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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785549/once-episiotomy-always-episiotomy
#1
Ayala Zilberman, Eyal Sheiner, Orit Barrett, Batel Hamou, Tali Silberstein
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between episiotomy and perineal damage in the subsequent delivery. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted, comparing outcome of subsequent singleton deliveries of women with and without episiotomy in their first (index) delivery. Deliveries occurred between the years 1991-2015 in a tertiary medical center. Traumatic vaginal tears, multiple pregnancies, and cesarean deliveries (CD) in the index pregnancy were excluded from the analysis...
May 21, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785530/azoospermia-and-embryo-morphokinetics-testicular-sperm-derived-embryos-exhibit-delays-in-early-cell-cycle-events-and-increased-arrest-prior-to-compaction
#2
Nina Desai, Pavinder Gill, Nicholas N Tadros, Jeffrey M Goldberg, Edmund Sabanegh, Tommaso Falcone
PURPOSE: Sperm play an essential role in embryonic genome activation and embryonic progression to blastocyst. In the present work, we focus on development of embryos created as a result of ICSI with testicular or epididymal sperm from azoospermic males and compare this to outcomes from normospermic males. The objective of this study was to determine if sperm origin influences clinical outcomes, the kinetics of embryo development, or the incidence of cleavage anomalies and multinucleation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785058/effects-of-maternal-obstructive-sleep-apnea-on-fetal-growth-a-case-control-study
#3
Anna W Kneitel, Marjorie C Treadwell, Louise M O'Brien
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether maternal obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with changes in fetal growth trajectory. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of pregnant women who underwent overnight polysomnography. Fetal growth was estimated using sonographic biometric measurements obtained during routine prenatal care. Customized estimated fetal weight and birth weight centiles were calculated and impaired fetal growth was defined as birth weight <10th centile or a slowing of fetal growth by >33% during the last trimester...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784808/hamartin-regulates-cessation-of-mouse-nephrogenesis-independently-of-mtor
#4
Oded Volovelsky, Thi Nguyen, Alison E Jarmas, Alexander N Combes, Sean B Wilson, Melissa H Little, David P Witte, Eric W Brunskill, Raphael Kopan
Nephrogenesis concludes by the 36th week of gestation in humans and by the third day of postnatal life in mice. Extending the nephrogenic period may reduce the onset of adult renal and cardiovascular disease associated with low nephron numbers. We conditionally deleted either Mtor or Tsc1 (coding for hamartin, an inhibitor of Mtor) in renal progenitor cells. Loss of one Mtor allele caused a reduction in nephron numbers; complete deletion led to severe paucity of glomeruli in the kidney resulting in early death after birth...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784603/does-type-of-feeding-affect-body-composition-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Mól Nina, Zasada Magdalena, Kwinta Przemko
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to analyse body composition of preterm infants fed with either breast milk or formula compared to a control group of full-term newborns. METHODS: Fifty-three newborns were enrolled: a group of 34 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm newborns subdivided into a formula-fed (n = 23; group A) and breast milk-fed (n = 11; group B) group, and a control group of 19 full-term infants (group C). Their body composition was assessed by a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) either at the estimated time of birth in the VLBW group or during the 1st week of life in the full-term group...
May 4, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784463/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-profiling-in-prepubertal-horses-and-its-relationship-with-gonadal-function
#6
Dragos Scarlet, Manuela Wulf, Juliane Kuhl, Martin Köhne, Natascha Ille, Alan J Conley, Christine Aurich
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) has gained increasing interest as a biomarker for assessment of gonadal activity. The ability to predict the ovarian follicular reserve of prepubertal female horses (fillies) or to identify stallions with testicular pathologies already during their prepubertal life has not been analyzed so far. Both would help to select fertile horses and reduce costs associated with keeping animals. The objectives of the present study were to (1) assess AMH, LH, FSH, progesterone (females) and testosterone (males) dynamics in prepubertal horses from birth onwards and (2) determine whether AMH concentrations detected in plasma of prepubertal female and male horses are correlated with postpubertal gonadal development...
May 15, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784051/contributions-of-a-survey-and-retrospective-cohort-study-to-the-planning-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-corticosteroids-in-the-treatment-of-paediatric-septic-shock
#7
Anna Liu, Kusum Menon
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are challenging to conduct in a paediatric critical-care environment. Background work, including surveys and observational studies, is often used to determine disease estimates, sample sizes and design protocols when planning such RCTs. Our objective was to determine the necessity of performing a survey or a retrospective chart review or both when planning an RCT on corticosteroids in the treatment of paediatric septic shock. METHODS: We compared information on corticosteroid use for moderate to severe paediatric septic shock obtained from a survey of physician beliefs and stated practices with that obtained from a retrospective cohort study...
