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Contextual fear

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431906/transgenic-mice-with-increased-astrocyte-expression-of-ccl2-show-altered-behavioral-effects-of-alcohol
#1
Jennifer G Bray, Amanda J Roberts, Donna L Gruol
Emerging research provides strong evidence that activation of CNS glial cells occurs in neurological diseases and brain injury and results in elevated production of neuroimmune factors. These factors can contribute to pathophysiological processes that lead to altered CNS function. Recently, studies have also shown that both acute and chronic alcohol consumption can produce activation of CNS glial cells and the production of neuroimmune factors, particularly the chemokine CCL2. The consequences of alcohol-induced increases in CCL2 levels in the CNS have yet to be fully elucidated...
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430606/ketamine-administered-pregnant-rats-impair-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-via-the-creb-pathway
#2
Xinran Li, Cen Guo, Yanan Li, Lina Li, Yuxin Wang, Yiming Zhang, Yue Li, Yu Chen, Wenhan Liu, Li Gao
Ketamine has been reported to impair the capacity for learning and memory. This study examined whether these capacities were also altered in the offspring and investigated the role of the CREB signaling pathway in pregnant rats, subjected to ketamine-induced anesthesia. On the 14th day of gestation (P14), female rats were anesthetized for 3 h via intravenous ketamine injection (200 mg/Kg). Morris water maze task, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and olfactory tasks were executed between the 25th to 30th day after birth (B25-30) on rat pups, and rats were sacrificed on B30...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425495/the-biglen-gpr171-peptide-receptor-system-within-the-basolateral-amygdala-regulates-anxiety-like-behavior-and-contextual-fear-conditioning
#3
Erin N Bobeck, Ivone Gomes, Darlene Pena, Kirstie A Cummings, Roger L Clem, Mihaly Mezei, Lakshmi A Devi
Studies show that neuropeptide-receptor systems in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) play an important role in the pathology of anxiety and other mood disorders. Since GPR171, a recently deorphanized receptor for the abundant neuropeptide BigLEN, is expressed in the BLA, we investigated its role in fear and anxiety-like behaviors. To carry out these studies we identified small molecule ligands using a homology model of GPR171 to virtually screen a library of compounds. One of the hits, MS0021570_1, was identified as a GPR171 antagonist based on its ability to block (i) BigLEN-mediated activation of GPR171 in heterologous cells, (ii) BigLEN-mediated hyperpolarization of BLA pyramidal neurons, and (iii) feeding induced by DREADD-mediated activation of BigLEN containing AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417664/low-dose-systemic-scopolamine-disrupts-context-conditioning-in-rats
#4
Laura Luyten, Shauni Nuyts, Tom Beckers
Cholinergic neurotransmission plays a key role in learning and memory. Prior research with rats indicated that a low dose of pre-training scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg), a cholinergic receptor antagonist, did not affect cued fear conditioning, but did block renewal when injected before extinguishing a conditioned tone, opening up opportunities to pharmacologically improve exposure therapy for anxiety patients. Before translating these findings to the clinic, it is important to carefully examine how scopolamine affects contextual fear memories...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411272/disconnection-of-the-perirhinal-and-postrhinal-cortices-impairs-recognition-of-objects-in-context-but-not-contextual-fear-conditioning
#5
Victoria R Heimer-McGinn, D L Poeta, K Aghi, M Udawatta, R D Burwell
The perirhinal cortex (PER) is known to process object information, whereas the rodent postrhinal cortex (POR), homolog to the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) in primates, is thought to process spatial information. A number of studies, however, provide evidence that both areas are involved in processing contextual information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the rat POR relies on object information received from the PER to form complex representations of context. Using three fear conditioning paradigms (signaled, unsignaled, and renewal) and two context-guided object recognition tasks (with 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional objects), we examined the effects of crossed excitotoxic lesions to the POR and the contralateral PER...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411153/antagonism-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-disrupts-the-context-preexposure-facilitation-effect
#6
P A Robinson-Drummer, N A Heroux, M E Stanton
Cholinergic function plays a role in a variant of context fear conditioning known as the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE; Robinson-Drummer, Dokovna, Heroux, & Stanton, 2016). In the CPFE, acquisition of a context representation, the context-shock association, and expression of context fear occur across successive phases, usually 24hr apart. Systemic administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, prior to each phase (context preexposure, immediate-shock training, and testing) disrupts the CPFE in juvenile rats (Robinson-Drummer et al...
