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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053918/active-site-interactions-impact-phosphoryl-transfer-during-replication-of-damaged-and-undamaged-dna-by-escherichia-coli-dna-polymerase-i
#1
A S Prakasha Gowda, Thomas E Spratt
Replicative DNA polymerases are able to discriminate between very similar substrates with high accuracy. One mechanism by which Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I checks for Watson-Crick geometry is through a hydrogen bonding fork between Arg668 and the incoming dNTP and the minor groove of the primer terminus. The importance of the Arg-fork was examined by disrupting it with either a guanine to 3-deazaguanine substitution at the primer terminus or the use of a carbocyclic deoxyribose analog of dUTP. Using thio-substituted dNTPs and differential quench techniques, we determined that when the Arg-fork was disrupted, the rate limiting step changed from a conformational change to phosphodiester bond formation...
October 20, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053887/low-foxg1-and-high-olig-2-labelling-indices-define-a-prognostically-favorable-subset-in-idh-mutant-gliomas
#2
Sarah Schäfer, Felix Behling, Marco Skardelly, Marilin Koch, Ines Ott, Frank Paulsen, Ghazaleh Tabatabai, Jens Schittenhelm
AIMS: Previous data suggest that expression of transcription factors FoxG1 and Olig-2 can separate hotspot H3F3A-mutant tumors in pediatric glioma. We evaluated their prognostic potential and feasibility for identifying H3F3A-mutant tumors among IDH-mutant/wildtype gliomas. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry of FoxG1/Olig-2 and ATRX in 471 cases of diffuse gliomas and molecular determination of IDH, H3F3A, MGMT and 1p/19 codeletion status. RESULTS: Mean percentage of FoxG1 positive tumor cells increased from 17% in WHO grade II to over 21% in grade III to 37% in grade IV tumors, while mean Olig-2 indices decreased from 29% to 28% to 17% respectively...
October 20, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053860/clinicopathological-correlations-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#3
David C Perry, Jesse A Brown, Katherine L Possin, Samir Datta, Andrew Trujillo, Anneliese Radke, Anna Karydas, John Kornak, Ana C Sias, Gil D Rabinovici, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Adam L Boxer, Mary De May, Katherine P Rankin, Virginia E Sturm, Suzee E Lee, Brandy R Matthews, Aimee W Kao, Keith A Vossel, Maria Carmela Tartaglia, Zachary A Miller, Sang Won Seo, Manu Sidhu, Stephanie E Gaus, Alissa L Nana, Jose Norberto S Vargas, Ji-Hye L Hwang, Rik Ossenkoppele, Alainna B Brown, Eric J Huang, Giovanni Coppola, Howard J Rosen, Daniel Geschwind, John Q Trojanowski, Lea T Grinberg, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley
Accurately predicting the underlying neuropathological diagnosis in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) poses a daunting challenge for clinicians but will be critical for the success of disease-modifying therapies. We sought to improve pathological prediction by exploring clinicopathological correlations in a large bvFTD cohort. Among 438 patients in whom bvFTD was either the top or an alternative possible clinical diagnosis, 117 had available autopsy data, including 98 with a primary pathological diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), 15 with Alzheimer's disease, and four with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who lacked neurodegenerative disease-related pathology outside of the motor system...
October 6, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053781/an-image-computable-psychophysical-spatial-vision-model
#4
Heiko H Schütt, Felix A Wichmann
A large part of classical visual psychophysics was concerned with the fundamental question of how pattern information is initially encoded in the human visual system. From these studies a relatively standard model of early spatial vision emerged, based on spatial frequency and orientation-specific channels followed by an accelerating nonlinearity and divisive normalization: contrast gain-control. Here we implement such a model in an image-computable way, allowing it to take arbitrary luminance images as input...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053734/an-instrument-to-assess-the-statistical-intensity-of-medical-research-papers
#5
Pentti Nieminen, Jorma I Virtanen, Hannu Vähänikkilä
BACKGROUND: There is widespread evidence that statistical methods play an important role in original research articles, especially in medical research. The evaluation of statistical methods and reporting in journals suffers from a lack of standardized methods for assessing the use of statistics. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate an instrument to assess the statistical intensity in research articles in a standardized way. METHODS: A checklist-type measure scale was developed by selecting and refining items from previous reports about the statistical contents of medical journal articles and from published guidelines for statistical reporting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053720/vocalizations-of-adult-male-asian-koels-eudynamys-scolopacea-in-the-breeding-season
#6
Abdul Aziz Khan, Irfan Zia Qureshi
Defining the vocal repertoire provides a basis for understanding the role of acoustic signals in sexual and social interactions of an animal. The Asian koel (Eudynamys scolopacea) is a migratory bird which spends its summer breeding season in the plains of Pakistan. The bird is typically wary and secretive but produces loud and distinct calls, making it easily detected when unseen. Like the other birds in the wild, presumably Asian koels use their calls for social cohesion and coordination of different behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053711/evaluation-of-spoligotyping-snps-and-customised-miru-vntr-combination-for-genotyping-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-in-madagascar
#7
Rondroarivelo Rasoahanitralisoa, Niaina Rakotosamimanana, David Stucki, Christophe Sola, Sebastien Gagneux, Voahangy Rasolofo Razanamparany
BACKGROUND: Combining different molecular typing methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) can be a powerful tool for molecular epidemiology-based investigation of TB. However, the current standard method that provides high discriminatory power for such a combination, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable numbers of tandem repeats typing (MIRU-VNTR), is laborious, time-consuming and often too costly for many resource-limited laboratories. We aimed to evaluate a reduced set of loci for MIRU-VNTR typing in combination with spoligotyping and SNP-typing for routine molecular epidemiology of TB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053703/development-of-severe-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-is-associated-with-alterations-in-fecal-volatile-organic-compounds
#8
Daniel J C Berkhout, Hendrik J Niemarkt, Marc A Benninga, Andries E Budding, Anton H van Kaam, Boris W Kramer, Charlene M Pantophlet, Mirjam M van Weissenbruch, Nanne K H de Boer, Tim G J de Meij
BackgroundAim of this study was to evaluate the potential of fecal volatile organic compounds (VOC), obtained by means of an electronic nose device (Cyranose 320®), as early non-invasive biomarker for BPD.MethodsIn this nested case-control study performed at three Neonatal Intensive Care Units, fecal samples obtained at postnatal age of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, from preterm infants with severe BPD, were compared with fecal VOC profiles from matched controls. Microbiota analysis was performed by means of IS-pro technique on fecal samples collected at 28 days postnatally...
