Read by QxMD icon Read

drug, substance, psychoactive substance, medication

Verónica Rubio González, Susana Redondo Martín, Gema Ruíz López Del Prado, Mª Fe Muñoz Moreno, Alexander Velázquez Miranda
OBJECTIVE: Household Survey on Alcohol and Other Drugs shows the progressive increase in the consumption of hypnotics, alone or in combination with other substances. The aim of the research was to obtain information about the consumption of hypnotics and sedatives in population of Castilla y León treated in emergency medical services of four monitored hospitals between 2009-2013, describing clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the emergencies and what drugs were consumed, to provide information for future interventions...
October 24, 2016: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Percy Bondallaz, Bernard Favrat, Haïthem Chtioui, Eleonora Fornari, Philippe Maeder, Christian Giroud
Traffic policies show growing concerns about driving under the influence of cannabis, since cannabinoids are one of the most frequently encountered psychoactive substances in the blood of drivers who are drug-impaired and/or involved in accidents, and in the context of a legalization of medical marijuana and of recreational use. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of cannabis on safe driving remain poorly understood. In order to better understand its acute and long-term effects on psychomotor functions involved in the short term ability and long-term fitness to drive, experimental research has been conducted based on laboratory, simulator or on-road studies, as well as on structural and functional brain imaging...
September 16, 2016: Forensic Science International
A El Ammouri, H Kisra
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a chronic, relapsing, mental disorder, and lack of adherence is a common and severe problem in such patients leadingto global and heavy consequences for patients (relapses, hospitalizations, impaired quality of life…), for the family and for society. Improved understanding of the underlying reasons will help to form intervention strategies relevant to the context. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess medication adherence among stable patients suffering from schizophrenia and to identify factors associated with non-adherence...
September 20, 2016: L'Encéphale
Ryszard Makarowski, Piotr Makarowski, Zbigniew Kamiński
The "Adrenaline Instead of Amphetamine" program was launched by Gdańsk's MONAR association-a center for drug treatment. The purpose of the program was to show some alternatives to using psychoactive substances and to propose replacing these anti-medical behaviors with parachuting. The treatment effectiveness in this center is about 30%, and the program's effectiveness was 80%.
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
Matilda Bäckberg, Luiza Tworek, Olof Beck, Anders Helander
INTRODUCTION: About a decade ago, synthetic cannabinoids (SC) started to appear as recreational drugs on the new psychoactive substance (NPS) market. This report from the STRIDA project describes analytically confirmed intoxications involving MDMB-CHMICA (methyl-2-(1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indol-3-ylcarbonylamino)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate), a SC that was first detected in 2014. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational case series of patients from Sweden with suspected NPS exposure presenting in emergency departments and intensive care units...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok, Robert Pudlo, Magdalena Jarząb, Agnieszka Szymlak
Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used...
2016: Medycyna Pracy
Murray G Tucker, Sebastian Kekulawala, Michelle Kent, Sam Mostafa, Richard Harvey
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of comorbid illicit drug use in persons with chronic psychotic illness represents a strong determinant of psychotic relapse and rehospitalization. Epidemiological studies indicate changing patterns of illicit drug use in Australia, which are concerning because of increased use of crystal methamphetamine, also known as "ice." An important complication of habitual use of crystal methamphetamine is the development of a dose-dependent acute psychotic reaction...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Ralf Brand, Wanja Wolff, Matthias Ziegler
Neuroenhancement (NE) is the non-medical use of psychoactive substances to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience. So far empirical investigations of individuals' motivation for NE however have been hampered by the lack of theoretical foundation. This study aimed to apply drug instrumentalization theory to user motivation for NE. We argue that NE should be defined and analyzed from a behavioral perspective rather than in terms of the characteristics of substances used for NE...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Christopher A Kosky, Anastasios Bonakis, Arthee Yogendran, Gihan Hettiarachchi, Paul I Dargan, Adrian J Williams
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Drugs and psychoactive substances can cause sleepiness and when undetected, may lead to over diagnosis of central hypersomnias. We performed urine drug testing using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in adults undergoing multiple sleep latency testing (MSLT) for a suspected central hypersomnia. We examined how the drug test results modified the treating physician's diagnosis. METHODS: One hundred eighty-six consecutive patients with a suspected central hypersomnia who underwent clinical assessment, MSLT and urine drug testing by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were retrospectively studied...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Bjoern Moosmann, Philippe Bisel, Florian Franz, Laura M Huppertz, Volker Auwärter
Designer benzodiazepines represent an emerging class of new psychoactive substances (NPS). While other classes of NPS such as cannabinoid receptor agonists and designer stimulants are mainly consumed for hedonistic reasons, designer benzodiazepines may also be consumed as 'self-medication' by persons with anxiety or other psychiatric disorders or as stand-by 'antidote' by users of stimulant and hallucinogenic drugs. In the present study, five benzodiazepines (adinazolam, cloniprazepam, fonazepam, 3-hydroxyphenazepam, and nitrazolam) and one thienodiazepine (metizolam) offered as 'research chemicals' on the Internet were characterized and their main in vitro phase I metabolites tentatively identified after incubation with pooled human liver microsomes...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Patrycja Kleczkowska, Irena Smaga, Małgorzata Filip, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrozny
Cannabinoids are still classified as illegal psychoactive drugs despite their broad and increasingly acknowledged therapeutic potential. These substances are most famous for their wide recreational use, particularly among young adults to either alter the state of consciousness, intensify pleasure induced by other psychoactive substances or as an alternative to the previously abused drugs. It is important to emphasize that cannabinoids are often taken together with a variety of medications intended for the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS)...
