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Contextual fear

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775673/gender-dependent-contribution-of-muscarinic-receptors-in-memory-retrieval-under-sub-chronic-stress
#1
Habiba Rashid, Touqeer Ahmed
Stress induces retrograde amnesia in humans and rodents. Muscarinic antagonism under normal physiological conditions causes gender dependent impairment in episodic memory retrieval. We aimed to explore the gender dependent role of muscarinic receptors in memory retrieval under sub-chronic stress condition. Male and female mice were trained for Morris water maze test and contextual fear conditioning, followed by 3 hour restraint stress per day for five days. Stress was either given alone or in combination with a daily subcutaneous injection of scopolamine (1 mg/kg) or donepezil (1 mg/kg)...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763466/the-enhancement-effect-of-estradiol-on-contextual-fear-conditioning-in-female-mice
#2
Yui K Matsumoto, Masanori Kasai, Kazuya Tomihara
Several studies have reported regulatory effects of estrogens on fear conditioning in female rodents. However, these studies used different doses, durations, and/or administration methods, and reported inconsistent results. To clarify the effect of estrogen on fear conditioning, we investigated the effects of different doses and durations of estradiol administration on freezing behavior during contextual fear conditioning in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. In Experiment 1, OVX ICR mice received a single subcutaneous (s...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756314/exploring-attentional-biases-towards-facial-expressions-of-pain-in-men-and-women
#3
E Keogh, F Cheng, S Wang
BACKGROUND: Interpersonal factors may help explain why men and women differ in their perception and expression of pain. Whilst the focus is often on the person in pain, how observers respond to those in pain is important. This study explored whether male-female differences exist in the way observers attend to expressions of pain in others. METHODS: 53 adults (26 females) completed a visual dot-probe task, to measure selective attentional biases to facial expressions of pain and fear...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752958/an-update-on-contextual-fear-memory-mechanisms-transition-between-amygdala-and-hippocampus
#4
REVIEW
Nicholas Chaaya, Andrew R Battle, Luke R Johnson
Context is an ever-present combination of discrete environmental elements capable of influencing many psychological processes. When context is associated with an aversive stimulus, a permanent contextual fear memory is formed. Context is hypothesized to greatly influence the treatability of various fear-based pathologies, in particular, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In order to understand how contextual fear memories are encoded and impact underlying fear pathology, delineation of the underlying neural circuitry of contextual fear memory consolidation and maintenance is essential...
May 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751931/effects-of-affective-and-emotional-congruency-on-facial-expression-processing-under-different-task-demands
#5
Luis Aguado, Natalia Martínez-García, Andrea Solís-Olce, Teresa Dieguez-Risco, José Antonio Hinojosa
Contextual influences on responses to facial expressions of emotion were studied using a context-target paradigm that allowed distinguishing the effects of affective congruency (context and target of same/different valence: positive or negative) and emotional congruency (context and target representing the same/different emotion: anger, fear, happiness). Sentences describing anger, fear or happiness-inducing events and faces expressing each of these emotions were used as contexts and targets, respectively. While between-valence comparisons (context and target of similar/different valence) revealed affective congruency effects, within-valence comparisons (context and target of similar valence and same/different emotion) revealed emotional congruency effects...
May 8, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750975/nicotine-increases-fear-responses-and-brain-acetylcholinesterase-activity-in-a-context-dependent-manner-in-zebrafish
#6
Paola R Ziani, Talise E Müller, Flavia V Stefanello, Barbara D Fontana, Tâmie Duarte, Julia Canzian, Denis B Rosemberg
Nicotine is an alkaloid with positive effects on learning and memory processes. Exposure to conspecific alarm substance (CAS) elicits fear responses in zebrafish, but the effects of nicotine on aversive behaviors and associative learning in this species remain unclear. Here, we evaluated whether nicotine enhances contextual fear responses in zebrafish and investigated a putative involvement of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in associative learning. Fish were exposed to 1 mg/L nicotine for 3 min and then kept in non-chlorinated water for 20 min...
May 8, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749116/neonatal-pain-and-stress-disrupts-later-life-pavlovian-fear-conditioning-and-sensory-function-in-rats-evidence-for-a-two-hit-model
#7
Seth M Davis, Makaela Rice, Jacob Rudlong, Victoria Eaton, Tamara King, Michael A Burman
Early life trauma has been linked to increased risks for anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. We used rodent models of acute and inflammatory neonatal pain to explore effects on fear conditioning and somatosensory function. Hindpaw needle pricks or handling on postnatal days (PNDs) 1-7 caused lasting impacts on affective and somatosensory function when assessed at later ages, PNDs 24 (postweaning), 45 (adolescence), or 66 (adulthood). First, auditory, but not contextual, freezing was mildly disrupted regardless of age...
