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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650559/the-antibacterial-activity-and-modes-of-li-f-type-antimicrobial-peptides-against-bacillus-cereus-in-vitro
#1
Jinzhi Han, Shengming Zhao, Zhi Ma, Ling Gao, Hongxia Liu, Umair Muhammad, Zhaoxin Lu, Fengxia Lv, Xiaomei Bie
AIMS: LI-Fs are a family of highly potent cyclic lipodepsipeptide antibiotics with a broad antimicrobial spectrum (Gram-positive bacteria and fungi). In this study, LI-F type antimicrobial peptides (AMP-jsa9) composing of LI-F03a, LI-F03b, LI-F04a, LI-F04b, and LI-F05b were isolated from Paenibacillus polymyxa JSA-9. To better understand the antimicrobial mechanism of AMP-jsa9, the potency and action(s) of AMP-jsa9 against B. cereus were examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Flow cytometry, confocal laser microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observation, as well as determination of peptidoglycan and cell wall associated protein, and other methods were used...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650168/semisoft-colloidal-crystals-in-ionic-liquids
#2
Yun Huang, Akisato Takata, Yoshinobu Tsujii, Kohji Ohno
We here introduce a technique for the direct formation of semisoft colloidal crystals of hybrid particles in non-volatile ionic liquid solvents. The hybrid particles are comprised of a silica core and a densely grafted polymer brush shell, which were synthesized by surface-initiated living radical polymerization. A phase transition of the suspensions from a disordered fluid to a crystallized system was observed within a narrow concentration range. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observation and UV-VIS spectrometry confirmed the highly ordered structure of the hybrid particles in ionic liquids...
June 26, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649593/colonic-microbiota-encroachment-correlates-with-dysglycemia-in-humans
#3
Benoit Chassaing, Shreya M Raja, James D Lewis, Shanthi Srinivasan, Andrew T Gewirtz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucoid structures that coat the epithelium play an essential role in keeping the intestinal microbiota at a safe distance from host cells. Encroachment of bacteria into the normally almost-sterile inner mucus layer has been observed in inflammatory bowel disease and in mouse models of colitis. Moreover, such microbiota encroachment has also been observed in mouse models of metabolic syndrome, which are associated low-grade intestinal inflammation. Hence, we investigated if microbiota encroachment might correlate with indices of metabolic syndrome in humans...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649561/psd1-effects-on-candida-albicans-planktonic-cells-and-biofilms
#4
Sónia Gonçalves, Patrícia M Silva, Mário R Felício, Luciano N de Medeiros, Eleonora Kurtenbach, Nuno C Santos
Candida albicans is an important human pathogen, causing opportunistic infections. The adhesion of planktonic cells to a substrate is the first step for biofilm development. The antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Psd1 is a defensin isolated from Pisum sativum seeds. We tested the effects of this AMP on C. albicans biofilms and planktonic cells, comparing its activity with amphotericin B and fluconazole. Three C. albicans variants were studied, one of them a mutant deficient in glucosylceramide synthase, conferring resistance to Psd1 antifungal action...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649406/architecture-component-and-microbiome-of-biofilm-involved-in-the-fouling-of-membrane-bioreactors
#5
Tomohiro Inaba, Tomoyuki Hori, Hidenobu Aizawa, Atsushi Ogata, Hiroshi Habe
Biofilm formation on the filtration membrane and the subsequent clogging of membrane pores (called biofouling) is one of the most persistent problems in membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and reclamation. Here, we investigated the structure and microbiome of fouling-related biofilms in the membrane bioreactor using non-destructive confocal reflection microscopy and high-throughput Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Direct confocal reflection microscopy indicated that the thin biofilms were formed and maintained regardless of the increasing transmembrane pressure, which is a common indicator of membrane fouling, at low organic-loading rates...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649405/bacillus-subtilis-biofilm-development-in-the-presence-of-soil-clay-minerals-and-iron-oxides
#6
Wenting Ma, Donghai Peng, Sharon L Walker, Bin Cao, Chun-Hui Gao, Qiaoyun Huang, Peng Cai
Clay minerals and metal oxides, as important parts of the soil matrix, play crucial roles in the development of microbial communities. However, the mechanism underlying such a process, particularly on the formation of soil biofilm, remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of montmorillonite, kaolinite, and goethite on the biofilm formation of the representative soil bacteria Bacillus subtilis. The bacterial biofilm formation in goethite was found to be impaired in the initial 24 h but burst at 48 h in the liquid-air interface...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648678/single-plane-illumination-microscopy-as-a-tool-for-studying-nucleome-dynamics
#7
Jörg Langowski
Single plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) is a new optical method that has become extremely important in recent years. It is based on the formation of a "light slice" in the specimen in which fluorescently tagged molecules are observed. The spatial resolution is close to that of confocal optics, but without the disadvantages inherent to scanning or high laser irradiation doses. A recent development is light sheet fluctuation microscopy, which exploits the dynamic information contained in the fluorescence intensity fluctuations of each image pixel...
