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Amy Y Tsou, Jonathan R Treadwell
BACKGROUND: Systematic review (SR) abstracts are important for disseminating evidence syntheses to inform medical decision making. We assess reporting quality in SR abstracts using PRISMA for Abstracts (PRISMA-A), Cochrane Handbook, and Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality guidance. METHODS: We evaluated a random sample of 200 SR abstracts (from 2014) comparing interventions in the general medical literature. We assessed adherence to PRISMA-A criteria, problematic wording in conclusions, and whether "positive" studies described clinical significance...
October 20, 2016: Research Synthesis Methods
Cheng-Shiuan Lee, Nicholas S Fisher
Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to biomagnify in marine food chains, resulting in higher concentrations in upper trophic level animals than their prey. To better understand how marine copepods, an important intermediate between phytoplankton and forage fish at the bottom of the food chain, assimilate and release MeHg, we performed a series of laboratory experiments using the gamma-emitting radiotracer (203) Hg(2+) and Me(203) Hg with the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of Hg(2+) and MeHg ranged from 25 to 31% and 58 to 79%, respectively, depending on algal diets...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Johanna M Kraus, Polly P Gibson, David M Walters, Marc A Mills
Riparian spiders are being used increasingly to track spatial patterns of contaminants in and fluxing from aquatic ecosystems. However, our understanding of the circumstances under which spiders are effective sentinels of aquatic pollution is limited. Here we test the hypothesis that riparian spiders may be effectively used to track spatial patterns of sediment pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic ecosystems with high habitat heterogeneity. We found that spatial pattern of ΣPCB concentrations in two common families of riparian spiders sampled in 2011-2013 generally tracked spatial variation in sediment ΣPCBs across all sites within the Manistique River Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC), a rivermouth ecosystem located on the south shore of the Upper Peninsula, Manistique, MI, that includes harbor, river, backwater, and lake habitats...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Heike Petermann
October 16, 1846 is regarded as the birth of anaesthesia at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. However, was this really the first anaesthesia with sulphuric ether? In the priority dispute that started already in 1846 there were more participants: WTG Morton, CT Jackson and H Wells. Not involved was CW Long, who has already administered ether anaesthesia in 1842. He has published his results only 1849 and therefore he gained no glory.
October 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Michail Rovatsos, Martina Johnson Pokorná, Marie Altmanová, Lukáš Kratochvíl
Geckos in general show extensive variability in sex determining systems, but only male heterogamety has been demonstrated in the members of their legless family Pygopodidae. In the pioneering study published more than 45 years ago, multiple sex chromosomes of the type X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y were described in Burton's legless lizard (Lialisburtonis) based on conventional cytogenetic techniques. We conducted cytogenetic analyses including comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with selected cytogenetic markers in this species and the previously cytogenetically unstudied Papua snake lizard (Lialis jicari) to better understand the nature of these sex chromosomes and their differentiation...
October 21, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
Despite recent advances in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the prognosis of patients with advanced stage of disease remains unfavorable. Several immune therapies have been applied to HCC, and their responses have not been satisfactory. The immune response to cancer is determined by the balance between the antigenicity of the tumor and the microenvironment of cancer tissues. Generally, accumulated genetic mutations are observed in HCC, which may lead to increased neoantigens on cancer cells with high antigenicity...
October 21, 2016: Oncology
Antonin Levy, Etienne Bardet, Benjamin Lacas, Jean-Pierre Pignon, Julien Adam, Ludovic Lacroix, Xavier Artignan, Pierre Verrelle, Cécile Le Péchoux
BACKGROUND: Gefitinib is an oral EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors which may act as a radiosensitizer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This phase II study evaluated the efficacy of gefitinib 250 mg once daily in combination with thoracic radiotherapy (66 Gy in 6.5 weeks, 2 Gy/day, 5 fractions/week) followed by consolidation chemotherapy (IV cisplatin and vinorelbine) as first line treatment in a population of unselected stage IIIB NSCLC patients according to EGFR mutation status...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Jenna F DuMond, Xue Zhang, Yuichiro Izumi, Kevin Ramkissoon, Guanghui Wang, Marjan Gucek, Xujing Wang, Maurice B Burg, Joan D Ferraris
NFAT5 is a transcription factor originally identified because it is activated by hypertonicity and that activation increases expression of genes that protect against the adverse effects of the hypertonicity. However, its targets also include genes not obviously related to tonicity. The transactivating domain of NFAT5 is contained in its c-terminal region, which is predicted to be unstructured. Unstructured regions are common in transcription factors particularly in transactivating domains where they can bind co-regulatory proteins essential to their function...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Seung Kyum Kim, Joshua J Avila, Michael P Massett
Understanding the genetic influence on vascular reactivity is important for identifying genes underlying impaired vascular function. The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic contribution to intrinsic vascular function and to identify loci associated with phenotypic variation in vascular reactivity in mice. Concentration response curves to phenylephrine (PE), potassium chloride (KCl), acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were generated in aortic rings from male mice (12-wk old) from 27 inbred mouse strains...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Pietro Muratori, Simone Pisano, Annarita Milone, Gabriele Masi
BACKGROUND: The Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP), (high scores in Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior subscales), has been related to poor emotional and behavioral self-regulation in children and adolescents. Our aim is to evaluate if it may be associated with auto-aggression in youth with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Method In 72 consecutively referred youths with ODD, emotional dysregulation was assessed with the CBCL-DP, auto-aggression and physical aggression against other persons with the Modified Overt Aggression Scale...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Ruth S Weinstock, Ingrid Schütz-Fuhrmann, Crystal G Connor, Julia M Hermann, David M Maahs, Morten Schütt, Shivani Agarwal, Sabine E Hofer, Roy W Beck, Reinhard W Holl
AIMS: Compare characteristics, therapies and clinical outcomes in older adults with type 1 diabetes in the United States T1D Exchange (T1DX) and German/Austrian Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation (DPV) registries. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of adults ≥60years old with type 1 diabetes seen in 2011-2012 in the T1DX (n=1283) and DPV (n=2014) registries. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables...