May 10, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747244/nucleus-reuniens-of-the-thalamus-controls-fear-memory-intensity-specificity-and-long-term-maintenance-during-consolidation
#8
Fernanda Troyner, Maira A Bicca, Leandro J Bertoglio
The thalamic nucleus reuniens (NR) has been shown to support bidirectional medial prefrontal cortex-hippocampus communication and synchronization relevant for cognitive processing. Using non-selective or prolonged inactivation of the NR, previous studies reported its activity positively modulates aversive memory consolidation. Here we examined the NR's role in consolidating contextual fear memories with varied strength, at both recent and more remote time points, using muscimol-induced temporary inactivation in rats...
May 10, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740084/periodical-reactivation-under-the-effect-of-caffeine-attenuates-fear-memory-expression-in-rats
#9
Lizeth K Pedraza, Rodrigo O Sierra, Fernanda N Lotz, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares
In the last decade, several studies have shown that fear memories can be attenuated by interfering with reconsolidation. However, most of the pharmacological agents used in preclinical studies cannot be administered to humans. Caffeine is one of the world's most popular psychoactive drugs and its effects on cognitive and mood states are well documented. Nevertheless, the influence of caffeine administration on fear memory processing is not as clear. We employed contextual fear conditioning in rats and acute caffeine administration under a standard memory reconsolidation protocol or periodical memory reactivation...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733661/trauma-exposure-and-aggression-toward-partners-and-children-contextual-influences-of-fear-and-anger
#10
Amy D Marshall, Michael E Roettger, Alexandra C Mattern, Mark E Feinberg, Damon E Jones
Trauma exposure is a consistent correlate of intimate partner aggression (IPA) and parent-to-child aggression (PCA) perpetration, and difficulties with emotions (particularly fear and anger) are hypothesized to underlie these relations. However, the absence of knowledge of the immediate, contextual influence of emotions on aggression renders existing conclusions tenuous. This study illustrates a new method for studying contextual influences on aggressive behavior. Quarterly for 1 year, 94 men and 109 women with children age 2...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714053/sulforaphane-upregulates-the-heat-shock-protein-co-chaperone-chip-and-clears-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-tau-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Siyoung Lee, Bo-Ryoung Choi, Jisung Kim, Frank M LaFerla, Jung Han Yoon Park, Jung-Soo Han, Ki Won Lee, Jiyoung Kim
SCOPE: Sulforaphane is an herbal isothiocyanate enriched in cruciferous vegetables. Here, we investigated whether sulforaphane modulates the production of amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau, the two main pathological factors in Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS AND RESULTS: A triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3 × Tg-AD) was used to study the effect of sulforaphane. Oral gavage of sulforaphane reduced protein levels of monomeric and polymeric forms of Aβ as well as tau and phosphorylated tau in 3 × Tg-AD mice...
April 30, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712785/remote-memory-and-cortical-synaptic-plasticity-require-neuronal-ccctc-binding-factor-ctcf
#12
Somi Kim, Nam-Kyung Yu, Kyu-Won Shim, Ji-Il Kim, Hyopil Kim, Dae Hee Han, Ja Eun Choi, Seung-Woo Lee, Dong Il Choi, Myung Won Kim, Dong-Sung Lee, Kyungmin Lee, Niels Galjart, Yong-Seok Lee, Jae-Hyung Lee, Bong-Kiun Kaang
The molecular mechanism of long-term memory has been extensively studied in the context of the hippocampus-dependent recent memory examined within several days. However, months-old remote memory maintained in the cortex for long-term has not been investigated much at the molecular level yet. Various epigenetic mechanisms are known to be important for long-term memory, but how the three-dimensional (3D) chromatin architecture and its regulator molecules contribute to neuronal plasticity and systems consolidation are still largely unknown...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705603/hypobaric-hypoxia-impairs-cued-and-contextual-fear-memory-in-rats
#13
Punita Kumari, Hina Kauser, Meetu Wadhwa, Koustav Roy, Shahnawaz Alam, Surajit Sahu, Krishna Kishore, Koushik Ray, Usha Panjwani
Fear memory is essential for survival, and its dysregulation leads to disorders. High altitude hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is known to induce cognitive decline. However, its effect on fear memory is still an enigma. We aimed to investigate the temporal effect of HH on fear conditioning and the underlying mechanism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained for fear conditioning and exposed to simulated HH equivalent to 25,000 ft for different durations (1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days). Subsequently, rats were tested for cued and contextual fear conditioning...
