in chronic musculoskeletal pain. In recent years, increasing evidence has come to light suggesting that central sensitisation is also a cause of chronic organ-related pain. This has several important implications. One is the need for broader professional education in mechanism-based pain classification. Today, simple clinical diagnostic procedures are used for the identification of central sensitisation in chronic musculoskeletal disorders, and these may also prove useful in the classification of organ-related pain...
October 25, 2016: Läkartidningen
Larry D Gruppen, R Brent Stansfield
PURPOSE: To examine, using a systems framework, the relative influence of individual-level and institution-level factors on student perceptions of the medical school educational environment. METHOD: A series of hierarchical linear models were fit to a large, 18-school longitudinal dataset of student perceptions of the educational environment, various demographics, and student empathy, tolerance of ambiguity, coping, and patient-provider orientation. Separate models were evaluated for individual-level factors alone, institution-level factors alone, and the combination of individual- and institution-level factors...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Stephanie Lacefield Lewis
BACKGROUND: The survival rate for infants born with life-threatening problems has improved greatly over the last few decades. Nevertheless, infants still die in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) every day. Despite existing standards of care, some aspects of end-of-life care (EOLC) are still not delivered consistently. Little is known about how NICU nurses' individual experiences affect EOLC. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore, through lived and told stories, the affective, interactional, and meaning-related responses that NICU nurses have while caring for dying infants and their families...
October 24, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Lauren J Parker, Haslyn Hunte, Anita Ohmit, Debra Furr-Holden, Roland J Thorpe
: Previous research has demonstrated that experiencing interpersonal discrimination is associated with cigarette smoking. Few studies have examined the relationship between the effects of physical and emotional discrimination and cigarette usage, and none have examined this relationship among Black men. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the effects of physical and emotional discrimination and cigarette smoking. METHODS: Data from the Indiana Black Men's Health Study, a community-based sample of adult Black men, was used to conduct multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between the physical and emotional effects of discrimination and smoking, net of healthcare and workplace discrimination, age, education, household income, and being married...
October 25, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Carine Meslot, Aurélie Gauchet, Martin S Hagger, Nikos Chatzisarantis, Audrey Lehmann, Benoît Allenet
BACKGROUND: Low levels of adherence to medication prescribed to treat and manage chronic disease may lead to maladaptive health outcomes. Theory-based, easy-to-administer interventions that promote patients' effective self-regulation of their medication-taking behaviour are needed if adherence is to be maximised. We tested the effectiveness of an intervention adopting planning techniques to promote medication adherence. METHODS: Outpatients with cardiovascular disease (N = 71) were allocated to either an experimental condition, in which participants were asked to form implementation intentions and coping plans related to their treatment, or to a no-planning control condition, in which participants received no treatment...
October 25, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Giuseppina D'Onofrio, Mariadelina Simeoni, Paolo Rizza, Mariarita Caroleo, Maria Capria, Giovanni Mazzitello, Tiziana Sacco, Elena Mazzuca, Maria Teresa Panzino, Annamaria Cerantonio, Cristina Segura-Garcia, Michele Andreucci, Pasquale De Fazio, Giorgio Fuiano
RATIONAL: Our aim was to investigate the quality of life (QoL) in 103 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD) in an integrated assessment of clinical, personological, and adaptation parameters, also in a non-urban context. OBJECTIVES: We collected data from all chronic HD patients attending four HD units. Clinical status was assessed by Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines and by Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACCI). Patients completed the following questionnaires: Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)...
October 25, 2016: Renal Failure
Fahad D Alosaimi, Mujahid Bukhari, Maram Altuwirqi, Mohamad Habous, Khaled Madbouly, Zeinab Abotalib, Saleh Binsaleh
The objective of the study was to evaluate the differences in psychosocial distress and coping mechanisms among infertile men and women in Saudi Arabia (SA). We performed a cross-sectional study of infertile patients (206 women and 200 men) attending infertility clinics in three referral hospitals in Riyadh, SA. A semi-structured questionnaire was developed to assess socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables. Infertility-related psychosocial pressures were reported in 79 (39.7%) male and 97 (47...
October 25, 2016: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
Nicole H Weiss, Courtney Peasant, Tami P Sullivan
Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) report higher rates of HIV-risk behaviors. However, few studies have examined factors that may influence the strength of the link between IPV and HIV-risk behaviors. The goal of the current study was to extend extant research by evaluating the potential moderating role of avoidant coping in this relation. Participants were 212 women currently experiencing IPV (M age = 36.63, 70.8 % African American) who were recruited from the community. Significant positive associations were found between physical, psychological, and sexual IPV severity and both avoidant coping and HIV-risk behaviors...
October 24, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Friederike Barthels, Frank Meyer, Thomas Huber, Reinhard Pietrowsky
PURPOSE: Orthorexia nervosa is defined as the fixation on health-conscious eating behaviour and has recently been discussed as a new variant of disordered eating. The aim of the present study was to analyse orthorexic eating behaviour in an inpatient treatment sample of female anorexics to investigate the relation between anorexic and orthorexic eating behaviour. METHOD: Female anorexic patients with low (n = 29) and pronounced (n = 13) orthorexic eating behaviour as well as a matched control group composed of healthy females (n = 30) were compared with regard to several aspects of disordered eating, hypochondriacal traits, food consumption frequency and fulfilment of basic psychological needs in terms of eating...