October 4, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Ronny Hedell, Olga Stephansson, Petter Mostad, Mats Gunnar Andersson
Efficient and correct evaluation of sampling results with respect to hypotheses about the concentration or distribution of bacteria generally requires knowledge about the performance of the detection method. To assess the sensitivity of the detection method an experiment is usually performed where the target matrix is spiked (i.e. artificially contaminated) with different concentrations of the bacteria, followed by analyses of the samples using the pre-enrichment method and the analytical detection method of interest...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Zhong Ni, Xiting Wang, Tianchen Zhang, Rong Zhong Jin
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has become as an important target for the treatment of various human cancers, especially non-small-cell lung cancer. A mutation, F1174C, suited in the C-terminal helix αC of ALK and distal from the small-molecule inhibitor ceritinib bound to the ATP-binding site, causes the emergence of drug resistance to ceritinib. However, the detailed mechanism for the allosteric effect of F1174C resistance mutation to ceritinib remains unclear. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding free energy calculations [Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA)] were carried out to explore the advent of drug resistance mutation in ALK...
October 11, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Isabelle E Bauer, Martin Hautzinger, Thomas D Meyer
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive complaints are common features of bipolar disorder (BD). Not much is, however, known about the potential moderator effects of these factors on the outcome of talking therapies. The goal of our study was to explore whether learning and memory abilities predict risk of recurrence of mood episodes or interact with a psychological intervention. METHOD: We analyzed data collected as part of a clinical trial evaluating relapse rates following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Therapy (ST) (Meyer and Hautzinger, 2012)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Estefanía González-García, Marek Maly, Francisco Javier de la Mata, Rafael Gómez, María Luisa Marina, María Concepción García
This work proposes a deep study on the interactions between sulphonate-terminated carbosilane dendrimers and proteins. Three different proteins with different molecular weights and isoelectric points were employed and different pHs, dendrimer concentrations and generations were tested. Variations in fluorescence intensity and emission wavelength were used as protein-dendrimer interaction probes. Interaction between dendrimers and proteins greatly depended on the protein itself and pH. Other important issues were the dendrimer concentration and generation...
October 11, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Ashley L Greene, Nicholas R Eaton
BACKGROUND: Structural models of psychopathology indicate that common mental disorder comorbidity reflects latent transdiagnostic factors. Multiple studies have replicated transdiagnostic internalizing (mood and anxiety disorders) and externalizing (substance use, antisociality-, and impulsivity-related disorders) factors; other studies support distress and fear sub-factors of internalizing. These factors show a high degree of temporal stability. Recently, a bifactor conceptualization of multivariate comorbidity has emerged, positing the existence of an orthogonal general psychopathology factor that saturates all diagnoses in addition to internalizing/distress/fear and externalizing, although no studies have examined the temporal stability of the factors in this competing model over time among adults...
September 28, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Armando H Norman, Andrew J Russell, Claudia Merli
The UK's Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) is the largest pay-for-performance scheme in the world. This ethnographic study explored how QOF's monetary logic influences the approach to healthcare in UK general practice. From August 2013 to April 2014, we researched two UK general practice surgeries and one general practice training programme. These environments provided the opportunity for studying various spaces such as QOF meetings, consultation rooms, QOF recoding sessions, and the collection of computer-screen images depicting how patients' biomarkers are evaluated and costed through software systems...
October 11, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
David Glenister, Martin Prewer
Objective Most major Victorian hospitals include religious identity in routine admission demographic questions. However, approximately 20% of admissions do not have their religious identity recorded. At the Royal Melbourne Hospital this missing 20% was surveyed throughout 2014-15 for two reasons: (1) to enable patient care; and (2) to provide an insight into the significance of religious identity for patients. There is scarce literature on this subject, so the present mixed-methods study, including a qualitative component, will start to bridge the gap...
October 21, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Zhuo Wang, Alan A Stocker, Daniel D Lee
The efficient coding hypothesis assumes that biological sensory systems use neural codes that are optimized to best possibly represent the stimuli that occur in their environment. Most common models use information-theoretic measures, whereas alternative formulations propose incorporating downstream decoding performance. Here we provide a systematic evaluation of different optimality criteria using a parametric formulation of the efficient coding problem based on the Lp reconstruction error of the maximum likelihood decoder...
October 20, 2016: Neural Computation
Dong Jin Kim, Wook Kim, Jun Hyun Lee
PURPOSE: Intra-corporeal esophagojejunostomy (EJ) using a linear stapler creates a stapler entry hole that requires secure closure during the totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy (TLTG) procedure for gastric cancer. Since a standard method has not been established yet, the feasibility of using V-loc 180 (Covidien, Mansfield, MA, USA) suture material was evaluated in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During January 2012 to March 2015, 25 patients who underwent linear stapling EJ and V-loc 180 closure of remaining enterotomy were included in this study...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
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