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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432933/-non-symbolic-magnitude-processing-in-children-with-mathematical-difficulties-a-meta-analysis
#1
Christin Schwenk, Delphine Sasanguie, Jörg-Tobias Kuhn, Sophia Kempe, Philipp Doebler, Heinz Holling
Symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude representations, measured by digit or dot comparison tasks, are assumed to underlie the development of arithmetic skills. The comparison distance effect (CDE) has been suggested as a hallmark of the preciseness of mental magnitude representations. It implies that two magnitudes are harder to discriminate when the numerical distance between them is small, and may therefore differ in children with mathematical difficulties (MD), i.e., low mathematical achievement or dyscalculia...
April 19, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432897/hba1c-variability-in-type-2-diabetes-is-associated-with-the-occurrence-of-new-onset-albuminuria-within-three-years
#2
Sreemanee Raaj Dorajoo, Joceline Shi Ling Ng, Jessica Hui Fen Goh, Su Chi Lim, Chun Wei Yap, Alexandre Chan, Joyce Yu Chia Lee
AIMS: To evaluate the association between HbA1c coefficient of variation (HbA1c-CV) and 3-year new-onset albuminuria risk. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study involving 716 normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetes patients was conducted between 2010 and 2014. HbA1c-CV was used to categorize patients into low, moderate or high variability groups. Multivariate logistic models were constructed and validated. Integrated discrimination (IDI) and net reclassification (NRI) improvement indices were used to quantify the added predictive value of HbA1c-CV...
February 14, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432876/effect-of-pistachio-consumption-on-the-modulation-of-urinary-gut-microbiota-related-metabolites-in-prediabetic-subjects
#3
Pablo Hernández-Alonso, Daniel Cañueto, Simona Giardina, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Nicolau Cañellas, Xavier Correig, Mònica Bulló
The specific nutritional composition of nuts could affect different metabolic pathways involved in a broad range of metabolic diseases. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio nuts modifies the urine metabolome in prediabetic subjects. We designed a randomized crossover clinical trial in 39 prediabetic subjects. They consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432832/profiling-microrna-from-nephrectomy-and-biopsy-specimens-predictors-of-progression-and-survival-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#4
Casey G Kowalik, Drew A Palmer, Travis B Sullivan, Patrick A Teebagy, John M Dugan, John A Libertino, Eric J Burks, David Canes, Kimberly M Rieger-Christ
OBJECTIVE: To identify miRNA characteristic of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and those indicative of cancer specific survival in nephrectomy and biopsy specimens. We also sought to determine if a miRNA panel could differentiate benign from ccRCC tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RNA was isolated from nephrectomy and kidney biopsy specimens (n=156; n=46 respectively). Samples were grouped: benign, non-progressive and progressive ccRCC. MiRNA were profiled by microarray and validated by qRT-PCR...
April 22, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432767/categorical-learning-revealed-in-activity-pattern-of-left-fusiform-cortex
#5
Jessica E Goold, Ming Meng
The brain is organized such that it encodes and maintains category information about thousands of objects. However, how learning shapes these neural representations of object categories is unknown. The present study focuses on faces, examining whether: (1) Enhanced categorical discrimination or (2) Feature analysis enhances face/non-face categorization in the brain. Stimuli ranged from non-faces to faces with two-toned Mooney images used for testing and gray-scale images used for training. The stimulus set was specifically chosen because it has a true categorical boundary between faces and non-faces but the stimuli surrounding that boundary have very similar features, making the boundary harder to learn...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432741/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-effects-of-two-omeprazole-formulations-on-stomach-ph-and-gastric-ulcer-scores
#6
S Raidal, F M Andrews, S G Nielsen, G Trope
REASONS FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: Limited data are available on the relative pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of different omeprazole formulations. OBJECTIVES: To compare pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of a novel omeprazole formulation against a currently registered product. STUDY DESIGN: Masked two period, two treatment crossover. METHODS: Twelve clinically healthy horses were studied over two 6-day treatment periods...
April 22, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432662/targeting-ldl-cholesterol-beyond-absolute-goals-toward-personalized-risk
#7
REVIEW
Morton Leibowitz, Chandra Cohen-Stavi, Sanjay Basu, Ran D Balicer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review and assess the evidence for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment goals as presented in current guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Different sets of guidelines and clinical studies for secondary prevention have centered on lower absolute LDL-C targets [<70 mg/dL (<1.8 mmol/L)], greater percent reductions of LDL-C (≥50%), or more intense treatment to achieve greater reductions in cardiovascular risk...
