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confocal microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548594/immediate-ex-vivo-diagnosis-of-pituitary-adenomas-using-confocal-reflectance-microscopy-a-proof-of-principle-study
#1
Michael A Mooney, Joseph Georges, Mohammedhassan Izady Yazdanabadi, Katherine Y Goehring, William L White, Andrew S Little, Mark C Preul, Stephen W Coons, Peter Nakaji, Jennifer M Eschbacher
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) ex vivo to differentiate adenoma from normal pituitary gland in surgical biopsy specimens. CRM allows for rapid, label-free evaluation of biopsy specimens with cellular resolution while avoiding some limitations of frozen section analysis. METHODS Biopsy specimens from 11 patients with suspected pituitary adenomas were transported directly to the pathology department. Samples were immediately positioned and visualized with CRM using a confocal microscope located in the same area of the pathology department where frozen sections are prepared...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548209/improved-sampling-and-analysis-of-images-in-corneal-confocal-microscopy
#2
E L Schaldemose, F I Fontain, P Karlsson, J R Nyengaard
INTRODUCTION: Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a noninvasive clinical method to analyse and quantify corneal nerve fibres in vivo. Although the CCM technique is in constant progress, there are methodological limitations in terms of sampling of images and objectivity of the nerve quantification. The aim of this study was to present a randomized sampling method of the CCM images and to develop an adjusted area-dependent image analysis. Furthermore, a manual nerve fibre analysis method was compared to a fully automated method...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548038/marek-s-disease-virus-infection-of-phagocytes-a-de-novo-in-vitro-infection-model
#3
Pankaj Chakraborty, Lonneke Vervelde, Robert G Dalziel, Peter S Wasson, Venugopal Nair, Bernadette M Dutia, Pete Kaiser
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an alphaherpesvirus that induces T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Natural infections in vivo are caused by the inhalation of infected poultry house dust and it is presumed that MDV infection is initiated in the macrophages from where the infection is passed to B cells and activated T cells. Virus can be detected in B and T cells and macrophages in vivo, and both B and T cells can be infected in vitro. However, attempts to infect macrophages in vitro have not been successful. The aim of this study was to develop a model for infecting phagocytes [macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs)] with MDV in vitro and to characterize the infected cells...
May 26, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546811/antimicrobial-activity-of-a-cationic-guanidine-compound-against-two-pathogenic-oral-bacteria
#4
E Escamilla-García, A G Alcázar-Pizaña, J C Segoviano-Ramírez, C Del Angel-Mosqueda, A P López-Lozano, E Cárdenas-Estrada, M A De La Garza-Ramos, C E Medina-De La Garza, M Márquez
This study evaluated the potential antimicrobial properties of a polyguanidine (CatDex) on two oral bacteria. Chlorhexidine gluconate 1340 μmoL L(-1) (CHX 0.12%) was used as control. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) were grown in BHI media. Bacterial sensitivity and antimicrobial activity were determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Kirby-Bauer methods. To study side effects, that is, toxicity, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were used. Fluorometric cytotoxicity and confocal microscopy assays were used in order to test cell viability...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545760/identification-of-synaptic-pattern-of-nmda-receptor-subunits-upon-direction-selective-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-developing-and-adult-mouse-retina
#5
Jun-Seok Lee, Hang-Gu Kim, Chang-Jin Jeon
Direction selectivity of the retina is a unique mechanism and critical function of eyes for surviving. Direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (DS RGCs) strongly respond to preferred directional stimuli, but rarely respond to the opposite or null directional stimuli. These DS RGCs are sensitive to glutamate, which is secreted from bipolar cells. Using immunocytochemistry, we studied with the distributions of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits on the dendrites of DS RGCs in the developing and adult mouse retina...
May 22, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545669/are-russian-propolis-ethanol-extracts-the-future-for-the-prevention-of-medical-and-biomedical-implant-contaminations
#6
Ashwin Ambi, Julia Bryan, Katherine Borbon, Daniel Centeno, Tianchi Liu, Tung Po Chen, Thomas Cattabiani, Christian Traba
BACKGROUND: Most studies reveal that the mechanism of action of propolis against bacteria is functional rather than structural and is attributed to a synergism between the compounds in the extracts. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Propolis is said to inhibit bacterial adherence, division, inhibition of water-insoluble glucan formation, and protein synthesis. However, it has been shown that the mechanism of action of Russian propolis ethanol extracts is structural rather than functional and may be attributed to the metals found in propolis...
July 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544959/effect-of-different-mineralization-processes-on-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-bone-regeneration-and-osteoblast-macrophage-cross-talk-in-co-culture-system-using-dual-growth-factor-mediated-non-mulberry-silk-fibroin-grafted-poly-%C3%B0-caprolactone-nanofibrous-scaffold
#7
Promita Bhattacharjee, Tapas K Maiti, Debasis Bhattacharya, Samit Kumar Nandi
This study evaluates mineralized nanofibrous polymeric scaffolds at supporting in vitro osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and in vivo bone tissue regeneration. Co-electrospin, alternative soaking, and electrodeposition were used to introduce hydroxyapatite in non-mulberry silk fibroin grafted poly(Є-caprolactone) nanofibrous scaffolds. Bone morphogenic protein-2 and Transforming growth factor-β, at a potency ratio of 1:1, are covalently coupled onto the scaffolds. hMSCs proliferation and interactions are studied through MTT and Alamar blue assay and scanning electron and confocal microscopy...
