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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471562/can-elastography-differentiate-isolated-fatty-liver-from-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#1
Veeral Ajmera, Rohit Loomba
Ultrasound and magnetic resonance (MR)-based elastography have demonstrated excellent performance for noninvasive staging of fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, their ability to differentiate isolated fatty liver from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unclear. In this review, the authors provide background on elastography and review the ability of elastography to discriminate between isolated steatosis and NASH. Studies with available data on the diagnosis of NASH histology are limited to vibration-controlled transient elastography and MR elastography...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471382/gendered-safety-and-health-risks-in-the-construction-trades
#2
Hannah M Curtis, Hendrika Meischke, Bert Stover, Nancy J Simcox, Noah S Seixas
Objectives: Despite women's increased representation in the overall workforce, construction remains a male-dominated industry. Prior studies have noted that the hazardous workplace environment combined with a culture that can be discriminatory and openly hostile can threaten women workers' health and safety. However, little information exists about the current physical and psychosocial hazards at work affecting tradeswomen. Methods: We examined differences in workplace exposure between women and men, and the association of these exposures with self-reported stress and work injury, in order to highlight how gendered conditions of work negatively affect tradeswomen's health...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471331/cross-cultural-validation-and-extension-of-the-clinical-assessment-interview-for-negative-symptoms-cains-in-the-chinese-context-evidence-from-a-spectrum-perspective
#3
Dong-Jie Xie, Hai-Song Shi, Simon S Y Lui, Chuan Shi, Ying Li, Karen K Y Ho, Karen S Y Hung, Wen-Xiu Li, Zheng-Hui Yi, Eric F C Cheung, Ann M Kring, Raymond C K Chan
The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) was designed in accordance with the recent theory and research in social affective neuroscience and to address the psychometric and conceptual limitations of other instruments assessing negative symptoms. The present study aimed to provide a large-scale validation of the CAINS in China and examine its applicability and validity evidence across the schizophrenia spectrum. Using confirmatory factor analysis, our results replicated the original findings in the US development samples that the CAINS possesses a stable 2-factor structure, namely "motivation/pleasure" and "expression"...
February 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471278/intestinal-bacteria-in-bioaerosols-and-factors-affecting-their-survival-in-two-oxidation-ditch-process-municipal-wastewater-treatment-plants-located-in-different-regions
#4
Yanjie Wang, Lin Li, Yunping Han, Junxin Liu, Kaixiong Yang
Samples from two oxidation ditch process municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) (HJK and GXQ) in two regions of China were analysed for bacteria, particles, total organic carbon, and water-soluble ions in bioaerosols. Diversity and potential pathogen populations were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing. Bioaerosol sources, factors affecting intestinal bacterial survival, and the relationship between bioaerosols and water were analysed by Source tracker and partial least squares-discriminant, principal component, and canonical correspondence analyses...
February 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471198/gaze-patterns-reveal-how-situation-models-and-text-representations-contribute-to-episodic-text-memory
#5
Roger Johansson, Franziska Oren, Kenneth Holmqvist
When recalling something you have previously read, to what degree will such episodic remembering activate a situation model of described events versus a memory representation of the text itself? The present study was designed to address this question by recording eye movements of participants who recalled previously read texts while looking at a blank screen. An accumulating body of research has demonstrated that spontaneous eye movements occur during episodic memory retrieval and that fixation locations from such gaze patterns to a large degree overlap with the visuospatial layout of the recalled information...
February 19, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471197/extracting-cardiac-dynamics-within-ecg-signal-for-human-identification-and-cardiovascular-diseases-classification
#6
Muqing Deng, Cong Wang, Min Tang, Tongjia Zheng
Cardiac characteristics underlying the time/frequency domain features are limited and not comprehensive enough to reflect the temporal/dynamical nature of ECG patterns. This paper proposes a dynamical ECG recognition framework for human identification and cardiovascular diseases classification via a dynamical neural learning mechanism. The proposed method consists of two phases: a training phase and a test phase. In the training phase, cardiac dynamics within ECG signals is extracted (approximated) accurately by using radial basis function (RBF) neural networks through deterministic learning mechanism...