October 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053658/low-level-laser-therapy-for-treatment-of-neurosensory-disorders-after-orthognathic-surgery-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#9
M-A-V Bittencourt, L-R Paranhos, P-R-S Martins-Filho
BACKGROUND: Low-level laser has been widely used in Dentistry and many studies have focused on its application in oral surgeries. This study was conducted with the aim of searching for scientific evidence concerning the effectiveness of laser to reduce pain or paresthesia related to orthognathic surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, LILACS, SciELO, CENTRAL, Google Scholar, OpenGrey, and ClinicalTrials...
October 20, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053618/the-application-of-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-a-ltq-orbitrap-mass-technique-to-reveal-the-dynamic-accumulation-of-secondary-metabolites-in-licorice-under-aba-stress
#10
Da Li, Guojie Xu, Guangxi Ren, Yufeng Sun, Ying Huang, Chunsheng Liu
The traditional medicine licorice is the most widely consumed herbal product in the world. Although much research work on studying the changes in the active compounds of licorice has been reported, there are still many areas, such as the dynamic accumulation of secondary metabolites in licorice, that need to be further studied. In this study, the secondary metabolites from licorice under two different methods of stress were investigated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS)...
October 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053606/lung-toxicity-of-condensed-aerosol-from-e-cig-liquids-influence-of-the-flavor-and-the-in-vitro-model-used
#11
Rossella Bengalli, Emanuele Ferri, Massimo Labra, Paride Mantecca
The diffusion of e-cigarette (e-CIG) opens a great scientific and regulatory debate about its safety. The huge number of commercialized devices, e-liquids with almost infinite chemical formulations and the growing market demand for a rapid and efficient toxicity screen system that is able to test all of these references and related aerosols. A consensus on the best protocols for the e-CIG safety assessment is still far to be achieved, since the huge number of variables characterizing these products (e.g., flavoring type and concentration, nicotine concentration, type of the device, including the battery and the atomizer)...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053460/sdl-saliency-based-dictionary-learning-framework-for-image-similarity
#12
Rituparna Sarkar, Scott T Acton
In image classification, obtaining adequate data to learn a robust classifier has often proven to be difficult in several scenarios. Classification of histological tissue images for health care analysis is a notable application in this context due to the necessity of surgery, biopsy or autopsy. To adequately exploit limited training data in classification, we propose a saliency guided dictionary learning method and subsequently an image similarity technique for histo-pathological image classification. Salient object detection from images aids in the identification of discriminative image features...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053409/amnestic-heterosexism-and-bystander-responses-to-anti-gay-bullying
#13
Jennifer Katz, Dillon Federici, Tess Ramos-Dries
Amnestic heterosexism (AH) reflects the belief that, in contemporary society, people who are lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) no longer experience discrimination related to sexual orientation. We investigated potential associations between individuals' AH beliefs and their responses to anti-gay bullying. Heterosexual undergraduates (N = 238) completed a measure of AH before responding to a scenario in which a man accuses another man of being a "fag." As expected, those with greater AH beliefs perceived the situation as less severe/dangerous, felt less personally responsible to intervene, and were more blaming toward the target of bullying...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053075/machine-learning-applied-to-neuroimaging-for-diagnosis-of-adult-classic-chiari-malformation-role-of-the-basion-as-a-key-morphometric-indicator
#14
Aintzane Urbizu, Bryn A Martin, Dulce Moncho, Alex Rovira, Maria A Poca, Juan Sahuquillo, Alfons Macaya, Malena I Español
OBJECTIVE The current diagnostic criterion for Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I), based on tonsillar herniation (TH), includes a diversity of patients with amygdalar descent that may be caused by a variety of factors. In contrast, patients presenting with an overcrowded posterior cranial fossa, a key characteristic of the disease, may remain misdiagnosed if they have little or no TH. The objective of the present study was to use machine-learning classification methods to identify morphometric measures that help discern patients with classic CM-I to improve diagnosis and treatment and provide insight into the etiology of the disease...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052828/long-term-results-of-primary-repair-of-combined-cuts-on-the-median-and-ulnar-nerves-in-the-forearm
#15
Kemal Özaksar, Hüseyin Günay, Levent Küçük, Erhan Coşkunol
BACKGROUND: The objective of this clinical study was to evaluate sensory and motor functions in the later period following primary repair of combined injuries of the ulnar and median nerves in the forearm at proximal, middle, and distal levels. METHODS: Later period sensory evaluation of ulnar and median combined cuts was performed using two-point discrimination and monofilament tests. On the other hand, motor evaluation was performed by determining dorsal palmar interosseus strength for the ulnar nerve and abductor pollicis brevis muscle strength for the median nerve...