May 16, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544620/phenotyping-cardiac-and-structural-birth-defects-in-fetal-and-newborn-mice
#8
REVIEW
Xiaoqin Liu, Andrew J Kim, William Reynolds, Yijen Wu, Cecilia W Lo
Mouse models are invaluable for investigating the developmental etiology and molecular pathogenesis of structural birth defects. While this has been deployed for studying a wide spectrum of birth defects, mice are particularly valuable for modeling congenital heart disease, given they have the same four-chamber cardiac anatomy as in humans. We have developed the use of noninvasive fetal ultrasound together with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging for high throughput phenotyping of mice for congenital heart defects (CHD) and other developmental anomalies...
May 22, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543606/reflectance-confocal-microscopy-analysis-of-equivocal-melanocytic-lesions-with-severe-regression
#9
M Agozzino, A Ferrari, C Cota, C Franceschini, P Buccini, L Eibenshutz, M Ardigò
BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis between regressing nevi and melanoma might be challenging; regressing areas can represent a confounding factor for the diagnosis and the histology still remain mandatory to rule out melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy may add valuable information by revealing features suggestive of the nature of the melanocytic proliferation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of confocal microscopy in the management of regressive melanocytic lesions...
May 21, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543092/effect-of-ultrasonic-and-sonic-activation-of-root-canal-sealers-on-the-push-out-bond-strength-and-interfacial-adaptation-to-root-canal-dentine
#10
P E B Wiesse, R D Pereira, Y C T Silva-Sousa, C Estrela, M D Sousa-Neto, J D Pécora
AIM: To evaluate the effect of ultrasonic and sonic activation of two root canal sealers on interfacial adaptation and push-out bond strength (BS) to root canal dentine. METHODOLOGY: The root canals of seventy-eight roots of maxillary canines was prepared with Ni-Ti rotary instruments under irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. Canals were filled by lateral condensation of gutta-percha and AH Plus (n=39) or MTA Fillapex (n=39). Three subgroups (n=13) were formed according to sealer activation: no activation (NA), sonic activation (SA, 20 s) and ultrasonic activation (US, 20 s)...
May 22, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542869/tanshinone-iia-ameliorates-chronic-arthritis-in-mice-by-modulating-neutrophil-activities
#11
Shan Zhang, Guangrui Huang, Kai Yuan, Qingqing Zhu, Honghao Sheng, Ruipeng Yu, Guangbin Luo, Anlong Xu
AIMS: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic immune inflammatory disease mediated by the influx of immune cells into the synovial joint space. As Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, we used the adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) murine model of RA to investigate the impact of TIIA on RA and immune cell activation. METHODS: The anti-arthritic activity of TIIA was investigated in an adjuvant-induced arthritis model of RA in mice...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542651/cellular-migration-transition-and-interaction-during-regeneration-of-the-sponge-hymeniacidon-heliophila
#12
Cristiano C Coutinho, Ivone de Andrade Rosa, John Douglas de Oliveira Teixeira, Leonardo R Andrade, Manoel Luis Costa, Claudia Mermelstein
Sponges have a high capacity for regeneration and this process improves biomass production in some species, thus contributing to a solution for the biomass supply problem for biotechnological applications. The aim of this work is to characterize the dynamics of cell behavior during the initial stages of sponge regeneration, using bright-field microscopy, confocal microscopy and SEM. We focused on the first 20 h of regeneration, during which blastema formation and epithelium initialization occur. An innovative sponge organotypic culture of the regenerating internal region is described and investigated by confocal microscopy, cell transplantation and vital staining...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542454/controlled-delivery-of-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-from-biodegradable-microspheres-slows-retinal-degeneration-and-vision-loss-in-p23h-rats
#13
Laura Fernández-Sánchez, Irene Bravo-Osuna, Pedro Lax, Alicia Arranz-Romera, Victoria Maneu, Sergio Esteban-Pérez, Isabel Pinilla, María Del Mar Puebla-González, Rocío Herrero-Vanrell, Nicolás Cuenca
Successful drug therapies for treating ocular diseases require effective concentrations of neuroprotective compounds maintained over time at the site of action. The purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of intravitreal controlled delivery of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) encapsulated in poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres for the treatment of the retina in a rat model of retinitis pigmentosa. PLGA microspheres (MSs) containing TUDCA were produced by the O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation technique...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542085/quantitative-analysis-of-depth-distribution-and-density-of-cysts-in-acanthamoeba-keratitis-using-confocal-microscopy
#14
Ping Huang, Tudor Tepelus, Laura A Vickers, Elmira Baghdasaryan, Jianyan Huang, John A Irvine, Hugo Y Hsu, Srinivas Sadda, Olivia L Lee
PURPOSE: To quantify the density, distribution, and depth of invasion of cysts in the corneas of eyes with acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) with a novel scanning pattern. METHODS: The medical records of patients with AK evaluated at the Doheny Eye Center UCLA between September 2014 and July 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with clinically diagnosed AK underwent IVCM at various time points during their clinical course...