April 26, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704283/selective-dopamine-d-3-receptor-antagonism-significantly-attenuates-stress-induced-immobility-in-a-rat-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#14
Onarae V Rice, Charles R Ashby, Clark Dixon, William Laurenzo, Jason Hayden, Rui Song, Jin Li, Amit K Tiwari, Eliot L Gardner
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric syndrome that occurs in individuals exposed to extremely threatening or traumatic events. In both animals and humans, dopamine (DA) function appears to be dysregulated in brain areas involved in the conditioned fear response(s) that underlie PTSD. In this study, we determined the effect of the selective DA D3 receptor antagonists YQA14A (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg i.p.) and SB-277011A (6 mg/kg i.p.) on tone-induced fear (assessed by measuring freeze time) in a modified version of the single-prolonged stress (SPS) model of PTSD in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 27, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702698/comprehensive-behavioral-analysis-of-the-cdkl5-knockout-mice-revealed-significant-enhancement-in-anxiety-and-fear-related-behaviors-and-impairment-in-both-acquisition-and-long-term-retention-of-spatial-reference-memory
#15
Kosuke Okuda, Keizo Takao, Aya Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Masashi Mizuguchi, Teruyuki Tanaka
Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700265/interregional-synaptic-maps-among-engram-cells-underlie-memory-formation
#16
Jun-Hyeok Choi, Su-Eon Sim, Ji-Il Kim, Dong Il Choi, Jihae Oh, Sanghyun Ye, Jaehyun Lee, TaeHyun Kim, Hyoung-Gon Ko, Chae-Seok Lim, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Memory resides in engram cells distributed across the brain. However, the site-specific substrate within these engram cells remains theoretical, even though it is generally accepted that synaptic plasticity encodes memories. We developed the dual-eGRASP (green fluorescent protein reconstitution across synaptic partners) technique to examine synapses between engram cells to identify the specific neuronal site for memory storage. We found an increased number and size of spines on CA1 engram cells receiving input from CA3 engram cells...
April 27, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689696/emotion-recognition-from-faces-with-in-and-out-group-features-in-patients-with-depression
#17
Carla Liedtke, Waldemar Kohl, Mariska Esther Kret, Katja Koelkebeck
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that context (e.g. culture) can have an impact on speed and accuracy when identifying facial expressions of emotion. Patients with a major depressive disorder (MDD) are known to have deficits in the identification of facial expressions, tending to give rather stereotypical judgments. While healthy individuals perceive situations which conflict with their own cultural values more negatively, this pattern would be even stronger in MDD patients, as their altered mood results in stronger biases...
February 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681867/beyond-extinction-prolonged-conditioning-and-repeated-threat-exposure-abolish-contextual-renewal-of-fear-potentiated-startle-discrimination-but-leave-expectancy-ratings-intact
#18
Arne Leer, Kim Haesen, Bram Vervliet
Extinction treatments decrease fear via repeated exposures to the conditioned stimulus (CS) and are associated with a return of fear. Alternatively, fear can be reduced via reductions in the perceived intensity of the unconditioned stimulus (US), e.g., through repeated exposures to the US. Promisingly, the few available studies show that repeated US exposures outperform standard extinction. US exposure treatments can decrease fear via two routes: (1) by weakening the CS-US association (extinction-like mechanism), and/or (2) by weakening the subjective US aversiveness (habituation-like mechanism)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680979/phencyclidine-and-scopolamine-for-modeling-amnesia-in-rodents-direct-comparison-with-the-use-of-barnes-maze-test-and-contextual-fear-conditioning-test-in-mice
#19
Natalia Malikowska-Racia, Adrian Podkowa, Kinga Sałat
Nowadays cognitive impairments are a growing unresolved medical issue which may accompany many diseases and therapies, furthermore, numerous researchers investigate various neurobiological aspects of human memory to find possible ways to improve it. Until any other method is discovered, in vivo studies remain the only available tool for memory evaluation. At first, researchers need to choose a model of amnesia which may strongly influence observed results. Thereby a deeper insight into a model itself may increase the quality and reliability of results...
April 21, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680772/%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-is-required-for-the-induction-of-a-labile-state-during-memory-reconsolidation
#20
Chae-Seok Lim, Jae-Ick Kim, Chuljung Kwak, Jaehyun Lee, Eun Hae Jang, Jihae Oh, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Memory reconsolidation is the process by which previously consolidated memories reenter a labile state through reactivation of the memory trace and are actively consolidated through de novo protein synthesis. Although extensive studies have shown that β-adrenergic signaling plays a critical role in the restabilization of reactivated memory, its role in the destabilization of long-term memory is not well-studied. In this study, we found that membrane excitability increased in hippocampal CA1 neurons immediately after the retrieval of contextual fear memory...
April 20, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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