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Pencil grasp

Robyn Doney, Barbara R Lucas, Tracy Jirikowic, Tracey W Tsang, Rochelle E Watkins, Kay Sauer, Peter Howat, Jane Latimer, James P Fitzpatrick, June Oscar, Maureen Carter, Elizabeth J Elliott
BACKGROUND/AIM: Few studies have examined graphomotor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). METHODS: Graphomotor skills were assessed in 108 predominantly Australian Aboriginal children aged 7.5-9.6 years in remote Western Australia using clinical observations (pencil grasp; writing pressure) and standardised assessment tools (the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting; and the Miller Function and Participation Scales - The Draw-a-Kid Game)...
September 19, 2016: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Nikhil M Thatte, Lokesh Guglani, Daniel R Turner, Thomas J Forbes, Srinath T Gowda
Endobronchial foreign body impaction is a common occurrence, especially in the pediatric population. Bronchoscopic techniques are the standard of care for their retrieval. However, the most distally located foreign bodies are often difficult to retrieve using these techniques. A novel approach using biplane fluoroscopy, with tools usually used for intravascular foreign body retrieval, has been recently described in adults by interventional radiologists. We are the first to report 2 cases in children using this approach for distally impacted endobronchial foreign body retrieval in the cardiac catheterization laboratory...
September 2014: Pediatrics
Pietro Cipresso, Silvia Serino, Elisa Pedroli, Andrea Gaggioli, Giuseppe Riva
Unilateral Spatial Neglect (USN) is normally assessed with paper-and-pencil tests. Virtual reality can be an effective neuropsychological tool for a more ecological and functional assessment and rehabilitation of neglect. We developed a 3D Virtual Reality platform - NeuroVirtual 3D - for the assessment and rehabilitation of cognitive deficits, in particular for USN. Within the virtual environments it is possible to interact with virtual objects and execute specific exercises using a Microsoft Kinect. Through the analysis of different grasping tasks it is possible to evaluate in an ecological way the patients' ability to find and handle objects in both sides of the virtual space...
2014: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Cristina Massen, Martina Rieger, Sandra Sülzenbrück
Previous research has shown that unilateral visual neglect is improved when patients are required to actively grasp an object at its center, rather than only pointing to its center. A similar dissociation between pointing and grasping responses has been reported for pseudoneglect, a spatial bias toward the left side of space that is normally exhibited by healthy participants. Among other theories, the two-visual-streams hypothesis has been offered as an explanation for these dissociations. According to this hypothesis, highly practiced actions that are performed under easily available visual input (e...
January 2014: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Irene Senna, Nadia Bolognini, Angelo Maravita
Action observation typically induces an online inner simulation of the observed movements. Here we investigate whether action observation merely activates, in the observer, the muscles involved in the observed movement or also muscles that are typically used to achieve the observed action goal. In a first experiment, hand and foot motor areas were stimulated by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation, while participants viewed a typical hand action (grasping) or a nonspecific action (stepping over an object) performed by either a hand or a foot...
April 2014: Human Brain Mapping
Heidi Schwellnus, Heather Carnahan, Azadeh Kushki, Helene Polatajko, Cheryl Missiuna, Tom Chau
OBJECTIVE. We investigated differences in handwriting kinetics, speed, and legibility among four pencil grasps after a 10-min copy task. METHOD. Seventy-four Grade 4 students completed a handwriting assessment before and after a copy task. Grip and axial forces were measured with an instrumented stylus and force-sensitive tablet. We used multiple linear regression to analyze the relationship between grasp pattern and grip and axial forces. RESULTS. We found no kinetic differences among grasps, whether considered individually or grouped by the number of fingers on the barrel...
March 2013: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Heidi Schwellnus, Heather Carnahan, Azadeh Kushki, Helene Polatajko, Cheryl Missiuna, Tom Chau
OBJECTIVE: Pencil grasps other than the dynamic tripod may be functional for handwriting. This study examined the impact of grasp on handwriting speed and legibility. METHOD: We videotaped 120 typically developing fourth-grade students while they performed a writing task. We categorized the grasps they used and evaluated their writing for speed and legibility using a handwriting assessment. Using linear regression analysis, we examined the relationship between grasp and handwriting...
November 2012: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Heidi Schwellnus, Heather Carnahan, Azadeh Kushki, Helene Polatajko, Cheryl Missiuna, Tom Chau
AIM: To investigate the impact of common pencil grasp patterns on the speed and legibility of handwriting after a 10-minute copy task, intended to induce muscle fatigue, in typically developing children and in those non-proficient in handwriting. METHODS: A total of 120 Grade 4 students completed a standardised handwriting assessment before and after a 10-minute copy task. The students indicated the perceived difficulty of the handwriting task at baseline and after 10 minutes...
June 2012: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Giovanna Passaro, Emanuele Cappa, Alessandro D'Addessi, Emilio Sacco, Pier Francesco Bassi
OBJECTIVES: A pencil in the urinary bladder is an unusual problem for urologists. We present a case in a 44-year-old female with an eyeliner pencil self-introduced into the urethra. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patient was referred to us with a recent history of "ingestion of foreign body". The clinical presentation, radiologic data, and treatment were reported. RESULTS: The patient had a pencil placed sideways in the urinary bladder, with focal perforation of the left wall...