June 22, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648622/a-novel-antimicrobial-therapy-for-the-control-of-aeromonas-hydrophila-infection-in-aquaculture-using-marine-polysaccharide-coated-gold-nanoparticle
#8
Sekar Vijayakumar, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Balasubramanian Malaikozhundan, Narayanan Gobi, Samuthirapandian Ravichandran, Sellamuthu Karthi, Balasubramaniem Ashok Kumar, Natesan Sivakumar
In the present study, we prepared fucoidan coated Au-NPs, known as gold nanoparticles of fucoidan (Fu-AuNPs), and examined its effect on the antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila. The green synthesized Fu-AuNPs were bio-physically characterized by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Higher Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM), Zeta potential analysis and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Fu-AuNPs were crystalline in nature, spherical to triangular in shape, with particle size ranging within 10-100 nm...
June 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648105/abnormal-distribution-of-aqp4-in-minor-salivary-glands-of-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-patients
#9
Margherita Sisto, Loredana Lorusso, Giuseppe Ingravallo, Beatrice Nico, Domenico Ribatti, Simona Ruggieri, Dario Domenico Lofrumento, Sabrina Lisi
A decreased saliva production occurs in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), an autoimmune disease characterized by oral and ocular dryness due to dysfunction of the lacrimal and salivary glands (SGs). Since water movement is involved in saliva secretion, the expression, localization, and function of the water channels aquaporins (AQPs) have been extensively studied in SGs. To date, the presence of AQP4 remains controversial and ambiguous in human SGs. We investigated by immunohistochemistry, high-resolution confocal microscopy and quantitative image analysis, Western blot and real-time RT-PCR, the presence of the AQP4 gene, and the distribution of AQP4 protein in healthy controls and pSS SG biopsies...
June 24, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648016/-mechanisms-of-cytoskeleton-and-pi3k%C3%AE-rhoa-in-fine-particulate-matter-deteriorating-phagocytosis-defect-of-alveolar-macrophage-in-mice-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Q Xia, S T Hu, X L Zeng, H R Bao, X J Liu
Objective: To explore the mechanism of cytoskeleton and PI3Kδ-RhoA in fine particulate matter deteriorating phagocytosis defect of alveolar macrophage (AM) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mice. Methods: Forty mice were randomly divided into four groups: health control group, COPD group, health PM2.5 group, COPD PM2.5 group and with ten in each group. A mouse model of COPD was established by cigarette smoke exposure, and health PM2.5 group and COPD PM2.5 group mice were given PM2.5 (588 μg/m(3)) aerosol inhalation for 90 days...
June 27, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646552/targeting-histone-deacetylase-4-ubc9-impairs-dna-repair-for-radiosensitization-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#11
Chiao-Ling Tsai, Wei-Lin Liu, Feng-Ming Hsu, Po-Sheng Yang, Ruoh-Fang Yen, Kai-Yuan Tzen, Ann-Lii Cheng, Pei-Jer Chen, Jason Chia-, Hsien Cheng
Several strategies to improve the efficacy of radiation therapy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been investigated. One approach was to develop radiosensitizing compounds. Because histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is highly expressed in liver cancer and known to regulate oncogenesis through chromatin structure remodeling and controlling protein access to DNA, we postulated that HDAC4 inhibition might enhance radiation's effect on HCC cells. HCC cell lines (Huh7 and PLC5) and an ectopic xenograft were pretreated with HDAC inhibitor or shRNA to knock down expression of HDAC4, and then irradiated (2...
June 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646234/electroporation-as-a-vaccine-delivery-system-and-a-natural-adjuvant-to-intradermal-administration-of-plasmid-dna-in-macaques
#12
Biliana Todorova, Lucille Adam, Slobodan Culina, Raphaël Boisgard, Frédéric Martinon, Antonio Cosma, Mart Ustav, Thierry Kortulewski, Roger Le Grand, Catherine Chapon
In vivo electroporation (EP) is used to enhance the uptake of nucleic acids and its association with DNA vaccination greatly stimulates immune responses to vaccine antigens delivered through the skin. However, the effect of EP on cutaneous cell behavior, the dynamics of immune cell recruitment and local inflammatory factors, have not been fully described. Here, we show that intradermal DNA vaccination combined with EP extends antigen expression to the epidermis and the subcutaneous skin muscle in non-human primates...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646146/optical-coherence-microscopy-as-a-novel-non-invasive-method-for-the-4d-live-imaging-of-early-mammalian-embryos
#13
Karol Karnowski, Anna Ajduk, Bartosz Wieloch, Szymon Tamborski, Krzysztof Krawiec, Maciej Wojtkowski, Maciej Szkulmowski
Imaging of living cells based on traditional fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy has delivered an enormous amount of information critical for understanding biological processes in single cells. However, the requirement for a high numerical aperture and fluorescent markers still limits researchers' ability to visualize the cellular architecture without causing short- and long-term photodamage. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a promising alternative that circumvents the technical limitations of fluorescence imaging techniques and provides unique access to fundamental aspects of early embryonic development, without the requirement for sample pre-processing or labeling...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645309/herpes-simplex-virus-1-infects-the-olfactory-bulb-shortly-following-ocular-infection-and-exhibits-a-long-term-inflammatory-profile-in-the-form-of-effector-and-hsv-1-specific-t-cells
#14
Chandra M Menendez, Daniel J J Carr
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can result in a life-threatening condition known as herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Trafficking patterns by which the virus reaches the central nervous system (CNS) following ocular infection are unresolved. We evaluated early viral dissemination pathways following ocular infection that involve trafficking to the olfactory bulb (OB). Additionally, we have characterized the capacity of HSV-1 to establish latency within OB tissue and profiled the local T lymphocyte response over the course of the acute infection into latency...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645073/analysis-of-ldlr-variants-from-homozygous-fh-patients-carrying-multiple-mutations-in-the-ldlr-gene
#15
Long Jiang, Asier Benito-Vicente, Ling Tang, Aitor Etxebarria, Wei Cui, Kepa B Uribe, Xiao-Dong Pan, Helena Ostolaza, Shi-Wei Yang, Yu-Jie Zhou, Cesar Martin, Lu-Ya Wang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease with widespread global prevalence that partially accounts for the high prevalence of premature coronary heart disease. Although the majority of research on FH has focused on single heterozygous LDLR mutations, there have been limited reports of double LDLR mutations on the same chromosome. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the clinical consequences of the presence of multiple mutations in the LDLR gene...
