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Contextual fear

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911310/cholinergic-modification-of-neurogenesis-and-gliosis-improves-the-memory-of%C3%A2-a%C3%AE-ppswe-psen1de9-alzheimer-s-disease-model-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#1
Takeshi Matsuda, Tatsuhiro Hisatsune
We previously reported that neuroinflammation contributes to the amnesia of AβPPswe/PSEN1dE9 Alzheimer's disease model mice fed a high-fat diet to induce type-2 diabetes (T2DM-AD mice), but the underlying mechanism for the memory decline remained unclear. Recent studies have suggested that cholinergic modulation is involved in neuroinflammatory cellular reactions including neurogenesis and gliosis, and in memory improvement. In this study, we administered a broad-spectrum cholinesterase inhibitor, rivastigmine (2 mg/kg/day, s...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908784/cisplatin-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-associated-with-impaired-cognitive-function-in-rats
#2
Naomi Lomeli, Kaijun Di, Jennifer Czerniawski, John F Guzowski, Daniela A Bota
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is commonly reported following the administration of chemotherapeutic agents and comprises a wide variety of neurological problems. No effective treatments for CRCI are currently available. Here we examined the mechanisms involving cisplatin-induced hippocampal damage following cisplatin administration in a rat model and in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC). We also assessed the protective effects of the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine in mitigating these damages...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903705/organization-of-the-claustrum-to-entorhinal-cortical-connection-in-mice
#3
Takuma Kitanishi, Naoki Matsuo
: The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. While studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically-arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888073/early-life-inflammation-with-lps-delays-fear-extinction-in-adult-rodents
#4
V M Doenni, C M Song, M N Hill, Q J Pittman
A large body of evidence has been brought forward connecting developmental immune activation to abnormal fear and anxiety levels. Anxiety disorders have extremely high lifetime prevalence, yet susceptibility factors that contribute to their emergence are poorly understood. In this research we investigated whether an inflammatory insult early in life can alter the response to fear conditioning in adulthood. Fear learning and extinction are important and adaptive behaviors, mediated largely by the amygdala and its interconnectivity with cortico-limbic circuits...
November 22, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888041/understanding-the-contributions-of-visual-stimuli-to-contextual-fear-conditioning-a-proof-of-concept-study-using-lcd-screens
#5
Nathen J Murawski, Arun Asok
The precise contribution of visual information to contextual fear learning and discrimination has remained elusive. To better understand this contribution, we coupled the context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) fear conditioning paradigm with presentations of distinct visual scenes displayed on 4 LCD screens surrounding a conditioning chamber. Adult male Long-Evans rats received non-reinforced context pre-exposure on Day 1, an immediate 1.5mA foot shock on Day 2, and a non-reinforced context test on Day 3...
November 22, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884768/intact-renewal-after-extinction-of-conditioned-suppression-with-lesions-of-either-the-retrosplenial-cortex-or-dorsal-hippocampus
#6
Travis P Todd, Matthew Y Jiang, Nicole E DeAngeli, David J Bucci
Extinction of fear to a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) is known to be context-specific. When the CS is tested outside the context of extinction, fear returns, or renews. Several studies have demonstrated that renewal depends upon the hippocampus, although there are also studies where renewal was not impacted by hippocampal damage, suggesting that under some conditions context encoding and/or retrieval of extinction depends upon other regions. One candidate region is the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), which is known to contribute to contextual and spatial learning and memory...
November 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878209/preclinical-models-of-overwhelming-sepsis-implicate-the-neural-system-that-encodes-contextual-fear-memory
#7
Patricio T Huerta, Sergio Robbiati, Tomás Salvador Huerta, Anchal Sabharwal, Rose A Berlin, Maya Frankfurt, Bruce T Volpe
Long-term sepsis survivors sustain cryptic brain injury that leads to cognitive impairment, emotional imbalance, and increased disability burden. Suitable animal models of sepsis, such as cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), have permitted the analysis of abnormal brain circuits that underlie post-septic behavioral phenotypes. For instance, we have previously shown that CLP-exposed mice exhibit impaired spatial memory together with depleted dendritic arbors and decreased spines in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872586/loss-of-ensemble-segregation-in-dentate-gyrus-but-not-in-somatosensory-cortex-during-contextual-fear-memory-generalization
#8
Marie Yokoyama, Naoki Matsuo
The details of contextual or episodic memories are lost and generalized with the passage of time. Proper generalization may underlie the formation and assimilation of semantic memories and enable animals to adapt to ever-changing environments, whereas overgeneralization of fear memory evokes maladaptive fear responses to harmless stimuli, which is a symptom of anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To understand the neural basis of fear memory generalization, we investigated the patterns of neuronal ensemble reactivation during memory retrieval when contextual fear memory expression is generalized using transgenic mice that allowed us to visualize specific neuronal ensembles activated during memory encoding and retrieval...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865918/enhanced-cued-fear-memory-following-post-training-whole-body-irradiation-of-3-month-old-mice
#9
Reid H J Olsen, Sydney J Weber, Tunde Akinyeke, Jacob Raber
Typically, in studies designed to assess effects of irradiation on cognitive performance the animals are trained and tested for cognitive function following irradiation. Little is known about post-training effects of irradiation on cognitive performance. In the current study, 3-month-old male mice were irradiated with X-rays 24h following training in a fear conditioning paradigm and cognitively tested starting two weeks later. Average motion during the extinction trials, measures of anxiety in the elevated zero maze, and body weight changes over the course of the study were assessed as well...
