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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917081/evaluation-of-the-ecstasy-influence-on-tramadol-and-its-main-metabolite-plasma-concentration-in-rats
#1
Bardia Jamali, Behjat Sheikholeslami, Yalda Hosseinzadeh Ardakani, Hoda Lavasani, Mohammad-Reza Rouini
BACKGROUND: Tramadol is prone to be abused alone, or in combination with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). It was reported that 95% of people with a history of substance abuse in the United States used tramadol in 2004. According to the WHO report in 2016, there was a growing number of tramadol abusers alone or in combination with psychoactive substances such as MDMA in particular in some Middle East countries. Higher concentrations of tramadol in plasma may lead to adverse drug reactions or lethal intoxication...
September 16, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895757/intoxications-in-the-strida-project-involving-a-panorama-of-psychostimulant-pyrovalerone-derivatives-mdpv-copycats
#2
Olof Beck, Matilda Bäckberg, Patrick Signell, Anders Helander
CONTEXT: An increasing number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) of different chemical classes have become available through marketing and sale over the Internet. This report from the Swedish STRIDA project presents the prevalence, laboratory results, and clinical features in intoxications involving 11 stimulant pyrovalerone NPS derivatives over a 5-year period. STUDY DESIGN: Case series of consecutive patients with admitted or suspected intake of NPS presenting to Swedish hospitals for emergency treatment from January 2011 to March 2016...
September 12, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884869/the-future-of-the-international-drug-control-system-and-national-drug-prohibitions
#3
Wayne Hall
A major impediment to any nation abandoning the policy of drug prohibition has been the fact that international drug treaties to which the majority of United Nations (UN) member states are signatory prohibit the non-medical use of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine and heroin. The future of these treaties is now uncertain because of decisions by Uruguay, eight US states and Canada to legalize cannabis use. This paper: (1) provides a brief account of the international drug control treaties; (2) outlines the major criticisms of the treaties; (3) analyses critically proposals for treaty reform; and (4) provides a personal view on policies that nation states could adopt to minimize the harms from the use of cannabis, party drugs and hallucinogens, opioids, stimulants and new psychoactive substances...
September 8, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876413/experimentation-with-psychoactive-substances-by-public-school-students
#4
Maria Eliane de Andrade, Igor Henrique Farias Santos, Antônio Araújo Menezes de Souza, Aliane Caroline Santos Silva, Tatiane Dos Santos Leite, Cristiane Costa da Cunha Oliveira, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti de Albuquerque
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of exposure to psychoactive substances in public students of basic education and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted from March to September 2015, involving 1,009 students of the basic and high school education in 20 public schools in the municipality of Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. The data have been compiled using questionnaires previously applied in national studies of the Brazilian Center for Psychotropic Drugs...
September 4, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868040/novel-psychoactive-substances-recent-progress-on-neuropharmacological-mechanisms-of-action-for-selected-drugs
#5
REVIEW
Zurina Hassan, Oliver G Bosch, Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, B Vicknasingam Kasinather, Erich Seifritz, Johannes Kornhuber, Boris B Quednow, Christian P Müller
A feature of human culture is that we can learn to consume chemical compounds, derived from natural plants or synthetic fabrication, for their psychoactive effects. These drugs change the mental state and/or the behavioral performance of an individual and can be instrumentalized for various purposes. After the emergence of a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and a period of experimental consumption, personal and medical benefits and harm potential of the NPS can be estimated on evidence base. This may lead to a legal classification of the NPS, which may range from limited medical use, controlled availability up to a complete ban of the drug form publically accepted use...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841781/non-medical-use-of-psychoactive-prescription-drugs-is-associated-with-fatal-poisoning
#6
Jari Haukka, Pirkko Kriikku, Claudia Mariottini, Timo Partonen, Ilkka Ojanperä
AIMS: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and predictors of non-medical substance use, and to assess the association between non-medical substance use and fatal poisoning or history of drug abuse in Finland. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study of all medico-legally investigated death cases in Finland. The post-mortem toxicology database was linked together with the register on reimbursed prescription medicines. PARTICIPANTS/CASES: All post-mortem cases between 2011 and 2013 positive for one or more of the following drugs: oxycodone, fentanyl, tramadol, clonazepam, gabapentin, pregabalin, tizanidine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, alprazolam, zolpidem, mirtazapine, and bupropion, n=2974...
August 25, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711979/acute-kidney-injury-and-critical-limb-ischaemia-associated-with-the-use-of-the-so-called-legal-high-3-fluorophenmetrazine
#7
Michael Fawzy, Wei San Wong-Morrow, Anthony Beaumont, Chris K T Farmer
Until the law in the United Kingdom (UK) changed in May 2016 so called "legal highs" or "new psychoactive substances" were freely available in high street shops across the UK. Following prohibition these drugs are still easily purchased illegally via the internet. We report a case of a patient who self-administered 3-fluorophenmetrazine intravenously with catastrophic consequences. Adverse effects were almost immediate with symptoms of malaise and tachycardia. Two days post administration he was transferred to the intensive therapy unit with acute kidney injury and irreversible four limb ischaemia...
