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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677569/validation-of-the-ajcc-8th-prognostic-system-for-breast-cancer-in-an-asian-healthcare-setting
#1
R X Wong, F Y Wong, John Lim, W X Lian, Y S Yap
AIMS: We aim to validate the AJCC 8th edition prognostic staging system for breast cancer in an Asian setting. METHODS: Clinico-pathologic information and cancer-specific survival (CSS) outcomes of 6287 stage I to III patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent upfront surgery at SingHealth institutions in Singapore from 2006 to 2014 were analyzed. Survival distributions for the different staging systems were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank tests...
April 17, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677553/developmental-change-in-tone-perception-in-mandarin-monolingual-english-monolingual-and-mandarin-english-bilingual-infants-divergences-between-monolingual-and-bilingual-learners
#2
Leher Singh, Charlene S L Fu, Xian Hui Seet, Ashley P Y Tong, Joelle L Wang, Catherine T Best
Most languages use lexical tone to discriminate the meanings of words. There has been recent interest in tracking the development of tone categories during infancy. These studies have focused largely on monolingual infants learning either a tone language or a non-tone language. It remains to be seen how bilingual infants learning one tone language (e.g., Mandarin) and one non-tone language (e.g., English) discriminate tones. Here, we examined infants' discrimination of two Mandarin tones pairs: one salient and one subtle...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677509/beyond-host-defense-emerging-functions-of-the-immune-system-in-regulating-complex-tissue-physiology
#3
REVIEW
Lucille C Rankin, David Artis
The essential roles played by the immune system in the discrimination between self- versus non/altered-self and its integral role in promoting host defense against invading microbes and tumors have been extensively studied for many years. In these contexts, significant advances have been made in defining the molecular and cellular networks that orchestrate cell-cell communication to mediate host defense and pathogen expulsion. Notably, recent studies indicate that in addition to these classical immune functions, cells of the innate and adaptive immune system also sense complex tissue- and environment-derived signals, including those from the nervous system and the diet...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677500/raman-spectral-analysis-for-rapid-screening-of-dengue-infection
#4
T Mahmood, H Nawaz, A Ditta, M I Majeed, M A Hanif, N Rashid, H N Bhatti, H F Nargis, M Saleem, F Bonnier, H J Byrne
Infection with the dengue virus is currently clinically detected according to different biomarkers in human blood plasma, commonly measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, including non-structural proteins (Ns1), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG). However, there is little or no mutual correlation between the biomarkers, as demonstrated in this study by a comparison of their levels in samples from 17 patients. As an alternative, the label free, rapid screening technique, Raman spectroscopy has been used for the characterisation/diagnosis of healthy and dengue infected human blood plasma samples...
April 11, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677479/rig-i-and-other-rna-sensors-in-antiviral-immunity
#5
Kwan T Chow, Michael Gale, Yueh-Ming Loo
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) survey intra- and extracellular spaces for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) within microbial products of infection. Recognition and binding to cognate PAMP ligand by specific PRRs initiates signaling cascades that culminate in a coordinated intracellular innate immune response designed to control infection. In particular, our immune system has evolved specialized PRRs to discriminate viral nucleic acid from host. These are critical sensors of viral RNA to trigger innate immunity in the vertebrate host...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677441/homologous-mirna-analyses-using-a-combinatorial-nanosensor-array-with-two-dimensional-nanoparticles
#6
Mustafa Salih Hizir, Nidhi Nandu, Mehmet Veysel Yigit
A novel combinatorial nanosensor array for miRNA analyses was assembled using the intrinsic non-covalent interactions of unmodified two-dimensional nanoparticles. Discrimination of nine miRNA analogs with as little as a single nucleotide difference was demonstrated under four hours. All nine targets were identified simultaneously with 95% confidence. The developed nanotechnology offered identification and quantification of unknown targets with unknown concentration. Discrimination of target mixtures from low-to-high ratios was demonstrated...