November 16, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865917/the-co-expression-of-glun2b-subunits-of-the-nmda-receptors-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-after-chronic-restraint-stress-in-low-and-high-anxiety-rats
#10
Małgorzata Lehner, Aleksandra Wisłowska-Stanek, Marek Gryz, Alicja Sobolewska, Danuta Turzyńska, Natalia Chmielewska, Paweł Krząścik, Anna Skórzewska, Adam Płaźnik
The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms underlying behavioural differences between high- (HR) and low- (LR) anxiety rats, selected according to their behaviour in the contextual fear test (i.e., the duration of the freezing response was used as a discriminating variable), after a chronic restraint procedure (21days, 3h daily). We analysed the expression of the GluN2B subunits of the NMDA and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in selected brain structures (immunofluorescence). Following chronic restraint stress in the HR rats, we observed a decrease in the expression of the GRs and GluN2B subunits of the NMDA receptor in the prefrontal cortical areas and the hippocampus compared to the HR-control and the LR-restraint groups...
November 16, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860052/the-postrhinal-cortex-is-not-necessary-for-landmark-control-in-rat-head-direction-cells
#11
James R Peck, Jeffery S Taube
The rodent postrhinal cortex (POR), homologous to primate areas TH/TF and the human 'parahippocampal place area', has been implicated in processing visual landmark and contextual information about the environment. Head direction (HD) cells are neurons that encode allocentric head direction, independent of the animal's location or behavior, and are influenced by manipulations of visual landmarks. The present study determined whether the POR plays a role in processing environmental information within the HD circuit...
November 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852787/roles-of-cbln1-in-non-motor-functions-of-mice
#12
Shintaro Otsuka, Kohtarou Konno, Manabu Abe, Junko Motohashi, Kazuhisa Kohda, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Michisuke Yuzaki
: The cerebellum is thought to be involved in cognitive functions in addition to its well established role in motor coordination and motor learning in humans. Cerebellin 1 (Cbln1) is predominantly expressed in cerebellar granule cells and plays a crucial role in the formation and function of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. Although genes encoding Cbln1 and its postsynaptic receptor, the delta2 glutamate receptor (GluD2), are suggested to be associated with autistic-like traits and many psychiatric disorders, whether such cognitive impairments are caused by cerebellar dysfunction remains unclear...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851909/systemic-cisplatin-exposure-during-infancy-and-adolescence-causes-impaired-cognitive-function-in-adulthood
#13
Tami John, Naomi Lomeli, Daniela A Bota
Cancer survivors diagnosed during infancy and adolescence may be at risk for chemotherapy-related cognitive impairments (CRCI), however the effects of pediatric chemotherapy treatment on adulthood cognitive function are not well understood. Impairments in memory, attention and executive function affect 15-50% of childhood leukemia survivors related to methotrexate exposure. Systemic cisplatin is used to treat a variety of childhood and adult cancers, yet the risk and extent of cognitive impairment due to platinum-based chemotherapy in pediatric patients is unknown...
November 13, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848935/distinct-roles-of-creb-within-the-ventral-and-dorsal-hippocampus-in-mediating-nicotine-withdrawal-phenotypes
#14
Miranda Fisher, Rachel LeMalefant, Luyi Zhou, Gavin Huang, Jill Turner
Addiction to nicotine and the inability to quit smoking are influenced by genetic factors, emphasizing the importance of understanding how genes and drugs of abuse mechanistically impact each other. One well-characterized protein responsible for regulating both response to drugs and gene expression is the transcription factor CREB. Previous work indicates that hippocampal specific alterations in CREB signaling and synaptic plasticity may underlie certain nicotine withdrawal phenotypes. However, the structure of the hippocampus possesses dorsal and ventral sub-regions, each differing in behavioral, anatomic and gene expression characteristics...
