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Contextual fear

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334658/contextual-determinants-of-psychopathology-the-singularity-of-attachment-as-a-predictor-of-mental-dysfunction
#1
Yolanda Alonso, Javier Fernández, Yolanda Fontanil, Esteban Ezama, Alberto Gimeno
The general aim of this research is to evaluate the singular weight of attachment relationships in psychopathology, to determine the point to which these relationships cannot be subsumed by other variables that are famously related to attachment, such as experience of stressful life events, social support, and coping styles. 172 people treated in mental health centers provided data related to these four aspects and about manifestations of psychopathology. Multiple linear regression analyses determined that 51% of the variance in the level of symptomatology is explained with six variables: two related to adult attachment (fear of rejection and abandonment in romantic relationships, and the degree of similarity to the fearful prototype), one related to social support (family appreciation), one to life events (overall perceived stress), and two to coping style (cognitive restructuring and social withdrawal)...
January 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324962/care-provided-by-the-father-to-the-child-with-cancer-under-the-influence-of-masculinities-qualitative-meta-synthesis
#2
Naiara Barros Polita, Willyane de Andrade Alvarenga, Ana Carolina Andrade Biaggi Leite, Jeferson Santos Araújo, Louise Bittencourt Paes Abreu Dos Santos, Márcia Maria Fontão Zago, Francine de Montigny, Lucila Castanheira Nascimento
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize and interpret findings and conclusions of qualitative research addressing the experience of the father in the care of the child with cancer. METHOD: Meta-synthesis of 16 qualitative studies from six databases, analyzed through taxonomic analysis. RESULTS: Child and adolescent cancer have several repercussions on the daily life of the father, especially related to the stigma around the disease, the fear of the unknown and the social and family role...
January 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321993/sansoninto-a-traditional-herbal-medicine-ameliorates-behavioral-abnormalities-and-down-regulation-of-early-growth-response-1-expression-in-mice-exposed-to-social-isolation-stress
#3
Hironori Fujiwara, Ryohei Tsushima, Ryo Okada, Suresh Awale, Ryota Araki, Takeshi Yabe, Kinzo Matsumoto
Social isolation (SI) mice exhibit behavioral abnormalities such as impairments of sociability- and attention-like behaviors, offering an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to identify the effects of Sansoninto (SST; suān zǎo rén tāng) on the psychiatric symptoms related to ADHD using SI mice. Four-week-old mice were socially isolated during the experimental period, and SST administration (800 or 2400 mg/kg, p.o.) was started at 2 weeks after starting SI...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313247/emofinder-the-meeting-point-for-spanish-emotional-words
#4
Isabel Fraga, Marc Guasch, Juan Haro, Isabel Padrón, Pilar Ferré
We present here emoFinder ( http://usc.es/pcc/emofinder ), a Web-based search engine for Spanish word properties taken from different normative databases. The tool incorporates several subjective word properties for 16,375 distinct words. Although it focuses particularly on normative ratings for emotional dimensions (e.g., valence and arousal) and discrete emotional categories (fear, disgust, anger, happiness, and sadness), it also makes available ratings for other word properties that are known to affect word processing (e...
January 8, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310485/enhanced-innate-fear-and-altered-stress-axis-regulation-in-vglut3-knockout-mice
#5
Diána Balázsfi, Anna Fodor, Bibiána Török, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, József Haller, Dóra Zelena
Glutamatergic neurons, characterized by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluT1-3) provide the main excitation in the brain. Their disturbances have been linked to various brain disorders, which could be also modeled by the contextual fear test in rodents. We aimed to characterize the participation of VGluT3 in the development of contextual fear through its contribution to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) regulation using knockout (KO) mice. Contextual fear conditioning was induced by foot shock and mice were examined 1 and 7 d later in the same environment comparing wild type with KO...
January 8, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307664/chronic-nicotine-differentially-alters-spontaneous-recovery-of-contextual-fear-in-male-and-female-mice
#6
Jessica M Tumolo, Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a devastating disorder with symptoms such as flashbacks, hyperarousal, and avoidance of reminders of the traumatic event. Exposure therapy, which attempts to extinguish fear responses, is a commonly used treatment for PTSD but relapse following successful exposure therapy is a frequent problem. In rodents, spontaneous recovery (SR), where extinguished fear responses resurface following extinction treatment, is used as a model of fear relapse. Previous studies from our lab showed that chronic nicotine impaired fear extinction and acute nicotine enhanced SR of contextual fear in adult male mice...
January 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306773/midlife-stress-alters-memory-and-mood-related-behaviors-in-old-age-role-of-locally-activated-glucocorticoids
#7
Nicola Wheelan, Christopher J Kenyon, Anjanette P Harris, Carolynn Cairns, Emad Al Dujaili, Jonathan R Seckl, Joyce L W Yau
Chronic exposure to stress during midlife associates with subsequent age-related cognitive decline and may increase the vulnerability to develop psychiatric conditions. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been implicated in pathogenesis though any causative role for glucocorticoids is unestablished. This study investigated the contribution of local glucocorticoid regeneration by the intracellular enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), in persisting midlife stress-induced behavioral effects in mice...