November 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Vera Coopman, Jan Cordonnier, Marc De Leeuw, Vincent Cirimele
This paper describes the first reported death involving ocfentanil, a potent synthetic opioid and structure analogue of fentanyl abused as a new psychoactive substance in the recreational drug scene. A 17-year-old man with a history of illegal substance abuse was found dead in his home after snorting a brown powder purchased over the internet with bitcoins. Acetaminophen, caffeine and ocfentanil were identified in the powder by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with diode array detector...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Rachelle Abouchedid, James H Ho, Simon Hudson, Alison Dines, John R H Archer, David M Wood, Paul I Dargan
INTRODUCTION: Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists (SCRAs) are the largest group of new psychoactive substances reported to the European Warning System and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to date. The heterogeneous nature and speed of diversification of these compounds make it challenging to accurately characterise and predict harms of these compounds in pre-clinical studies, ahead of their appearance. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 19-year-old female who purchased three products from a headshop: two new psychoactive substances (sachets of "cannabis tea" and "mushroom tea") as well as two LSD blotters...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Jung-Rok Lee, Joohong Choi, Tyler O Shultz, Shan X Wang
As medical and recreational use of cannabis, or marijuana, becomes more prevalent, law enforcement needs a tool to evaluate whether drivers are operating vehicles under the influence of cannabis, specifically the psychoactive substance, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, the cutoff concentration of THC that causes impairment is still controversial, and current on-site screening tools are not sensitive enough to detect trace amounts of THC in oral fluids. Here we present a novel sensing platform that employs giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensors integrated with a portable reader system and smartphone to detect THC in saliva using competitive assays...
August 2, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Olof Beck, Lisa Franzén, Matilda Bäckberg, Patrick Signell, Anders Helander
CONTEXT: An increasing number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) of different chemical classes have become available through marketing and sale over the Internet. This report from the Swedish STRIDA project presents the prevalence, laboratory results, and clinical features in a series of intoxications involving the stimulant NPS α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), a potent dopamine re-uptake inhibitor, over a 4-year period. STUDY DESIGN: Observational case series of consecutive patients with admitted or suspected intake of NPS presenting to hospitals in Sweden from 2012 to 2015...
August 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Dieter Müller, Verena Angerer, Josephine Kithinji, Volker Auwärter, Hartmud Neurath, Gesine Liebetrau, Simone Just, Maren Hermanns-Clausen
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are easily accessible and the consumption has increased in recent years. New compounds as well as compounds derived from pharmaceutical research or the patent literature are provided, mostly without any declaration. As a consequence, severe adverse reactions may occur after consumption of unknown doses of these drugs, in particular after mixed intake of different psychoactive substances or co-medication. The toxic effects in such cases are not predictable. We report cases of rhabdomyolysis in patients after consumption of desoxipipradrol in combination with other NPS...
July 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
June Bryan de la Peña, Jae Hoon Cheong
The tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) combination is an anaesthetic drug commonly used in veterinary medicine. It is an equal amount combination of tiletamine, a dissociative anaesthetic pharmacologically classified as an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and zolazepam, a benzodiazepine tranquilizer. There are concerns regarding the safety profile of this drug combination due to incidents of human misuse/abuse. In this paper, we discuss the abuse liability of this drug combination based on currently available scientific evidence...
August 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Joëlle Micallef, Michel Mallaret
Based on recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO), the French addictovigilance network was set up since 1990, in order to assess and to monitor the potential for abuse and dependence of psychoactive substances. This network composed of 13 addictovigilance centers implemented in medical pharmacology departments of French university hospitals has developed specific pharmacoepidemiological tools repeated each year so as to lead us to updated pharmacological indicators related to drug abuse. As a single source may not be informative enough, the French addictovigilance network consider simultaneously a range of indicators focusing on health insurance database, health professional sentinel networks, characteristics of psychotropic consumptions and analysed them from a medical and pharmacological point of view combined to pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data...
September 2016: Thérapie
Fabrizio Schifano, Laura Orsolini, Duccio Papanti, John Corkery
Over the last decade, the 'traditional' drug scene has been supplemented - but not replaced - by the emergence of a range of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), which are either newly created or existing drugs, including medications, now being used in novel ways. By the end of 2014, in excess of 500 NPS had been reported by a large number of countries in the world. Most recent data show, however, that synthetic cathinones, synthetic cannabinoids, and psychedelics/phenethylamines account for the largest number of NPS...
June 7, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Helen Dolengevich-Segal, Beatriz Rodríguez-Salgado, Jorge Gómez-Arnau, Daniel Sánchez-Mateos
Background. Synthetic cathinones (SCs), also known as "bath salts," are β-ketone amphetamine compounds derived from cathinone, a psychoactive substance found in Catha edulis. Mephedrone is the most representative SC. Slamming is the term used for the intravenous injection of these substances in the context of chemsex parties, in order to enhance sex experiences. Using IV mephedrone may lead to diverse medical and psychiatric complications like psychosis, aggressive behavior, and suicide ideation. Case. We report the case of a 25-year-old man admitted into a psychiatric unit, presenting with psychotic symptoms after slamming mephedrone almost every weekend for the last 4 months...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"