November 16, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834392/pharmacological-activators-of-the-nr4a-nuclear-receptors-enhance-ltp-in-a-creb-cbp-dependent-fashion
#15
Morgan S Bridi, Joshua D Hawk, Snehajyoti Chatterjee, Stephen Safe, Ted Abel
Nr4a nuclear receptors contribute to long-term memory formation and are required for long-term memory enhancement by a class of broad-acting drugs known as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate these genes and identifying ways to increase their activity may provide novel therapeutic approaches for ameliorating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, we find that Nr4a gene expression after learning requires the cAMP-response element binding (CREB) interaction domain of the histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein (CBP)...
November 11, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834391/hippocampal-gabab-1a-receptors-constrain-generalized-contextual-fear
#16
Joseph F Lynch, Patrick Winiecki, T Lee Gilman, Jordan M Adkins, Aaron M Jasnow
Many anxiety disorders are characterized by generalization of fear responses to neutral or ambiguous stimuli. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms contributing to generalized fear is essential for formulating successful treatments for anxiety disorders. Previous research shows that GABA-mediated presynaptic inhibition plays a critical role in cued fear generalization, as animals with genetically deleted presynaptic GABAB(1a) receptors cannot discriminate between CS+ and CS- tones. Work from our lab has further identified that GABAB(1a) receptors are necessary for maintaining contextual memory precision, thereby constraining generalized contextual fear...
November 11, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825907/thiamine-and-benfotiamine-improve-cognition-and-ameliorate-gsk-3%C3%AE-associated-stress-induced-behaviours-in-mice
#17
Nataliia Markova, Nataliia Bazhenova, Daniel C Anthony, Julie Vignisse, Andrey Svistunov, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Lucien Bettendorff, Tatyana Strekalova
Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the brain has been implicated in the development of dementia and symptoms of depression. Indirect evidence suggests that thiamine may contribute to these pathologies by controlling the activities of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β. While decreased GSK-3β activity appears to impair memory, increased GSK-3β activity is associated with the distressed/depressed state. However, hitherto direct evidence for the effects of thiamine on GSK-3β function has not been reported...
November 4, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820300/neonatal-sevoflurane-exposure-induces-adulthood-fear-induced-learning-disability-and-decreases-glutamatergic-neurons-in-the-basolateral-amygdala
#18
Maiko Satomoto, Zhongliang Sun, Yushi U Adachi, Koshi Makita
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mice exposed to sevoflurane show certain cognitive and behavioral impairments in adulthood. However, the mechanisms underlying long-term cognitive deficits induced by sevoflurane exposure remain unknown. The present study was performed to investigate whether there is differential neuronal activation between naive mice and sevoflurane-exposed neonates in fear-conditioning tests based on immediate early gene (c-Fos) expression. METHODS: Male mice were exposed to 3% sevoflurane (SEVO group) or carrier gas alone (no anesthesia, NA group) for 6 hours on postnatal day 6...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818436/hiv-diagnosis-linkage-to-care-and-retention-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-in-guatemala-city
#19
Clare Barrington, Kelly Knudston, Olga Alicia Bailey, Jose Manuel Aguilar, Marilu Itzel Loya-Montiel, Sonia Morales-Miranda
Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala, yet little is known about their experiences with diagnosis, linkage to care, and retention. We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 26 MSM and transgender women living with HIV in Guatemala City. HIV diagnosis experiences changed over time with increasing asymptomatic testing at non-governmental organizations. Fear of the physical and social impacts of HIV delayed testing, acceptance of diagnosis, and linkage to HIV care...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810355/an-evaluation-of-aversive-memory-and-hippocampal-oxidative-status-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-treated-with-resveratrol
#20
Pamela Brambilla Bagatini, Léder Leal Xavier, Karine Bertoldi, Felipe Moysés, Gisele Lovatel, Laura Tartari Neves, Sílvia Barbosa, Lisiani Saur, Priscylla Nunes de Senna, André Arigony Souto, Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira, Matilde Achaval
The present study evaluated the effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes on aversive memory, free radical content and enzymatic antioxidant activity in the hippocampus of adult Wistar rats submitted to oral treatment with resveratrol. Animals were divided into eight groups: non-diabetic rats treated with saline (ND SAL), non-diabetic rats treated with resveratrol at a dose 5mg/kg (ND RSV 5), non-diabetic rats treated with resveratrol at a dose 10mg/kg (ND RSV 10), non-diabetic rats treated with resveratrol at a dose 20mg/kg (ND RSV 20), diabetic rats treated with saline (D SAL), diabetic rats treated with resveratrol at a dose 5mg/kg (D RSV 5), diabetic rats treated with resveratrol at a dose 10mg/kg (D RSV 10) and diabetic rats treated with resveratrol at a dose 20mg/kg (D RSV 20)...
October 31, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
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