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noninvasive central artery pressure

Michel E Safar, Jacques Blacher, Athanase D Protogerou
The description of blood pressure (BP) curve has evolved to include several noninvasively determined parameters, such as aortic stiffness, BP variability, wave reflections, and pulse pressure amplification. These techniques are likely to improve the efficacy of assessing pulsatile arterial hemodynamics and changes in arterial stiffness. The goal for future antihypertensive treatments should not only reduce steady BP, but also control pulsatile pressure and modify the stiffness gradient between central and peripheral arteries, which is frequently elevated...
January 2017: Medical Clinics of North America
Morteza Naghavi, Albert A Yen, Alex W H Lin, Hirofumi Tanaka, Stanley Kleis
Background. Endothelial function is viewed as a barometer of cardiovascular health and plays a central role in vascular reactivity. Several studies showed digital thermal monitoring (DTM) as a simple noninvasive method to measure vascular reactivity that is correlated with atherosclerosis risk factors and coronary artery disease. Objectives. To further evaluate the relations between patient characteristics and DTM indices in a large patient registry. Methods. DTM measures were correlated with age, sex, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 6084 patients from 18 clinics...
2016: International Journal of Vascular Medicine
Trefor Morgan
Central Systolic Blood Pressure is lower than brachial artery blood Pressure due to reflected waves and greater augmentation at the periphery. The relationship is not consistent during life and alters with aging of the blood vessels. Increasing stiffness means that a greater component of the reflected waves returns to the central aorta during systolic contraction causing more amplification and a higher systolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure on the other hand is always higher in the aorta than at the periphery allowing blood flow...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tiina Vilmi-Kerälä, Outi Palomäki, Päivi Kankkunen, Leena Juurinen, Jukka Uotila, Ari Palomäki
INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an indicator of future cardiovascular disease. We investigated if sensitive biomarkers of increased cardiovascular risk differ between women with and without a history of GDM few years after pregnancy, and whether obesity affects the results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied two cohorts - 120 women with a history of GDM and 120 controls, on average 3.7 years after delivery. Circulating concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) were determined by ELISA...
September 28, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Trefor Morgan
Central Systolic Blood Pressure is lower than brachial artery blood Pressure due to reflected waves and greater augmentation at the periphery. The relationship is not consistent during life and alters with aging of the blood vessels. Increasing stiffness means that a greater component of the reflected waves returns to the central aorta during systolic contraction causing more amplification and a higher systolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure on the other hand is always higher in the aorta than at the periphery allowing blood flow...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sascha Ketelhut, Florian Milatz, Walter Heise, Reinhard G Ketelhut
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity is known to reduce arterial pressure (BP). In a previous investigation, we could prove that even a single bout of moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) causes a prolonged reduction in BP. Whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has a favourable influence on BP, and therefore may be followed subjects and methods by a prolonged BP reduction, should be examined on the basis of blood pressure response after exercise and during a subsequent stress test...
September 2016: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
M Di Pilla, R M Bruno, L Ghiadoni, F Stea, L Massetti, I Bertolozzi, S Taddei, P A Modesti
OBJECTIVE: The effects of seasonality on blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular events are well established. However, the influence of seasonality and other environmental factors such as air pollutants on arterial stiffness, a key parameter for cardiovascular risk stratification in hypertensive patients, has never been analyzed. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating whether seasonality (daily number of hours of light) and acute variations in outdoor temperature and air pollutants may affect carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Katherine Mayer, Stephen Trzeciak, Nitin K Puri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the recent literature pertaining to assessment of the adequacy of oxygen delivery in critically ill patients with circulatory shock. RECENT FINDINGS: The assessment of the adequacy of oxygen delivery has traditionally involved measurement of lactate, central (or mixed) venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2), and global hemodynamic markers such as mean arterial pressure and cardiac index. The search for noninvasive, reliable, and sensitive methods to detect derangements in oxygen delivery and utilization continues...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Amir Y Shaikh, Na Wang, Xiaoyan Yin, Martin G Larson, Ramachandran S Vasan, Naomi M Hamburg, Jared W Magnani, Patrick T Ellinor, Steven A Lubitz, Gary F Mitchell, Emelia J Benjamin, David D McManus
The relations of measures of arterial stiffness, pulsatile hemodynamic load, and endothelial dysfunction to atrial fibrillation (AF) remain poorly understood. To better understand the pathophysiology of AF, we examined associations between noninvasive measures of vascular function and new-onset AF. The study sample included participants aged ≥45 years from the Framingham Heart Study offspring and third-generation cohorts. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, we examined relations between incident AF and tonometry measures of arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity), wave reflection (augmentation index), pressure pulsatility (central pulse pressure), endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation), resting brachial arterial diameter, and hyperemic flow...
September 2016: Hypertension
Rasmus K Carlsen, Christian D Peters, Dinah S Khatir, Esben Laugesen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Simon Winther, Niels H Buus
Central blood pressure (BP) can be assessed noninvasively based on radial tonometry and may potentially be a better predictor of clinical outcome than brachial BP. However, the validity of noninvasively obtained estimates has never been examined in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we compared invasive aortic systolic BP (SBP) with estimated central SBP obtained by radial artery tonometry and examined the influence of renal function and arterial stiffness on this relationship. We evaluated 83 patients with stage 3 to 5 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 30 ml/min/1...
October 2016: Kidney International
Michele Panzarino, Angela Gravina, Veronica Carosi, Patrizio Crobeddu, Alessia Tiroli, Roberto Lombardi, Stefano D'Ottavio, Alberto Galante, Jacopo M Legramante
BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by a physiological reduction in physical activity, which is inversely correlated with survival. AIMS: Aim of the present study is to evaluate the cardiovascular, central hemodynamic and autonomic responses to a single bout of adapted physical exercise in octogenarian subjects. METHODS: We studied cardiovascular, hemodynamic and autonomic responses to adapted physical activity in 33 subjects by a noninvasive methodology (Nexfin(®), Edwards Lifesciences Corporation)...