May 23, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540540/molecular-mechanisms-of-bombyx-batryticatus-ethanol-extract-inducing-gastric-cancer-sgc-7901-cells-apoptosis
#15
Jin-Yi Wu, Almutamad Sheikho, He Ma, Tian-Ci Li, Ya-Qi Zhao, Ya-Lin Zhang, Dun Wang
Bombyx batryticatus is a traditional Chinese medicine. To understand apoptotic effect of B. batryticatus ethanol extract (BBE), we investigated the role of BBE in inducing apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells SGC-7901. Cells treated with BBE and apoptosis was assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and flow cytometry assays. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax and P21 were evaluated by western blot analysis and real time polymerase chain reaction. MTT assay showed that the cytotoxicity of BBE extract on SGC-7901 cells was correlated with treatment time and concentration...
May 24, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540425/contribution-of-plasmid-encoded-peptidase-s8-prtp-to-adhesion-and-transit-in-the-gut-of-lactococcus-lactis-ibb477-strain
#16
Joanna Maria Radziwill-Bienkowska, Véronique Robert, Karolina Drabot, Florian Chain, Claire Cherbuy, Philippe Langella, Muriel Thomas, Jacek Karol Bardowski, Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Magdalena Kowalczyk
The ability of Lactococcus lactis to adhere to the intestinal mucosa can potentially prolong the contact with the host, and therefore favour its persistence in the gut. In the present study, the contribution of plasmid-encoded factors to the adhesive and transit properties of the L. lactis subsp. cremoris IBB477 strain was investigated. Plasmid-cured derivatives as well as deletion mutants were obtained and analysed. Adhesion tests were performed using non-coated polystyrene plates, plates coated with mucin or fibronectin and mucus-secreting HT29-MTX intestinal epithelial cells...
May 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540005/post-photorefractive-keratectomy-pain-and-corneal-sub-basal-nerve-density
#17
Masoumeh Mohebbi, Amin Rafat-Nejad, Seyed-Farzad Mohammadi, Kosar Asna-Ashari, Maryam Kasiri, Saeed Heidari-Keshel, Farshad Askarizadeh
PURPOSE: The perceived and reported pain of patients receiving photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) widely varies. We assessed the potential role of the subbasal nerve plexus density as a predictor of postoperative pain level. Consecutive patients scheduled to undergo PRK at the Refractive Surgery Clinic of Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, were approached. METHODS: Forty-nine myopic left eyes from 49 patients who consented to undergo scanning slit confocal microscopy assessments preoperatively were included...
April 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539404/analysis-of-interphase-node-proteins-in-fission-yeast-by-quantitative-and-super-resolution-fluorescence-microscopy
#18
Matthew Akamatsu, Yu Lin, Joerg Bewersdorf, Thomas D Pollard
We used quantitative confocal microscopy and FPALM super resolution microscopy of live fission yeast to investigate the structures and assembly of two types of interphase nodes, multiprotein complexes associated with the plasma membrane that merge together and mature into the precursors of the cytokinetic contractile ring. During the long G2 phase of the cell cycle seven different interphase node proteins maintain constant concentrations as they accumulate in proportion to cell volume. During mitosis the total numbers of type 1 node proteins (cell cycle kinases Cdr1p, Cdr2p, Wee1p, and anillin Mid1p) are constant even when the nodes disassemble...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539349/sleep-loss-promotes-astrocytic-phagocytosis-and-microglial-activation-in-mouse-cerebral-cortex
#19
Michele Bellesi, Luisa de Vivo, Mattia Chini, Francesca Gilli, Giulio Tononi, Chiara Cirelli
We previously found that Mertk and its ligand Gas6, astrocytic genes involved in phagocytosis, are upregulated after acute sleep deprivation. These results suggested that astrocytes may engage in phagocytic activity during extended wake, but direct evidence was lacking. Studies in humans and rodents also found that sleep loss increases peripheral markers of inflammation, but whether these changes are associated with neuroinflammation and/or activation of microglia, the brain's resident innate immune cells, was unknown...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539099/selectivity-and-localization-of-lysozyme-uptake-in-contemporary-hydrogel-contact-lens-materials
#20
Miriam Heynen, Negar Babaei Omali, Zohra Fadli, Chantal Coles-Brennan, Lakshman N Subbaraman, Lyndon Jones
The purpose of this study was to investigate the early and selective uptake of lysozyme and the location of deposited lysozyme on contemporary hydrogel contact lens (CL) materials after exposure to an artificial tear solution (ATS) for 16 hours. Seven different hydrogel CL materials [polymacon, omafilcon A, nelfilcon A, nesofilcon A, ocufilcon B, etafilcon A (Acuvue Moist), and etafilcon A (Acuvue Define)] were incubated in an ATS for various times. Total protein deposition was determined using a modified Bradford technique...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
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