June 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432592/perceptual-learning-with-tactile-stimuli-in-rodents-shaping-the-somatosensory-system
#8
REVIEW
Nicole Pacchiarini, Kevin Fox, R C Honey
The animal kingdom contains species with a wide variety of sensory systems that have been selected to function in different environmental niches, but that are also subject to modification by experience during an organism's lifetime. The modification of such systems by experience is often called perceptual learning. In rodents, the classic example of perceptual learning is the observation that simple preexposure to two visual stimuli facilitates a subsequent (reinforced) discrimination between them. However, until recently very little behavioral research had investigated perceptual learning with tactile stimuli in rodents, in marked contrast to the wealth of information about plasticity in the rodent somatosensory system...
April 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432566/four-new-species-of-dactylogyrus-diesing-1850-monogenea-dactylogyridae-parasitising-the-gills-of-northern-moroccan-luciobarbus-heckel-cyprinidae-morphological-and-molecular-characterisation
#9
Imane Rahmouni, Eva Řehulková, Antoine Pariselle, Ouafae Berrada Rkhami, Andrea Šimková
Four new species of Dactylogyrus Diesing, 1850 are described from the gills of three species of Luciobarbus Heckel collected from various hydrographical basins in northern Morocco: Dactylogyrus scorpius n. sp. from Luciobarbus rifensis Doadrio, Casal-Lopez & Yahyaoui; D. benhoussai n. sp. from L. moulouyensis Pellegrin; and D. varius n. sp. and D. falsiphallus n. sp. from L. maghrebensis Doadrio, Perea & Yahyaoui. The descriptions of the new species are confirmed by molecular data (partial 18S rDNA, ITS1, and partial 28S rDNA sequences)...
April 21, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432443/progastrin-a-potential-predictive-marker-of-liver-metastasis-in-colorectal-cancer
#10
David A Westwood, Oneel Patel, Christopher Christophi, Arthur Shulkes, Graham S Baldwin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Staging of colorectal cancer often fails to discriminate outcomes of patients with morphologically similar tumours that exhibit different clinical behaviours. Data from several studies suggest that the gastrin family of growth factors potentiates colorectal cancer tumourigenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether progastrin expression may predict clinical outcome in colorectal cancer. METHODS: Patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma of identical depth of invasion who had not received neoadjuvant therapy were included...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432327/genotyping-brucella-canis-isolates-using-a-highly-discriminatory-multilocus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-mlva-assay
#11
Yi Yang, Yin Wang, Elizabeth Poulsen, Russell Ransburgh, Xuming Liu, Baoyan An, Nanyan Lu, Gary Anderson, Chengming Wang, Jianfa Bai
Differentiation of Brucella canis from other Brucella species are mainly performed through PCR-based methods and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) procedures. Both PCR-based and MLVA methods are limited in discriminating B. canis strains. A new MLVA-13Bc method for B. canis genotyping was established by combining eight newly-developed VNTRs with five published ones. During 2010 and 2016, 377 B. canis PCR-positives were identified from 6,844 canine blood samples from 22 U.S. states, resulting in 229 B...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432270/discriminating-between-virilizing-ovary-tumors-and-ovary-hyperthecosis-in-postmenopausal-women-clinical-data-hormonal-profiles-and-image-studies
#12
Viviane Dos Reis Vieira Yance, José Antonio Miguel Marcondes, Michelle Patrocíneo Rocha, Cristiano Roberto Grimaldi Barcellos, Wagner Silva Dantas, Ana Flavia Assis Avila, Ronaldo Hueb Baroni, Filomena Marino Carvalho, Sylvia Asaka Yamashita Hayashida, Berenice Bilharinho Mendonça, Sorahia Domenice
The presence of virilizing signs associated with high serum androgen levels in postmenopausal women is rare. Virilizing ovarian tumors (VOTs) and ovarian stromal hyperthecosis (OH) are the most common etiologies in virilized postmenopausal women. The differential diagnosis between these two conditions is often difficult. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of clinical features, hormonal profiles and radiological studies to the differential diagnosis of VOT and OH. DESIGN: A retrospective study...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432200/tissue-adaptation-implications-for-gut-immunity-and-tolerance
#13
REVIEW
Ana M C Faria, Bernardo S Reis, Daniel Mucida
Tissue adaptation is an intrinsic component of immune cell development, influencing both resistance to pathogens and tolerance. Chronically stimulated surfaces of the body, in particular the gut mucosa, are the major sites where immune cells traffic and reside. Their adaptation to these environments requires constant discrimination between natural stimulation coming from harmless microbiota and food, and pathogens that need to be cleared. This review will focus on the adaptation of lymphocytes to the gut mucosa, a highly specialized environment that can help us understand the plasticity of leukocytes arriving at various tissue sites and how tissue-related factors operate to shape immune cell fate and function...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432140/visually-evoked-3-5-hz-membrane-potential-oscillations-reduce-the-responsiveness-of-visual-cortex-neurons-in-awake-behaving-mice