December 23, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304448/reinstatement-of-instrumental-actions-in-humans-possible-mechanisms-and-their-implications-to-prevent-it
#8
A Matías Gámez, Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa
The study of post-extinction recovery effects in humans has received significant attention. For instance, research on reinstatement has increased in the last decade. However, most of the studies focus on the return of fear responses. In the present experiments, we used a videogame task to explore the reinstatement of operant behavior in human participants. In Experiment 1, after participants learned to shoot at enemies, they received an extinction procedure that eliminated the shooting behavior. However, the mere reintroduction of the outcome reinstated the original response...
January 2, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294853/qualitatively-understanding-mother-fault-after-childhood-sexual-abuse
#9
Jessica L Zagrodney, Jorden A Cummings
Socially constructed images of motherhood suggest that a "good" mother is caring, nurturing, and selfless-the perfect maternal figure. When these standards are not met, mother blaming (i.e., assigning fault to mothers) occurs even in child sexual abuse (CSA) cases. We collected 312 open-ended responses in total from 108 community-based participants to understand contextual factors that increase and decrease in mother fault in a CSA-related vignette depicting the mother's partner as the perpetrator. Thematic analysis revealed five main themes...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294846/-how-many-silences-are-there-men-s-experience-of-victimization-in-intimate-partner-relationships
#10
Carolyn Brooks, Stephanie Martin, Lisa Broda, Jennifer Poudrier
There is a substantive body of research focusing on women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV), but a lack of qualitative studies focusing on men's experiences as victims of IPV. This article addresses this gap in the literature by paying particular attention to hegemonic masculinities and men's perceptions of IPV. Men ( N = 9) participated in in-depth interviews. Interview data were rigorously subjected to thematic analysis, which revealed five key themes in the men's narratives: fear of IPV, maintaining power and control, victimization as a forbidden narrative, critical understanding of IPV, and breaking the silence...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294685/bystander-interventions-on-behalf-of-sexual-assault-and-intimate-partner-violence-victims
#11
Abigail Weitzman, Sarah Cowan, Kate Walsh
Using newly available U.S. nationally representative data from the No More study ( N = 1,307), this article investigates (a) knowledge of sexual assault and intimate partner violence (IPV) victims within one's social network; (b) who intervenes, whom they intervene on behalf of, and how they intervene; and (c) the perceived barriers to intervening in IPV specifically. The findings reveal that knowledge of violence, the likelihood of intervening, and the intervention approaches taken all vary demographically and by violence type...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288824/inhaled-lavandula-angustifolia-essential-oil-inhibits-consolidation-of-contextual-but-not-tone-fear-conditioning-in-rats
#12
Laura Segismundo Coelho, Nelson Francisco Correa-Netto, Marcia Yuriko Masukawa, Ariadiny Caetano Lima, Samia Maluf, Alessandra Linardi, Jair Guilherme Santos-Junior
Although the current treatment for anxiety is effective, it promotes a number of adverse reactions and medical interactions. Inhaled essential oils have a prominent action on the central nervous system, with minimal systemic effects, primarily because of reduced systemic bioavailability. The effects of drugs on the consolidation of fear conditioning reflects its clinical efficacy in preventing a vicious cycle of anticipatory anxiety leading to fearful cognition and anxiety symptoms. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhaled Lavandula angustifolia essential oil on the consolidation of aversive memories and its influence on c-Fos expression...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258546/hippocampal-calpain-is-required-for-the-consolidation-and-reconsolidation-but-not-extinction-of-contextual-fear-memory
#13
Taikai Nagayoshi, Kiichiro Isoda, Nori Mamiya, Satoshi Kida
Memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction have been shown to share similar molecular signatures, including new gene expression. Calpain is a Ca2+-dependent protease that exerts its effects through the proteolytic cleavage of target proteins. Neuron-specific conditional deletions of calpain 1 and 2 impair long-term potentiation in the hippocampus and spatial learning. Moreover, recent studies have suggested distinct roles of calpain 1 and 2 in synaptic plasticity. However, the role of hippocampal calpain in memory processes, especially memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction, is still unclear...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249047/electrolytic-post-training-lesions-of-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-block-startle-potentiation-in-a-cued-fear-conditioning-procedure
#14
Kelly Luyck, Bart Nuttin, Laura Luyten
Existing neuroanatomical models argue that the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) principally mediates sustained, long-lasting fear or anxiety responses, but not shorter, phasic fear responses, although recent studies paint a more complex picture. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of post-training electrolytic BST lesions in a cued fear conditioning protocol with relatively short (10 s) tones. We hypothesized that the BST would not play a crucial role in the expression of fear upon re-exposure to the conditioned tones...