June 20, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Xiaoqing Peng, Martin G Schultz, Walter P Abhayaratna, Michael Stowasser, James E Sharman
BACKGROUND: New techniques that measure central blood pressure (BP) using an upper arm cuff-based approach require performance assessment. The aim of this study was to compare a cuff-based device (CuffCBP) to estimate central BP indices (systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), augmentation pressure (AP), augmentation index (AIx)) with noninvasive radial tonometry (TonCBP). METHODS: Consecutive CuffCBP (SphygmoCor Xcel) and TonCBP (SphygmoCor 8...
October 2016: American Journal of Hypertension
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Mingwu Gao, N Bari Olivier, Ramakrishna Mukkamala
Pulse transit time (PTT) measured as the time delay between invasive proximal and distal blood pressure (BP) or flow waveforms (invasive PTT [I-PTT]) tightly correlates with BP PTT estimated as the time delay between noninvasive proximal and distal arterial waveforms could therefore permit cuff-less BP monitoring. A popular noninvasive PTT estimate for this application is the time delay between ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG) waveforms (pulse arrival time [PAT]). Another estimate is the time delay between proximal and distal PPG waveforms (PPG-PTT)...
May 2016: Physiological Reports
Willem J Verberk, Hao-Min Cheng, Li-Chih Huang, Chia-Ming Lin, Yao-Pin Teng, Chen-Huan Chen
Accumulating evidence indicates that central blood pressure (CBP) is a better cardiovascular risk predictor than brachial blood pressure (BP). Although more additional benefits of CBP-based treatment above usual hypertension treatment are to be demonstrated, the demand for implementing CBP assessment in general clinical practice is increasing. For this, the measurement procedure must be noninvasive, easy to perform, and cost- and time-efficient. Therefore, oscillometric devices with the possibility to assess CBP seem the best option...
April 2016: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
Nicholas Cauwenberghs, Tatiana Kuznetsova
BACKGROUND: The noninvasive assessment of renal hemodynamics is currently possible by assessing the renal resistive index (RRI) derived from intrarenal Doppler arterial waveforms as (peak systolic velocity - end-diastolic velocity)/peak systolic velocity. In this review, we outline the important determinants of the RRI to clarify the true identity of the RRI and highlight its potential diagnostic and prognostic value in renal and cardiovascular pathology. SUMMARY: Although the RRI was initially considered to reflect intrarenal vascular pathological processes, this index is actually a product of a complex interaction between renal and systemic vascular wall properties and hemodynamic factors...
April 2016: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
Kazumasu Sasaki, Tatsushi Mutoh, Tomoko Mutoh, Ryuta Kawashima, Hirokazu Tsubone
OBJECTIVE: To compare electrical velocimetry (EV) noninvasive measures of cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume variation (SVV) in dogs undergoing cardiovascular surgery with those obtained with the conventional thermodilution technique using a pulmonary artery catheter. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental trial. ANIMALS: Seven adult Beagle dogs with a median weight of 13.6 kg. METHODS: Simultaneous, coupled cardiac index (CI; CO indexed to body surface area) measurements by EV (CIEV ) and the reference pulmonary artery catheter thermodilution method (CIPAC ) were obtained in seven sevoflurane-anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated dogs undergoing experimental open-chest cardiovascular surgery for isolated right ventricular failure...
May 9, 2016: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Alastair J S Webb, Peter M Rothwell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral arterial pulsatility is associated with leukoaraiosis and depends on central arterial pulsatility and arterial stiffness. The effect of antihypertensive drugs on transmission of central arterial pulsatility to the cerebral circulation is unknown, partly because of limited methods of assessment. METHODS: In a technique-development pilot study, 10 healthy volunteers were randomized to crossover treatment with amlodipine and propranolol...
June 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Jeffrey T Howard, Jud C Janak, Carmen Hinojosa-Laborde, Victor A Convertino
We previously reported that measurements of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) and the compensatory reserve index (CRI) provided earlier indication of reduced central blood volume than standard vital signs (e.g., blood pressure, heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation). In the present study, we hypothesized that the CRI would provide greater sensitivity and specificity to detect progressive decrease in central circulating blood volume compared with SmO2. Continuous noninvasive measures of CRI (calculated from feature changes in the photoplethysmographic arterial waveforms) were collected from 55 healthy volunteer subjects before and during stepwise lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to the onset of hemodynamic decompensation...
September 2016: Shock
Dwain L Eckberg, William H Cooke, André Diedrich, Italo Biaggioni, Jay C Buckey, James A Pawelczyk, Andrew C Ertl, James F Cox, Tom A Kuusela, Kari U O Tahvanainen, Tadaaki Mano, Satoshi Iwase, Friedhelm J Baisch, Benjamin D Levine, Beverley Adams-Huet, David Robertson, C Gunnar Blomqvist
KEY POINTS: We studied healthy supine astronauts on Earth with electrocardiogram, non-invasive arterial pressure, respiratory carbon dioxide concentrations, breathing depth and sympathetic nerve recordings. The null hypotheses were that heart beat interval fluctuations at usual breathing frequencies are baroreflex mediated, that they persist during apnoea, and that autonomic responses to apnoea result from changes of chemoreceptor, baroreceptor or lung stretch receptor inputs. R-R interval fluctuations at usual breathing frequencies are unlikely to be baroreflex mediated, and disappear during apnoea...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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