#14
Michael C Einstein, Pierre-Olivier Polack, Duy T Tran, Peyman Golshani
Low frequency membrane potential (Vm) oscillations were once thought to only occur in sleeping and anesthetized states. Recently, low frequency Vm oscillations have been described in inactive awake animals, but it is unclear if they shape sensory processing in neurons and whether they occur during active awake behavioral states. To answer these questions, we performed two-photon guided whole-cell Vm recordings from primary visual cortex layer 2/3 excitatory and inhibitory neurons in awake mice during passive visual stimulation and performance of visual and auditory discrimination tasks...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432137/dissociation-of-choice-formation-and-choice-correlated-activity-in-macaque-visual-cortex
#15
Robbe L T Goris, Corey M Ziemba, Gabriel M Stine, Eero P Simoncelli, J Anthony Movshon
Responses of individual task-relevant sensory neurons can predict monkeys' trial-by-trial choices in perceptual decision-making tasks. Choice-correlated activity has been interpreted as evidence that the responses of these neurons are causally linked to perceptual judgements. To further test this hypothesis, we studied responses of orientation-selective neurons in V1 and V2 while two macaque monkeys performed a fine orientation discrimination task. Although both animals exhibited a high level of neuronal and behavioral sensitivity, only one exhibited choice-correlated activity...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432114/intereye-asymmetry-in-bilateral-keratoconus-keratoconus-suspect-and-normal-eyes-and-its-relationship-with-disease-severity
#16
Mohammad Naderan, Mohammad Taher Rajabi, Parviz Zarrinbakhsh
BACKGROUND/AIM: To describe the intereye asymmetry in patients with keratoconus (KC), keratoconus suspect (KCS) and normal participants, and to evaluate the relationship between asymmetry and disease severity. METHODS: In this prospective observational comparative study, 446 patients with bilateral KC, 68 patients with bilateral KCS and 306 normal participants underwent topographic, keratometric and pachymetric evaluations by Pentacam as well as refractive and visual acuity examinations...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432045/india-passes-law-prohibiting-discrimination-against-people-with-hiv-aids
#17
Sanjeet Bagcchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432010/exposure-to-an-enriched-environment-facilitates-motor-recovery-and-prevents-short-term-memory-impairment-and-reduction-of-striatal-bdnf-in-a-progressive-pharmacological-model-of-parkinsonism-in-mice
#18
Clarissa L C Campêlo, José R Santos, Anatildes F Silva, Aline L Dierschnabel, André Pontes, Jeferson S Cavalcante, Alessandra M Ribeiro, Regina H Silva
Previous studies showed that the repeated administration with a low dose of reserpine (RES) induces a gradual appearance of motor signs and cognitive deficits compatible with parkinsonism in rodents. Environmental stimulation has neuroprotective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative damage, including acutely induced PD. We investigated the effects of exposure to an enriched environment (EE) on motor, cognitive and neuronal (levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, TH and brain derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF) deficits induced by a progressive model of PD in mice...
April 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432008/turkish-version-of-the-intuitive-eating-scale-2-validity-and-reliability-among-university-students
#19
Murat Bas, Kezban Esen Karaca, Duygu Saglam, Gozde Arıtıcı, Ecem Cengiz, Selen Köksal, Aylin Hasbay Buyukkaragoz
Intuitive Eating is defined as "the dynamic process-integrating attunement of mind, body, and food". The purpose of this study was, therefore, adapt the IES-2 to the Turkish language and reliability and validity of IES-2 among Turkish populations. We also examined the instrument's internal consistency and test-retest reliability and analysed the relationships between the IES-2 and several variables so as to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity. Three hundred seventy-seven undergraduate and postgraduate women and men between the ages of 19-31 years (mean 22...
April 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431949/classification-of-eeg-signals-to-identify-variations-in-attention-during-motor-task-execution
#20
Susan Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Ernest Nlandu Kamavuako, Ning Jiang, Dario Farina, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting
BACKGROUND: Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems in neuro-rehabilitation use brain signals to control external devices. User status such as attention affects BCI performance; thus detecting the user's attention drift due to internal or external factors is essential for high detection accuracy. NEW METHOD: An auditory oddball task was applied to divert the users' attention during a simple ankle dorsiflexion movement. Electroencephalogram signals were recorded from eighteen channels...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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