May 21, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783624/growth-responses-of-preterm-pigs-fed-formulas-with-different-protein-levels-and-supplemented-with-leucine-or-%C3%AE-hydroxyl-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate
#8
Randal K Buddington, Scott C Howard, Harold W Lee, Karyl K Buddington
Growth after preterm birth is an important determinant of long-term outcomes. Yet, many preterm infants suffer ex utero growth retardation. We evaluated effects of leucine and the metabolite, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on growth of preterm pigs, a previously-validated translational model for preterm infants. After 48 h of parenteral nutrition preterm pigs were fed for 6 to 7 days isocaloric formulas with different levels of protein (50 or 100 g/L) with leucine (10 g/L, 76 mM) or HMB (at 1.1 g/L, 4 mM) added to stimulate protein synthesis or with alanine (6...
May 18, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783040/contribution-of-previable-live-births-to-disparity-in-infant-mortality-of-us-born-puerto-ricans-compared-with-infants-of-other-hispanic-origins
#9
E S Hall, M Lee, E A DeFranco
OBJECTIVES: Although US-born Hispanics experience infant mortality rates (IMRs) which are lower than the national rate, within the Hispanic population, infants of Puerto Rican origin experience higher IMRs than other Hispanics. We aimed to describe the contribution of deaths among previable live-born infants to disparity in IMRs comparing Puerto Rican infants to infants of other Hispanic origins. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive analysis. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER online database representing linked US live births and infant deaths from 2005 to 2014...
May 18, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782696/routine-antenatal-ultrasound-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-first-look-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#10
Robert L Goldenberg, Robert O Nathan, David Swanson, Sarah Saleem, Waseem Mirza, Fabian Esamai, David Muyodi, Ana L Garces, Lester Figueroa, Elwyn Chomba, Melody Chiwala, Musaku Mwenechanya, Antoinette Tshefu, Adrien Lokangako, Victor Lokomba Bolamba, Janet L Moore, Holly Franklin, Jonathan Swanson, Edward A Liechty, Carl L Bose, Nancy F Krebs, K Michael Hambidge, Waldemar A Carlo, Nancy Kanaiza, Farnaz Naqvi, Irma Sayury Pineda, Walter López-Gomez, Dorothy Hamsumonde, Margo S Harrison, Marion Koso-Thomas, Menachem Miodovnik, Dennis D Wallace, Elizabeth M McClure
OBJECTIVE: Ultrasound is widely regarded as an important adjunct to antenatal care (ANC) to guide practice and reduce perinatal mortality. We assessed the impact of ANC ultrasound use at health centers in resource-limited countries. DESIGN: Cluster randomized trial. SETTING: Clusters within five countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Guatemala, Kenya, Pakistan and Zambia). METHODS: Clusters were randomized to standard ANC or standard care plus two ultrasounds and referral for complications...
May 21, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782187/effects-of-maternal-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-the-maternal-and-infant-epigenome
#11
Cindy M Anderson, Shannon L Gillespie, Doria K Thiele, Jody L Ralph, Joyce E Ohm
INTRODUCTION: Mothers and infants are at high risk for inadequate vitamin D status. Mechanisms by which vitamin D may affect maternal and infant DNA methylation are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: This study quantified the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on DNA methylation in pregnant and lactating women and their breastfed infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized controlled pilot study, pregnant women received vitamin D3 400 international units (IU) (n = 6; control) or 3,800 IU (n = 7; intervention) daily from late second trimester through 4-6 weeks postpartum...
May 21, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782138/testosterone-and-testicular-changes-in-f1-offspring-of-wistar-rats-maternally-exposed-to-nicotine-during-gestation
#12
Ibukun P Oyeyipo, Damilare H Adeyemi, Temilade R Abe
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the effect of intrauterine exposure to nicotine in the first fourteen days of gestation on the testicular function of male Wistar rats. METHODS: Pups of both control and nicotine-treated groups were selected and sacrificed on day 60 after birth. Birth weight, weight of reproductive organs, hormonal profile, and histopathology were determined in the first filial (F1) generation. RESULTS: Significant decreases in birth weight and litter size were found in the pups treated with nicotine when compared with the animals in the control group...
May 21, 2018: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782045/revisiting-the-table-2-fallacy-a-motivating-example-examining-preeclampsia-and-preterm-birth
#13
Gretchen Bandoli, Kristin Palmsten, Christina D Chambers, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Rebecca J Baer, Caroline A Thompson
BACKGROUND: A "Table Fallacy," as coined by Westreich and Greenland, reports multiple adjusted effect estimates from a single model. This practice, which remains common in published literature, can be problematic when different types of effect estimates are presented together in a single table. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively illustrate this potential for misinterpretation with an example estimating the effects of preeclampsia on preterm birth. METHODS: We analysed a retrospective population-based cohort of 2 963 888 singleton births in California between 2007 and 2012...