July 15, 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704207/the-adult-male-rape-victim-forensic-description-of-a-series-of-57-cases
#8
Michelangelo Bruno Casali, Elisa Palazzo, Alberto Blandino, Alessio Battistini, Francesca Motta, Alessandra Kustermann, Cristina Cattaneo
A retrospective analysis on 57 adult male victims of sexual violence has been performed. Age, nationality and anamnesis of the victims, location of the assault, type of violence, number and identity of the assailants, presence of physical injuries, lapse of time between the assault and the request of medical assistance, and toxicological and semen detection tests were analyzed. Victims were mostly in the 31- to 40-year age group. Ten victims referred themselves as either active homosexuals or bisexuals. Forced oral and/or anal penetration was registered in 86...
September 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678934/-clinical-and-social-vulnerabilities-in-crack-users-according-to-housing-status-a-multicenter-study-in-six-brazilian-state-capitals
#9
MULTICENTER STUDY
Silvia Chwartzmann Halpern, Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Vinicius Roglio, Sibele Faller, Anne Sordi, Felipe Ornell, Carla Dalbosco, Flavio Pechansky, Félix Kessler, Lísia von Diemen
The study had the goal to evaluate psychoactive substance use severity, violence, physical and emotional health of crack users who seeks specialized treatment in Psychosocial Care Centers for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPSad) concerning housing status. This is a multicenter cross-sectional study in six Brazilian capitals with 564 crack users categorized into two groups (1) users who have been homeless sometime in life (n = 266) and (2) individuals who have never lived on streets (n = 298). To assess the substance use severity and the characteristics of the individuals, the Addiction Severity Index, 6th version (ASI-6) was used...
July 3, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657180/4-4-dimethylaminorex-4-4-dmar-serotoni-misuse-a-web-based-study
#10
Barbara Loi, Mire Zloh, Maria Antonietta De Luca, Nicholas Pintori, John Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
BACKGROUND: 4,4'-DMAR (4,4'-dimethylaminorex; "Serotoni") is a potent stimulant drug that has recently been associated with a number of fatalities in Europe. Over the last few years, online communities have emerged as important resources for disseminating levels of technical knowledge on novel psychoactive substances. OBJECTIVE: Analysing the information provided by the fora communities on 4,4'-DMAR use, additionally critical reviewing the available evidence-based literature on this topic...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628897/diverted-medications-and-new-psychoactive-substances-a-chemical-network-analysis-of-discarded-injecting-paraphernalia-in-hungary
#11
Valéria Anna Gyarmathy, Anna Péterfi, Tamás Figeczki, József Kiss, Katalin Medgyesi-Frank, János Posta, József Csorba
BACKGROUND: Until about 2010, people who inject drugs (PWIDs) injected almost exclusively heroin and amphetamines in Hungary. After 2010, self-reported studies have indicated a dominance of new psychoactive substances on the drug market for injectable drugs. METHODS: Between March 2015 and February 2016, we collected used and discarded injecting paraphernalia. We utilized chemical analysis to assess and UCINet to visualize the connections between the most prevalent main substances and their respective co-occurring additional components at 7 locations in Hungary...
June 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573080/rapid-identification-of-psychoactive-drugs-in-drained-gastric-lavage-fluid-and-whole-blood-specimens-of-drug-overdose-patients-using-ambient-mass-spectrometry
#12
Chi-Wei Lee, Hung Su, You-Da Cai, Ming-Tsang Wu, Den-Chyang Wu, Jentaie Shiea
Psychoactive drug overdoses are life-threatening and require prompt and proper treatment in the emergency room to minimize morbidity and mortality. Prompt identification of the ingested psychoactive drugs is challenging, since witness recall is unreliable and patients' symptoms do not necessarily explain their loss of consciousness. Gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analyses have been the traditionally employed methods to detect and identify abused substances; however, these techniques are time-consuming and labor-intensive...
2017: Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544602/drug-residues-in-syringes-and-other-injecting-paraphernalia-in-hungary
#13
Anna Péterfi, József Csorba, Tamás Figeczki, József Kiss, Katalin Medgyesi-Frank, János Posta, V Anna Gyarmathy
The appearance and spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is a phenomenon detected throughout Europe since 2008. Synthetic cathinones, a group of NPS, have been self-reported as the drug injected by the vast majority of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Hungary. This study aims at updating our knowledge on what exactly the compounds injected by PWID. This multi-site study analysed residues from used injecting drug paraphernalia collected from PWID via low threshold services and from public places in Budapest, Debrecen, Miskolc, Szeged, Békéscsaba and Pécs between March 2015 and February 2016...