September 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052793/comparison-of-fracture-risk-assessment-tools-in-older-men-without-prior-hip-or-spine-fracture-the-mros-study
#16
Margaret L Gourlay, Victor S Ritter, Jason P Fine, Robert A Overman, John T Schousboe, Peggy M Cawthon, Eric S Orwoll, Tuan V Nguyen, Nancy E Lane, Steven R Cummings, Deborah M Kado, Jodi A Lapidus, Susan J Diem, Kristine E Ensrud
Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), age plus femoral neck BMD T score, and three externally generated fracture risk tools had similar accuracy to identify older men who developed osteoporotic fractures. Risk tools with femoral neck BMD performed better than those without BMD. The externally developed risk tools were poorly calibrated. INTRODUCTION: We compared the performance of fracture risk assessment tools in older men, accounting for competing risks including mortality. METHODS: A comparative ROC curve analysis assessed the ability of the QFracture, FRAX® and Garvan fracture risk tools, and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T score with or without age to identify incident fracture in community-dwelling men aged 65 years or older (N = 4994) without hip or clinical vertebral fracture or antifracture treatment at baseline...
October 20, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052789/computational-analysis-of-pharyngeal-swallowing-mechanics-in-patients-with-motor-neuron-disease-a-pilot-investigation
#17
K L Garand, Ryan Schwertner, Amy Chen, William G Pearson
Swallowing impairment (dysphagia) is a common sequela in patients with motor neuron disease (MND). The purpose of this retrospective, observational pilot investigation was to characterize how pharyngeal swallowing mechanics are impacted in patients with MND using a comparison with healthy, non-dysphagic control group. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) was used to determine covariate biomechanics of pharyngeal swallowing from videofluoroscopic assessment in 15 patients with MND and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
October 20, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052786/tolvaptan-promotes-urinary-excretion-of-sodium-and-urea-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Satoshi Minami, Takayuki Hamano, Hirotsugu Iwatani, Masayuki Mizui, Yoshiki Kimura, Yoshitaka Isaka
BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan (TLV) promotes aquaresis; however, little is known about its effect on solute excretion in chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We retrospectively studied CKD patients with decompensated heart failure (HF) or those with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) receiving TLV. Patients with an increased urine volume of more than twice of daily variance were defined as "responders" in HF. We compared the ability of the urinary osmolality (U-OSM) change and urinary creatinine concentration ([U-Cr]) change to discriminate "responders"...
October 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052563/predictive-score-model-for-delayed-graft-function-based-on-easily-available-variables-before-kidney-donation-after-cardiac-death
#19
Chen-Guang Ding, Qian-Hui Tai, Feng Han, Yang Li, Xiao-Hui Tian, Pu-Xun Tian, Xiao-Ming Ding, Xiao-Ming Pan, Jin Zheng, He-Li Xiang, Wu-Jun Xue
BACKGROUND: How to evaluate the quality of donation after cardiac death (DCD) kidneys has become a critical problem in kidney transplantation in China. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop a simple donor risk score model to evaluate the quality of DCD kidneys before DCD. METHODS: A total of 543 qualified kidneys were randomized in a 2:1 manner to create the development and validation cohorts. The donor variables in the development cohort were considered as candidate univariate predictors of delayed graft function (DGF)...
October 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052561/a-bayesian-stepwise-discriminant-model-for-predicting-risk-factors-of-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-a-case-control-study
#20
Li-Xia Zhang, Yang Sun, Hai Zhao, Na Zhu, Xing-De Sun, Xing Jin, Ai-Min Zou, Yang Mi, Ji-Ru Xu
BACKGROUND: Preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) can lead to serious consequences such as intrauterine infection, prolapse of the umbilical cord, and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Genital infection is a very important risk which closely related with PPROM. The preliminary study only made qualitative research on genital infection, but there was no deep and clear judgment about the effects of pathogenic bacteria. This study was to analyze the association of infections with PPROM in pregnant women in Shaanxi, China, and to establish Bayesian stepwise discriminant analysis to predict the incidence of PPROM...
October 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
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