October 2011: Urologia
Cathérine C S Delnooz, Rick C Helmich, W P Medendorp, Bart P C Van de Warrenburg, Ivan Toni
Simple writer's cramp (WC) is a task-specific form of dystonia, characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the hand during writing. It is extremely task-specific, since dystonic symptoms can occur when a patient uses a pencil for writing, but not when it is used for sharpening. Maladaptive plasticity, loss of inhibition, and abnormal sensory processing are important pathophysiological elements of WC. However, it remains unclear how those elements can account for its task-specificity. We used fMRI to isolate cerebral alterations associated with the task-specificity of simple WC...
March 2013: Human Brain Mapping
Douglas A Macdonald, Harris L Friedman
This article presents information on standardized paper-and-pencil measures of spiritual and transpersonal constructs that hold promise for use in yoga research. Nine instruments are discussed at length including the Assessment Schedule for Altered States of Consciousness, Ego Grasping Orientation, Expressions of Spirituality Inventory, Hindu Religious Coping Scale, Measures of Hindu Pathways, Self-Expansiveness Level Form, Spiritual Orientation Inventory, Spiritual Transcendence Scale, and the Vedic Personality Inventory...
January 2009: International Journal of Yoga
Luis Augusto Teixeira, Renato Passos Pereira da Silva, Sylvia Lúcia de Freitas
The effect of lateralized practice on manual preference was investigated in right-handed children. Probing tasks required reaching and grasping a pencil at distinct eccentricities in the right and left hemifields (simple), and its transportation and insertion into a small hole (complex). During practice, the children experienced manipulative tasks different from that used for probing, using the left hand only. Results showed that before practice the children used almost exclusively the right hand in the right hemifield and at the midline position...
December 2010: Developmental Psychobiology
Toshiya Ohtsuka, Mikio Ninomiya, Takahiro Nonaka, Taisei Maemura
PURPOSE: This article describes our clinical experience with a new needle driver (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan), which we have produced to facilitate minithoracotomy or port-access coronary artery anastomosis with the running suture technique. METHODS: The needle driver is 21 cm long, weighs 38 g, and has a grip shaft 1.4 cm in diameter. The device is held like a pencil. A side lever and a revolving disk in the shaft are manipulated with the fingers; a fine needle with a 7-0/8-0 monofilament suture can be grasped/released and driven to penetrate the coronary arterial wall...
2004: Heart Surgery Forum
Susan M Koziatek, Nancy J Powell
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to study how the speed and legibility of fourth-graders handwriting was affected by type of pencil grip on the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting-Cursive. METHOD: Ninety-five typically developing students and 6 students receiving special education services completed the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting-Cursive (ETCH-C). Photographs were taken of their pencil grips while they wrote the alphabet. One-way ANOVAs were calculated to compare legibility rates and writing speeds by type of pencil grip...
May 2003: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Janet E Yakimishyn, Joyce Magill-Evans
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether writing tool type and angle of writing surface affect grasp. METHOD: Fifty-one children 23 to 24 months of age who were typically developing drew with a primary marker, colored pencil, and small piece of crayon on a table and an easel. The marker and pencil were presented pointing left, right, and toward the child. The order of writing tool presentation was counterbalanced. Grasps were scored with a 5-point rating system and analyzed with dependent t tests...
September 2002: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
J L Dennis, Y Swinth
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the influence ofpencil grasp on handwriting legibility during both short and long writing tasks in 46fourth-grade students who were typically developing. Matched samples were used to controlfor variability. METHOD: Regular classroom writing assignments were scoredfor word and letter legibility, and scores were compared using a mixed repeated-measures analysis of variance design. The two independent variables were pencil grasp (dynamic tripod grasp vs...
March 2001: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
R Saltmarsh, P Mitchell, E Robinson
In a standard deceptive box procedure, children aged around 3 years typically fail to acknowledge their own prior false beliefs. For example, they judge incorrectly that they had initially thought a Smarties tube contained pencils after discovering these to be the actual content. Wimmer and Hart (1991) showed that children were more likely to answer correctly in a variant of this task known as a "state change", procedure. In this task, they saw that a container held its expected content (so the initial belief was true) before this was exchanged for something atypical...
December 1995: Cognition
D F Egan, R Brown
Performance tests of young children in the age range 18 months to 4 1/2 years have been studied in a sample of 425 children living in an inner city area and a rural market town. Our results show that there is a minimum number of cubes built into a tower related to age which may indicate developmental delay. There is a developmental sequence of pencil grasp, and useful development scales in copying cube models, drawing geometric shapes, and the draw-a-man test. Girls are significantly ahead of boys in drawing skills...
September 1986: Child: Care, Health and Development
K P Bergmann
Three groups of nondysfunctional adults were observed for atypical pencil grasps (i.e., nondynamic tripod grasps) used during functional writing situations: 58 occupational therapy students signing out equipment, 314 voters signing for their ballots, and 113 medical students taking a written examination. Among the total right-handed population, the most frequently used grasp was the dynamic tripod grasp (86%). The second most frequently used grasp was the lateral tripod grasp (10%). Other grasps were observed less often (less than 2% of the time)...
August 1990: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
L Recht, J O Rasmussen, F K Mathiesen, T Lithman
This paper describes a hand test consisting of three steps to test the subject's ability to grasp firmly another person's hand to hold a pencil firmly with fingers II-V with straight knuckles and maximally flexed finger joints, while the investigator pulls the pencil to hold on to a piece of paper with a rounded pinch grip between thumb and index finger while the investigator pulls the paper with a rounded pinch grip with submaximal strength. All three steps must be performed with each hand without causing pain...
December 1990: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
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