May 23, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521146/effect-of-continued-cannabis-use-on-medication-adherence-in-the-first-two-years-following-onset-of-psychosis
#14
Tabea Schoeler, Natalia Petros, Marta Di Forti, Ewa Klamerus, Enrico Foglia, Robin Murray, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
Uncertainty exists whether the use of non-prescription psychoactive substances following onset of a first episode of psychosis (FEP), in particular cannabis use, affects medication adherence. Data from FEP patients (N=233) obtained through prospective assessments measured medication adherence and pattern of cannabis and other substance use in the first two years following onset of psychosis. Multiple logistic regression analyses were employed to compare the different substance use groups with regard to risk of medication non-adherence, while controlling for confounders...
September 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512368/-analysis-of-the-phenomenon-of-over-the-counter-drug-abuse-and-not-controlled-herbs-trade-by-polish-adolescents-part-i
#15
REVIEW
Daria Suchecka, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Katarzyna Groszewska, Monika Mak, Jerzy Samochowiec, Agnieszka Samochowiec
The phenomenon of stupefying by the use of available over-the-counter drugs (OTC) among adolescents is an essential problem in both Poland and throughout the world. Popular analgesics, cold medicine and antihistamines contain psychedelic substances, such as dextromethorphan (DXM), pseudoephedrine/ephedrine, codeine (methylmorphine), dimenhydrinate, paracetamol (acetaminophren) and others. Cases of fatal addiction to dextromethorphan, one of the active substances contained in medicines, e.g., the common cold, have been reported...
May 16, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494249/evaluation-of-problematic-psychoactive-substances-use-in-people-placed-in-police-custody
#16
Marie Gérardin, Gabriel Guigand, Laura Wainstein, Pascale Jolliet, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Renaud Clément
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: In France, the law states that any person held in custody could be examined by a doctor. The main objective of the medical examination is to give medical evidence of health compatibility with custody. This review identifies health risks such as addictive behaviour. We wanted to know which psychoactive substances are used in this particular population, and how problematic these uses are. DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, monocentric, open-ended study conducted via a structured questionnaire was carried out on detainees who reported having taken drugs or illegal substances...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458268/exploring-the-link-between-substance-use-and-mental-health-status-what-can-we-learn-from-the-self-medication-theory
#17
L Lerissa Smith, Fengxia Yan, Mikayla Charles, Kamal Mohiuddin, Dawn Tyus, Oluwatoyosi Adekeye, Kisha B Holden
The high rate of co-occurring mental health issues and substance-use disorders has been well documented. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the association between use of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs, and unmet mental health need and service use. A secondary aim of this research was to determine if the observed patterns of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs use and unmet mental health need and mental health service use are consistent with a theory of self-medication theory...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451030/cannabis-arteritis
#18
Naoual El Omri, Rachid Eljaoudi, Fadwa Mekouar, Mohammed Jira, Youssef Sekkach, Taoufik Amezyane, Driss Ghafir
Cannabis is the most consumed psychoactive substance by young people. Chronic use of cannabis can lead to cannabis arteritis, which is a very rare peripheral vascular disease similar to Buerger's disease. It is affecting young adults, especially men, consuming cannabis. A 27-year old woman, with no particular past medical history except for long-term use of cannabis and tobacco developed a digital necrosis in the left hand. She denied using other illicit drugs. Doppler ultrasound examination of the upper limbs was unremarkable...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445835/economic-consequences-of-legal-and-illegal-drugs-the-case-of-social-costs-in-belgium
#19
Delfine Lievens, Freya Vander Laenen, Nick Verhaeghe, Koen Putman, Lieven Pauwels, Wim Hardyns, Lieven Annemans
BACKGROUND: Legal and illegal drugs impose a considerable burden to the individual and to society. The misuse of addictive substances results in healthcare and law enforcement costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life. METHODS: A social cost study was conducted to estimate the substance-attributable costs of alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication to Belgian society in 2012. The cost-of-illness framework with prevalence-based and human capital approach was applied...
June 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421836/analytical-confirmation-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-a-cohort-of-179-presentations-with-acute-recreational-drug-toxicity-to-an-emergency-department-in-london-uk-in-the-first-half-of-2015
#20
Rachelle Abouchedid, Simon Hudson, Natalie Thurtle, Takahiro Yamamoto, James H Ho, George Bailey, Michelle Wood, Nele Sadones, Christophe P Stove, Alison Dines, John R H Archer, David M Wood, Paul I Dargan
CONTEXT: Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists are the largest group of new psychoactive substances reported in the last decade; in this study we investigated how commonly these drugs are found in patients presenting to the Emergency Department with acute recreational drug toxicity. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study enrolling consecutive adult patients presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) in London (UK) January-July 2015 (6 months) with acute recreational drug toxicity...
June 2017: Clinical Toxicology
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