May 21, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781504/epidural-versus-non-epidural-or-no-analgesia-for-pain-management-in-labour
#14
REVIEW
Millicent Anim-Somuah, Rebecca Md Smyth, Allan M Cyna, Anna Cuthbert
BACKGROUND: Epidural analgesia is a central nerve block technique achieved by injection of a local anaesthetic close to the nerves that transmit pain, and is widely used as a form of pain relief in labour. However, there are concerns about unintended adverse effects on the mother and infant. This is an update of an existing Cochrane Review (Epidural versus non-epidural or no analgesia in labour), last published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of all types of epidural analgesia, including combined-spinal-epidural (CSE) on the mother and the baby, when compared with non-epidural or no pain relief during labour...
May 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780976/modeling-individual-cyclic-variation-in-human-behavior
#15
Emma Pierson, Tim Althoff, Jure Leskovec
Cycles are fundamental to human health and behavior. Examples include mood cycles, circadian rhythms, and the menstrual cycle. However, modeling cycles in time series data is challenging because in most cases the cycles are not labeled or directly observed and need to be inferred from multidimensional measurements taken over time. Here, we present Cyclic Hidden Markov Models (CyH-MMs) for detecting and modeling cycles in a collection of multidimensional heterogeneous time series data. In contrast to previous cycle modeling methods, CyHMMs deal with a number of challenges encountered in modeling real-world cycles: they can model multivariate data with both discrete and continuous dimensions; they explicitly model and are robust to missing data; and they can share information across individuals to accommodate variation both within and between individual time series...
April 2018: Proceedings of the International World-Wide Web Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780796/cerebral-blood-volume-during-neonatal-transition-in-term-and-preterm-infants-with-and-without-respiratory-support
#16
Bernhard Schwaberger, Gerhard Pichler, Corinna Binder-Heschl, Nariae Baik-Schneditz, Alexander Avian, Berndt Urlesberger
Background: Recently, we demonstrated that in healthy newborn infants cerebral blood volume (CBV) was decreasing continuously after birth. We hypothesized that this was due to the increase in oxygen delivery to the brain during neonatal transition. Thus delayed cerebral oxygen delivery in infants in need for respiratory support (RS) during postnatal stabilization might influence changes in CBV. Objective: Aim of the study was to evaluate transitional changes in CBV immediately after birth in term and preterm infants with and without need of RS...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780028/induced-endometrial-trauma-endometrial-scratch-in-the-mid-luteal-menstrual-cycle-phase-preceding-first-cycle-ivf-icsi-versus-usual-ivf-icsi-therapy-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Clare Pye, Robin Chatters, Judith Cohen, Kate Brian, Ying C Cheong, Susan Laird, Lamiya Mohiyiddeen, Jonathan Skull, Stephen Walters, Tracey Young, Mostafa Metwally
INTRODUCTION: Endometrial trauma commonly known as endometrial scratch (ES) has been shown to improve pregnancy rates in women with a history of repeated implantation failure undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF), with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). However, the procedure has not yet been fully explored in women having IVF/ICSI for the first time. This study aims to examine the effect of performing an ES in the mid-luteal phase prior to a first-time IVF/ICSI cycle on the chances of achieving a clinical pregnancy and live birth...
May 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779917/antimicrobial-resistance-among-migrants-in-europe-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Laura B Nellums, Hayley Thompson, Alison Holmes, Enrique Castro-Sánchez, Jonathan A Otter, Marie Norredam, Jon S Friedland, Sally Hargreaves
BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings...
May 17, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779579/genetically-modified-mouse-models-to-investigate-thyroid-development-function-and-growth
#19
REVIEW
C Löf, K Patyra, A Kero, J Kero
The thyroid gland produces thyroid hormones (TH), which are essential regulators for growth, development and metabolism. The thyroid is mainly controlled by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that binds to its receptor (TSHR) on thyrocytes and mediates its action via different G protein-mediated signaling pathways. TSH primarily activates the Gs -pathway, and at higher concentrations also the Gq/11 -pathway, leading to an increase of intracellular cAMP and Ca2+ , respectively. To date, the physiological importance of other G protein-mediated signaling pathways in thyrocytes is unclear...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779144/effect-of-pre-gravid-body-mass-index-on-outcomes-of-pregnancies-following-in-vitro-fertilization
#20
Miha Lucovnik, Isaac Blickstein, Tomislav Mirkovic, Ivan Verdenik, Katja Bricelj, Marijana Vidmar Simic, Natasa Tul, Andreja Trojner Bregar
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of pre-gravid body mass index (BMI) on perinatal outcomes in in vitro fertilization (IVF) singleton pregnancies. METHODS: Retrospective population-based cohort study. All singleton pregnancies delivered at ≥ 22 weeks' in Slovenia between 2002 and 2015 were included. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between BMI category and outcomes, controlling for potential confounding variables. Interaction term was included to evaluate whether effects of obesity on perinatal outcomes differ in IVF vs...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
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