January 31, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471152/carpal-tunnel-release-with-a-new-mini-incision-approach-versus-a-conventional-approach-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Jiangbo Bai, Lingde Kong, Hongfang Zhao, Kunlun Yu, Bing Zhang, Jichun Zhang, Dehu Tian
PURPOSE: We have make use of a new method to perform carpal tunnel release (CTR) through a 1.5-2.0 cm long incision The aim of this study is to introduce this method and to compare the effectiveness and safety of this approach to the conventional one. METHODS: We included consecutive patients diagnosed with primary carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) who had CTR from January 2015 to September 2016. A total of 85 patients were included in our study. Among them, 42 patients with mini-incision approach were enrolled in group A, and the other 43 patients with conventional approach were enrolled in group B...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470964/everything-in-its-right-place-a-prefrontal-midbrain-circuit-for-contextual-fear-discrimination
#8
Olena Bukalo, Andrew Holmes
In this issue of Neuron, Rozeske et al. (2018) use an ingenuous behavioral paradigm to change pertinent sensory stimuli defining a given context to interrogate how the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and periaqueductal gray (PAG) interact during contextual fear discrimination.
February 21, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470859/added-value-of-second-biopsy-target-in-screen-detected-widespread-suspicious-breast-calcifications
#9
Nathalie M Falkner, Dana Hince, Gareth Porter, Ben Dessauvagie, Sanjay Jeganathan, Max Bulsara, Glen Lo
INTRODUCTION: There is controversy on the optimal work-up of screen-detected widespread breast calcifications: whether to biopsy a single target or multiple targets. This study evaluates agreement between multiple biopsy targets within the same screen-detected widespread (≥25 mm) breast calcification to determine if the second biopsy adds value. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of women screened in a statewide general population risk breast cancer mammographic screening program from 2009 to 2016...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470818/variability-in-predictions-from-online-tools-a-demonstration-using-internet-based-melanoma-predictors
#10
Emily C Zabor, Daniel Coit, Jeffrey E Gershenwald, Kelly M McMasters, James S Michaelson, Arnold J Stromberg, Katherine S Panageas
BACKGROUND: Prognostic models are increasingly being made available online, where they can be publicly accessed by both patients and clinicians. These online tools are an important resource for patients to better understand their prognosis and for clinicians to make informed decisions about treatment and follow-up. The goal of this analysis was to highlight the possible variability in multiple online prognostic tools in a single disease. METHODS: To demonstrate the variability in survival predictions across online prognostic tools, we applied a single validation dataset to three online melanoma prognostic tools...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470813/structural-and-socio-cultural-barriers-to-prenatal-care-in-a-us-marshallese-community
#11
Britni L Ayers, Rachel S Purvis, Williamina Ioanna Bing, Jellesen Rubon-Chutaro, Nicola L Hawley, Rebecca Delafield, Ingrid K Adams, Pearl Anna McElfish
Objectives Pacific Islanders are disproportionately burdened by poorer perinatal health outcomes with higher rates of pre-term births, low birth weight babies, infant mortality, and inadequate or no prenatal care. The aim of this study is to examine Marshallese mothers' beliefs, perceptions, and experiences of prenatal care and to identify potential barriers. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with Marshallese mothers, who were 18 years or older, and living in Arkansas. Focus groups focused on mothers' beliefs, perceptions, and experiences of prenatal care...
February 22, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470781/gender-specific-differences-in-cannibalism-between-a-laboratory-strain-and-a-field-strain-of-a-predatory-mite
#12
A M Revynthi, A Janssen, M Egas
Many phytoseiid species, including Phytoseiulus persimilis, are known to engage in cannibalism when food is scarce and when there is no possibility to disperse. In nature adult females of P. persimilis are known to disperse when prey is locally depleted. Males, in contrast, are expected to stay and wait for potential mates to mature. During this phase, males can obtain food by cannibalizing. Therefore, we hypothesize that male P. persimilis exhibit a higher tendency to cannibalize than females. Because rearing conditions in the laboratory usually prevent dispersal, prolonged culturing may also affect cannibalistic behavior...