April 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677337/determinants-of-neural-responses-to-disparity-in-natural-scenes
#7
Yiran Duan, Alexandra Yakovleva, Anthony M Norcia
We studied disparity-evoked responses in natural scenes using high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in an event-related design. Thirty natural scenes that mainly included outdoor settings with trees and buildings were used. Twenty-four subjects viewed a series of trials composed of sequential two-alternative temporal forced-choice presentation of two different versions (two-dimensional [2D] vs. three-dimensional [3D]) of the same scene interleaved by a scrambled image with the same power spectrum. Scenes were viewed orthostereoscopically at 3 m through a pair of shutter glasses...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677327/visual-crowding-is-unaffected-by-adaptation-induced-spatial-compression
#8
Alison Chambers, Alan Johnston, Neil W Roach
It has recently been shown that adapting to a densely textured stimulus alters the perception of visual space, such that the distance between two points subsequently presented in the adapted region appears reduced (Hisakata, Nishida, & Johnston, 2016). We asked whether this form of adaptation-induced spatial compression alters visual crowding. To address this question, we first adapted observers to a dynamic dot texture presented within an annular region surrounding the test location. Following adaptation, observers perceived a test array comprised of multiple oriented dot dipoles as spatially compressed, resulting in an overall reduction in perceived size...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677324/endogenous-attention-improves-perception-in-amblyopic-macaques
#9
Amelie Pham, Marisa Carrasco, Lynne Kiorpes
Amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision, affects many aspects of spatial vision as well as motion perception and some cognitive skills. Current models of amblyopic vision based on known neurophysiological deficiencies have yet to provide an understanding of the wide range of amblyopic perceptual losses. Visual spatial attention is known to enhance performance in a variety of detection and discrimination tasks in visually typical humans and nonhuman primates. We investigated whether and how voluntary spatial attention affected psychophysical performance in amblyopic macaques...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677322/attention-based-perceptual-learning-does-not-affect-access-to-awareness
#10
Chris L E Paffen, Surya Gayet, Micha Heilbron, Stefan Van der Stigchel
Visual information that is relevant for an observer gains prioritized access to awareness (Gayet, Van der Stigchel, & Paffen, 2014). Here we investigate whether information that was relevant for an extended duration is prioritized for access to awareness when it is no longer relevant. We applied a perceptual-learning paradigm, in which observers were trained for 3 days on a speed-discrimination task. This task used a stimulus consisting of two motion directions, of which one was relevant to the task and one irrelevant...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677319/focusing-and-orienting-spatial-attention-differently-modulate-crowding-in-central-and-peripheral-vision
#11
Andrea Albonico, Marialuisa Martelli, Emanuela Bricolo, Eleonora Frasson, Roberta Daini
The allocation of attentional resources to a particular location or object in space involves two distinct processes: an orienting process and a focusing process. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that performance of different visual tasks can be improved when a cue, such as a dot, anticipates the position of the target (orienting), or when its dimensions (as in the case of a small square) inform about the size of the attentional window (focusing). Here, we examine the role of these two components of visuo-spatial attention (orienting and focusing) in modulating crowding in peripheral (Experiment 1 and Experiment 3a) and foveal (Experiment 2 and Experiment 3b) vision...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677200/empirical-mode-decomposition-processing-to-improve-multifocal-visual-evoked-potential-signal-analysis-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Luis de Santiago, Eva Sánchez-Morla, Román Blanco, Juan Manuel Miguel, Carlos Amo, Miguel Ortiz Del Castillo, Almudena López, Luciano Boquete
OBJECTIVE: To study the performance of multifocal-visual-evoked-potential (mfVEP) signals filtered using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) in discriminating, based on amplitude, between control and multiple sclerosis (MS) patient groups, and to reduce variability in interocular latency in control subjects. METHODS: MfVEP signals were obtained from controls, clinically definitive MS and MS-risk progression patients (radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS))...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677147/detection-of-anomalous-noise-events-on-low-capacity-acoustic-nodes-for-dynamic-road-traffic-noise-mapping-within-an-hybrid-wasn
#13
Rosa Ma Alsina-Pagès, Francesc Alías, Joan Claudi Socoró, Ferran Orga
One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is the continuous exposure to high road traffic noise (RTN) levels. Nowadays, thanks to Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) noise in Smart Cities has started to be automatically mapped. To obtain a reliable picture of the RTN, those anomalous noise events (ANE) unrelated to road traffic (sirens, horns, people, etc.) should be removed from the noise map computation by means of an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED)...
April 20, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677115/subjective-socioeconomic-status-moderates-the-association-between-discrimination-and-depression-in-african-american-youth
#14
Shervin Assari, Brianna Preiser, Maryam Moghani Lankarani, Cleopatra H Caldwell
Background: Most of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health is focused on the protective effects of SES. However, a growing literature suggests that high SES may also operate as a vulnerability factor. Aims: Using a national sample of African American youth, this study compared the effects of perceived discrimination on major depressive disorder (MDD) based on SES. Methods: The current cross-sectional study included 810 African American youth who participated in the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent supplement...