December 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246925/a%C3%AE-mediates-f-actin-disassembly-in-dendritic-spines-leading-to-cognitive-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Reddy Peera Kommaddi, Debajyoti Das, Smitha Karunakaran, Siddharth Nanguneri, Deepti Bapat, Ajit Ray, Eisha Shaw, David A Bennett, Deepak Nair, Vijayalakshmi Ravindranath
Dendritic spine loss is recognized as an early feature of Alzheimer's disease, however the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Dendritic spine structure is defined by filamentous actin (F-actin) and we observed depolymerization of synaptosomal F-actin accompanied by increased G-actin, as early as 1 month of age in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD; APPswe/PS1ΔE9, male mice). This led to recall deficit after contextual fear conditioning (cFC) at 2 months of age in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 male mice, which could be reversed by actin polymerizing agent, jasplakinolide...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239478/the-effect-of-emotionally-valenced-eye-region-images-on-visuocortical-processing-of-surprised-faces
#16
Shuaixia Li, Ping Li, Wei Wang, Xiangru Zhu, Wenbo Luo
In this study, we presented pictorial representations of happy, neutral, and fearful expressions projected in the eye regions to determine whether the eye region alone is sufficient to produce a context effect. Participants were asked to judge the valence of surprised faces that had been preceded by a picture of an eye region. Behavioral results showed that affective ratings of surprised faces were context dependent. Prime-related ERPs with presentation of happy eyes elicited a larger P1 than those for neutral and fearful eyes, likely due to the recognition advantage provided by a happy expression...
December 14, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238619/hippocampal-regulation-of-postsynaptic-density-homer1-by-associative-learning
#17
Nicholas E Clifton, Darren Cameron, Simon Trent, Lucy H Sykes, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Genes involved in synaptic plasticity, particularly genes encoding postsynaptic density proteins, have been recurrently linked to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Postsynaptic density Homer1 proteins contribute to synaptic plasticity through the competing actions of short and long isoforms. The activity-induced expression of short Homer1 isoforms, Homer1a and Ania-3, is thought to be related to processes of learning and memory. However, the precise regulation of Homer1a and Ania-3 with different components of learning has not been investigated...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238297/short-term-total-sleep-deprivation-impairs-contextual-fear-memory-and-contextual-fear-conditioning-reduces-rem-sleep-in-moderately-anxious-swiss-mice
#18
Munazah F Qureshi, Sushil K Jha
The conditioning tasks have been widely used to model fear and anxiety and to study their association with sleep. Many reports suggest that sleep plays a vital role in the consolidation of fear memory. Studies have also demonstrated that fear-conditioning influences sleep differently in mice strains having a low or high anxiety level. It is, therefore, necessary to know, how sleep influences fear-conditioning and how fear-conditioning induces changes in sleep architecture in moderate anxious strains. We have used Swiss mice, a moderate anxious strain, to study the effects of: (i) sleep deprivation on contextual fear conditioned memory, and also (ii) contextual fear conditioning on sleep architecture...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227882/kalaban-young-drug-users-engagements-with-law-enforcement-in-the-philippines
#19
Gideon Lasco
BACKGROUND: A violent 'war on drugs' continues to be waged in the Philippines, even as the use of drugs - particular methamphetamine - continues to rise. Furnishing contextual background to the current situation, this paper explores how long-running law enforcement approaches in the Philippines might be viewed by those in their receiving end by presenting findings of an ethnography among marginalized young men. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among 20 young men throughout a 12-month period of participant-observation from December 2011 to September 2013...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225949/improving-postpartum-care-delivery-and-uptake-by-implementing-context-specific-interventions-in-four-countries-in-africa-a-realist-evaluation-of-the-missed-opportunities-in-maternal-and-infant-health-momi-project
#20
Nehla Djellouli, Sue Mann, Bejoy Nambiar, Paula Meireles, Diana Miranda, Henrique Barros, Fadima Y Bocoum, W Maurice E Yaméogo, Clarisse Yaméogo, Sylvie Belemkoabga, Halima Tougri, Abou Coulibaly, Seni Kouanda, Vernon Mochache, Omar K Mwakusema, Eunice Irungu, Peter Gichangi, Zione Dembo, Angela Kadzakumanja, Charles Vidonji Makwenda, Judite Timóteo, Misete G Cossa, Malica de Melo, Sally Griffin, Nafissa B Osman, Severiano Foia, Emilomo Ogbe, Els Duysburgh, Tim Colbourn
Postpartum care (PPC) has remained relatively neglected in many interventions designed to improve maternal and neonatal health in sub-Saharan Africa. The Missed Opportunities in Maternal and Infant Health project developed and implemented a context-specific package of health system strengthening and demand generation in four African countries, aiming to improve access and quality of PPC. A realist evaluation was conducted to enable nuanced understanding of the influence of different contextual factors on both the implementation and impacts of the interventions...
2017: BMJ Global Health
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