June 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644388/cellular-uptake-and-delivery-dependent-effects-of-tb-3-doped-hydroxyapatite-nanorods
#16
Yan Wei, Ying He, Xiyu Li, Haifeng Chen, Xuliang Deng
With the increasing interest in hydroxyapatite (HA) nanostructures for use in biomedicine, the systematic evaluation of their potential effects on biological systems is becoming critically important. In this work, we report the in vitro cellular uptake, in vivo tissue distributions and toxicity of Tb(3+)-doped HA (HA-Tb) after short-, intermediate-, and long-term exposure. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that HA-Tb was taken up by cells via vesicle endocytosis. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay, combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy, indicated excellent cell viability with no changes in cell morphology at the examined doses...
June 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643906/in-vitro-evaluation-of-surface-properties-of-pro-seal-%C3%A2-and-opal-%C3%A2-seal-tm-in-preventing-white-spot-lesions
#17
T S Premaraj, N Rohani, D Covey, S Premaraj
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the surface properties of two commercially available sealants (Pro Seal(®) (PS) and Opal(®) Seal(TM) (OS)) in terms of fluoride(F) release, biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus and the ability to resist acid penetration. SETTING: University of Nebraska Medical Center. MATERIAL & METHODS: Discs of similar diameter and thickness were made from OS and PS. Discs were soaked in double-distilled water, and F released was measured with fluoride meter daily for 14 consecutive days, then at 21 and 28 days...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643380/microscopy-visualisation-confirms-multi-species-biofilms-are-ubiquitous-in-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#18
Khalid Johani, Matthew Malone, Slade Jensen, Iain Gosbell, Hugh Dickson, Honhua Hu, Karen Vickery
Increasing evidence within the literature has identified the presence of biofilms in chronic wounds and proposed that they contribute to delayed wound healing. This research aimed to investigate the presence of biofilm in diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) using microscopy and molecular approaches and define if these are predominantly mono- or multi-species. Secondary objectives were to correlate wound observations against microscopy results in ascertaining if clinical cues are useful in detecting wound biofilm. DFU tissue specimens were obtained from 65 subjects...
June 23, 2017: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641615/-expression-and-asymmetric-division-of-numb-in-leukemia-cell-k562-line
#19
Zheng Li, Huan Li, Yi-Hui Li, Ying-Xi Xu, Hai-Yan Xing, Ke-Jing Tang, Zheng Tian, Min Wang, Qing Rao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of asymmetric division in leukemia cells through detection of expression and asymmetric division of Numb in differentiated and undifferentiated K562 cells. METHODS: Firstly, Hemin was used to induce K562 cell differentiation, and the expression of Numb was detected by the real-time quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometry. After K562 cells were synchronized by nocodazole, the Numb protein was labeled by immunohistochemical staining, followed by the determination of the terminally differentiated cells through confocal microscopy...
June 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641610/-biological-characteristics-of-microvesicles-secreted-by-human-peripheral-blood-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#20
Chen Liang, Jun-Hui Wang, Lei Deng, Lu Wang, Yi Wang, Ya-Jing Huang, Tie-Qiang Liu, Bo Cai, Hong-Li Zuo, Qi-Yun Sun, Jian-Hui Qiao, Chang-Lin Yu, Kai-Xun Hu, Hui-Sheng Ai, Mei Guo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of microvesicles(MV) isolated from human peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells(PB-HSC) on immune regulation and hematopoiesis. METHODS: PB-HSCs were separated by density-gradient centrifugation and cultrued. The supernatants of PB-HSC at 48 h were harvested for isolation and purification of MV by using ultracentrifugation. The electron microscopy was used to observe the morphology of MV. The protein level in MV was quantified through bicinchoninic acid(BCA) protein assay...
June 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
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