April 20, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676945/model-for-predicting-breast-cancer-risk-in-women-with-atypical-hyperplasia
#15
Amy C Degnim, Stacey J Winham, Ryan D Frank, V Shane Pankratz, William D Dupont, Robert A Vierkant, Marlene H Frost, Tanya L Hoskin, Celine M Vachon, Karthik Ghosh, Tina J Hieken, Jodi M Carter, Lori A Denison, Brendan Broderick, Lynn C Hartmann, Daniel W Visscher, Derek C Radisky
Purpose Women with atypical hyperplasia (AH) on breast biopsy have an aggregate increased risk of breast cancer (BC), but existing risk prediction models do not provide accurate individualized estimates of risk in this subset of high-risk women. Here, we used the Mayo benign breast disease cohort to develop and validate a model of BC risk prediction that is specifically for women with AH, which we have designated as AH-BC. Patients and Methods Retrospective cohorts of women age 18 to 85 years with pathologically confirmed benign AH from Rochester, MN, and Nashville, TN, were used for model development and external validation, respectively...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676860/diagnostic-performance-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-for-differentiating-benign-and-malignant-gallbladder-lesions-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Myung-Won You, Seong Jong Yun
BACKGROUND: Although diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been characterized as an alternative imaging modality for gallbladder (GB) lesions, it has not been routinely used in clinical practice because of relatively low signal-to-noise ratio. PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic performance of DWI for differentiating benign and malignant GB lesions. STUDY TYPE: Meta-analysis. POPULATION: Patients with GB lesions...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676666/eyewitness-identification-in-simultaneous-and-sequential-lineups-an-investigation-of-position-effects-using-receiver-operating-characteristics
#17
Julia Meisters, Birk Diedenhofen, Jochen Musch
For decades, sequential lineups have been considered superior to simultaneous lineups in the context of eyewitness identification. However, most of the research leading to this conclusion was based on the analysis of diagnosticity ratios that do not control for the respondent's response criterion. Recent research based on the analysis of ROC curves has found either equal discriminability for sequential and simultaneous lineups, or higher discriminability for simultaneous lineups. Some evidence for potential position effects and for criterion shifts in sequential lineups has also been reported...
April 20, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676536/core-networks-and-their-reconfiguration-patterns-across-cognitive-loads
#18
Nianming Zuo, Zhengyi Yang, Yong Liu, Jin Li, Tianzi Jiang
Different cognitively demanding tasks recruit globally distributed but functionally specific networks. However, the configuration of core networks and their reconfiguration patterns across cognitive loads remain unclear, as does whether these patterns are indicators for the performance of cognitive tasks. In this study, we analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging data of a large cohort of 448 subjects, acquired with the brain at resting state and executing N-back working memory (WM) tasks. We discriminated core networks by functional interaction strength and connection flexibility...
April 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676501/the-canary-in-the-coal-mine-continence-care-for-people-with-dementia-in-acute-hospital-wards-as-a-crisis-of-dehumanization
#19
Paula Boddington, Katie Featherstone
Continence is a key moment of care that can tell us about the wider care of people living with dementia within acute hospital wards. The spotlight is currently on the quality of hospital care of older people across the UK, yet concerns persist about their poor treatment, neglect, abuse, and discrimination within this setting. Thus, within hospitals, the care of people living with dementia is both a welfare issue and a human rights issue. The challenge of continence care for people living with dementia can be seen as the 'canary in the coal mine' for the unravelling of dignity within the acute setting...
May 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676479/sulfatide-isoform-pattern-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-discriminates-progressive-ms-from-relapsing-remitting-ms
#20
Lenka Novakova, Avadhesh Kumar Singh, Clas Malmeström, Henrik Zetterberg, Marcus Ståhlman, Markus Axelsson, Martin Adiels, Jan Borén, Jan Lycke, Susanna L Cardell, Maria Blomqvist
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Several biomarkers including proteins and lipids have been reported in MS cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), reflecting different aspects of the pathophysiology particularly of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Sulfatide, abundant in the myelin sheath and a proposed target for autoimmune attack in MS, has been reported altered in MS CSF. Here, we investigated the potential of CSF sulfatide and its isoforms as biomarkers in MS...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
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