October 24, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Karin Hayashi, Yoichi Taira, Takamitsu Maeda, Yumie Matsuda, Yuki Kato, Kozue Hashi, Nobuo Kuroki, Shuichi Katsuragawa
BACKGROUND: It has been customary for working women in Japan to retire when they marry and to devote themselves to household work as well as having children. However, according to a report published by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in 2013, the number of working women has increased consistently. As more women are advancing into society, they have more options with respect to lifestyle but may encounter new psychological burdens. Therefore, we reviewed trends among participants in a re-work day care program (hereinafter referred to as "re-work program") to clarify various problems encountered by working women and the prevalence of mental disorders...
2016: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
Sibel Halfon, Alev Çavdar, Franco Orsucci, Gunter K Schiepek, Silvia Andreassi, Alessandro Giuliani, Giulio de Felice
Aim: Even though there is substantial evidence that play based therapies produce significant change, the specific play processes in treatment remain unexamined. For that purpose, processes of change in long-term psychodynamic play therapy are assessed through a repeated systematic assessment of three children's "play profiles," which reflect patterns of organization among play variables that contribute to play activity in therapy, indicative of the children's coping strategies, and an expression of their internal world...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
J Czamanski-Cohen, K L Weihs
This paper introduces the Bodymind model of Art Therapy and delineates the processes through which it has salutary effects on individuals coping with a variety of health related challenges. The goal of this model is to articulate how activation, reorganization, growth and reintegration of the self can emerge from bodymind processes activated by art therapy. It provides a framework for the conduct of research that will test the key theoretical mechanisms through which art therapy benefits clients. We expect this model to be a spring board for discussion, debate and development of the profession of art therapy...
September 2016: Arts in Psychotherapy
Nichrous Mlalila, Dattatreya M Kadam, Hulda Swai, Askwar Hilonga
In recent decades, there is a global advancement in manufacturing industry due to increased applications of nanotechnology. Food industry also has been tremendously changing from passive packaging to innovative packaging, to cope with global trends, technological advancements, and consumer preferences. Active research is taking place in food industry and other scientific fields to develop innovative packages including smart, intelligent and active food packaging for more effective and efficient packaging materials with balanced environmental issues...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Evangelos C Karademas, Panagiotis Simos, Ioannis Zaganas, Sofia Tziraki, Simeon Panagiotakis, Maria Basta, Alexandros N Vgontzas
This study examined whether mild cognitive impairment affects the associations between personal expectations (i.e. optimism and self-efficacy), illness-related coping, and quality of life. In total, two groups of older adults participated: 127 persons diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and 225 cognitively healthy older persons (cognitively non-impaired group). Several significant relationships observed in the cognitively non-impaired group did not reach significance among mild cognitive impairment patients, with the opposite trend noted for others (e...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
Mayuko Morita, Yuji Naito, Toshikazu Yoshikawa, Etsuo Niki
With increasing evidence showing the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases, the effects of clinical drugs possessing antioxidant functions have received much attention. The unregulated oxidative modification of biological molecules leading to diseases is mediated by multiple oxidants including free radicals, peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, lipoxygenase, and singlet oxygen. The capacity of antioxidants to scavenge or quench oxidants depends on the nature of oxidants. In the present study, the antioxidant effects of several clinical drugs against plasma lipid oxidation induced by the aforementioned five kinds of oxidants were investigated from the production of lipid hydroperoxides, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases...
October 13, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Jesús Alonso-Tapia, Rocío Rodríguez-Rey, Helena Garrido-Hernansaiz, Miguel Ruiz, Carmen Nieto
BACKGROUND: Although coping strategies are considered to contribute to resilience to adversity, their use is not stable, but varies depending on the specific adversity. However, to date, most of the questionnaires assessing coping do not consider its situational character. The objective of this study is to develop and validate the Situated Coping Questionnaire for Adults (SCQA), which assesses coping in the face of five different kinds of adverse contexts to take into account its situational dimension...
November 2016: Psicothema
Francisco M Morales Rodríguez, María V Trianes Torres, Jesús Miranda Páez, Cándido J Inglés
BACKGROUND: The study of coping strategies in children guarantees quality of life from childhood onwards. The present paper aims to determine the prevalence of coping strategies for three everyday problems in children, while examining sociodemographic variables, context variables, and teacher assessment. METHOD: The sample is composed of 7,058 school children aged between 8 and 13 years old. RESULTS: Results show a higher prevalence of the Active Solution strategy at home and in school contexts compared with the health area, where the Active Solutionis the least prevalent strategy, and Concealing the Problem the most widely used, followed by Passivity...
November 2016: Psicothema
Shatha Jamil Khusaifan, Mogeda El Sayed El Keshky
BACKGROUND: Caring for someone with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is very challenging. Social support may play a crucial role in helping caregivers to adapt better to their caregiving role. The aim of this study is to explore the role of social support as a moderator variable of the relationship between depression and life satisfaction in caregivers for patients with AD in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 122 caregivers for patients with AD completed questionnaires assessing informal social support, depressive symptoms, and general life satisfaction...
October 25, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
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