February 22, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470551/tph2-female-mice-restore-socio-sexual-recognition-through-upregulating-er%C3%AE-and-otr-genes-in-the-amygdala
#13
Ying Huo, Yaohua Zhang, Huifen Guo, Yingjuan Liu, Qi Fang, Jianxu Zhang
The central 5-hydroxytryptamine system impairs sociosexual behaviors and olfaction preferences in sexually naive mice. However, it remains unknown whether reproductive experiences impart an effect on the sexual olfactory preferences of female mice lacking central serotonin. Here, we aimed at examining such effects and the underlying mechanisms using Tph2 knockout female mice. Sexually naive Tph2-/- female mice failed to recognize olfactory cues regarding sex, genetic relatedness, and social hierarchy despite exhibiting normal olfactory discrimination...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470539/divergence-in-male-sexual-odor-signal-and-genetics-across-populations-of-the-red-mason-bee-osmia-bicornis-in-europe
#14
Taina Conrad, Robert J Paxton, Günter Assum, Manfred Ayasse
In some insect species, females may base their choice for a suitable mate on male odor. In the red mason bee, Osmia bicornis, female choice is based on a male's odor bouquet as well as its thorax vibrations, and its relatedness to the female, a putative form of optimal outbreeding. Interestingly, O. bicornis can be found as two distinct color morphs in Europe, which are thought to represent subspecies and between which we hypothesize that female discrimination may be particularly marked. Here we investigated (i) if these two colors morphs do indeed represent distinct, reproductively differentiated populations, (ii) how odor bouquets of male O...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470418/tetrodotoxin-a-candidate-drug-for-nav1-1-induced-mechanical-pain
#15
César Mattei
Tetrodotoxin (TTX), the mode of action of which has been known since the 1960s, is widely used in pharmacology as a specific inhibitor of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav channels). This toxin has contributed to the characterization of the allosteric model of the Nav channel, and to discriminating TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant subtypes. In addition to its role as a pharmacological tool, TTX is now considered a therapeutic molecule, and its development should lead to its use in certain pathologies involving Nav channels, particularly in the field of pain...
February 22, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470116/mechanisms-by-which-anti-immigrant-stigma-exacerbates-racial-ethnic-health-disparities
#16
Brittany N Morey
Anti-immigrant rhetoric and political actions gained prominence and public support before, during, and after the 2016 presidential election. This anti-immigrant political environment threatens to increase health disparities among undocumented persons, immigrant groups, and people of color. I discuss the mechanisms by which anti-immigrant stigma exacerbates racial/ethnic health disparities through increasing multilevel discrimination and stress, deportation and detention, and policies that limit health resources...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469960/ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-free-and-esterified-oxygenated-derivatives-from-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-rat-brain
#17
Charlotte Jouvène, Baptiste Fourmaux, Alain Géloën, Laurence Balas, Thierry Durand, Michel Lagarde, Marion Létisse, Michel Guichardant
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a prominent long-chain fatty acid of the omega-3 family, is present at high amount in brain tissues, especially in membrane phospholipids. This polyunsaturated fatty acid is the precursor of various oxygenated lipid mediators involved in diverse physiological and pathophysiological processes. Characterization of DHA-oxygenated metabolites is therefore crucial for better understanding the biological roles of DHA. In this study, we identified and measured, by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, a number of oxygenated products derived from DHA in exsanguinated and nonexsanguinated brains...
February 22, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469921/enhanced-chiral-recognition-by-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-cucurbit-6-uril-cowheeled-4-pseudorotaxanes
#18
Ling Dai, Wanhua Wu, Wenting Liang, Wentong Chen, Xingke Yu, Jiecheng Ji, Chao Xiao, Cheng Yang
Mixing γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD), cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) and tetraammonium-bearing axles together led to a spontaneous formation of γ-CD-CB[6]-cowheeled [4]pseudorotaxanes. The well-defined unsymmetrical cavities thus formed enhance the binding affinity towards chiral amines by factors of several hundreds and show remarkably improved chiral discrimination.
February 22, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469697/generalized-bullous-fixed-drug-eruption-imitating-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Victoria Mitre, Danielle S Applebaum, Yasser Albahrani, Sylvia Hsu
Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is defined as sharply demarcated erythematous patches or plaques that occur secondary to systemic exposure to a causative medication. Eruptions are deemed "fixed" because upon repeated exposure they recur at previously affected sites. Generalized bullous fixed drug eruption (GBFDE) is a rare FDE variant occurring in patients with a previous history of FDE. Given the extensive cutaneous involvement and the frequent mucosal ulcerations associated with GBFDE, it is challenging to discern these lesions from Steven-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)...
July 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469676/the-glittre-adl-test-cut-off-point-to-discriminate-abnormal-functional-capacity-in-patients-with-copd
#20
Aline Almeida Gulart, Anelise Bauer Munari, Suelen Roberta Klein, Lucas Santos da Silveira, Anamaria Fleig Mayer
The study objective was to determine a cut-off point for the Glittre activities of daily living (ADL)test (TGlittre) to discriminate patients with normal and abnormal functional capacity. Fifty-nine patients with moderate to very severe COPD (45 males; 65 ± 8.84 years; BMI: 26 ± 4.78 kg/m2 ; FEV1 : 35.3 ± 13.4% pred) were evaluated for spirometry, TGlittre, 6-minute walk test (6 MWT), physical ADL, modified Medical Research Council scale (mMRC), BODE index, Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and COPD Assessment Test (CAT)...
February 2018: COPD
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