April 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408769/variable-and-person-centered-approaches-to-examining-temperament-vulnerability-and-resilience-to-the-effects-of-contextual-risk
#7
Lyndsey Moran, Liliana J Lengua, Maureen Zalewski, Erika Ruberry, Melanie Klien, Stephanie Thompson, Cara Kiff
Using both variable- and person-centered approaches, this study examined the role of temperament in relation to children's vulnerable or resilient responses to cumulative risk. Observed reactivity and regulation dimensions of temperament were tested as mediating and moderating the relation between family cumulative risk and teacher-reported adjustment problems in a sample of 259 preschool-age children. Further, latent profile analyses were used to examine whether profiles of temperament, accounting for multiple characteristics simultaneously, provided additional information about the role of temperament in children's responses to risk...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399837/fear-of-re-injury-and-return-to-work-following-compensable-injury-qualitative-insights-from-key-stakeholders-in-victoria-australia
#8
Samantha Bunzli, Nabita Singh, Danielle Mazza, Alex Collie, Agnieszka Kosny, Rasa Ruseckaite, Bianca Brijnath
BACKGROUND: Return to work (RTW) is important for recovery post-injury. Fear of (re)injury is a strong predictor of delayed RTW, and therefore much attention has been given to addressing injured workers' fear beliefs. However, RTW is a socially-negotiated process and it may be important to consider the wider social context of the injured worker, including the beliefs of the key people involved in their RTW journey. METHODS: This paper involves data collected as part of a wider study in which semi-structured interviews explored RTW from the perspectives of 93 key stakeholders: injured workers, GPs, employers and insurance case managers in Victoria, Australia...
April 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392321/pharmacological-modulation-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-5-and-7-impairs-extinction-of-social-fear-in-a-time-point-dependent-manner
#9
David A Slattery, Inga D Neumann, Peter J Flor, Iulia Zoicas
Pharmacological modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) and 7 (mGluR7) was shown to attenuate the acquisition and to facilitate the extinction of cued and contextual, non-social, fear. Using the allosteric mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) and the allosteric mGluR7 agonist N,N'-dibenzyhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride (AMN082), we aimed to study how pharmacological blockade of mGluR5 and activation of mGluR7 influence acquisition and extinction of social fear in mice...
April 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389208/role-of-the-amygdala-gaba-a-receptors-in-acpa-induced-deficits-during-conditioned-fear-learning
#10
Mohammad Nasehi, Farnaz Roghani, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key structure for the emotional processing and storage of memories associated with emotional events, especially fear. On the other hand, endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors play a key role in learning and memory partly through long-term synaptic depression of GABAergic synapses in the BLA. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of GABA-A receptor agonist and antagonist in the fear-related memory acquisition deficits induced by ACPA (a selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist)...
April 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386983/investigating-the-factors-that-affect-the-communication-of-death-related-bad-news-to-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-by-staff-in-residential-and-supported-living-services-an-interview-study
#11
I Tuffrey-Wijne, T Rose
BACKGROUND: Most staff working in intellectual disability services will be confronted with people with intellectual disabilities who need support around death, dying and bereavement. Previous studies suggest that intellectual disability staff tend to protect clients from knowing about death and avoid communication about death. The aims of this study were to gain further insight into the individual, organisational and contextual factors that affect the communication of death-related bad news to people with intellectual disabilities by intellectual disability staff and to develop guidelines for services to enable appropriate communication with clients about death and dying...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386011/engrams-and-circuits-crucial-for-systems-consolidation-of-a-memory
#12
Takashi Kitamura, Sachie K Ogawa, Dheeraj S Roy, Teruhiro Okuyama, Mark D Morrissey, Lillian M Smith, Roger L Redondo, Susumu Tonegawa
Episodic memories initially require rapid synaptic plasticity within the hippocampus for their formation and are gradually consolidated in neocortical networks for permanent storage. However, the engrams and circuits that support neocortical memory consolidation have thus far been unknown. We found that neocortical prefrontal memory engram cells, which are critical for remote contextual fear memory, were rapidly generated during initial learning through inputs from both the hippocampal-entorhinal cortex network and the basolateral amygdala...
April 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385873/synaptic-targeting-of-double-projecting-ventral-ca1-hippocampal-neurons-to-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-basal-amygdala
#13
Woong Bin Kim, Jun-Hyeong Cho
The acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory requires coordinated neural activity in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and amygdala. The contextual information encoded in the hippocampus is conveyed to the mPFC and amygdala for contextual fear conditioning. Previous studies have suggested that a CA1 neuronal population in the ventral hippocampus (VH) projects to both the mPFC and amygdala and is recruited in context-dependent control of conditioned fear. However, how double-projecting ventral CA1 (vCA1) neurons modulate the activity of the mPFC and amygdala at the synaptic level has not been previously determined...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383773/a-dissociation-between-renewal-and-contextual-fear-conditioning-in-juvenile-rats
#14
Chun Hui J Park, Despina E Ganella, Jee Hyun Kim
We investigated whether juvenile rats do not express renewal following extinction of conditioned fear due to their inability to form a long-term contextual fear memory. In experiment 1, postnatal day (P) 18 and 25 rats received 3 white-noise and footshock pairings, followed by 60 white-noise alone presentations the next day. When tested in a different context to extinction, P25 rats displayed renewal whereas P18 rats did not. Experiments 2A and 2B surprisingly showed that P18 and P25 rats do not show differences in contextual and cued fear, regardless of the conditioning-test intervals and the number of white-noise-footshock pairings received...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382952/parvalbumin-expressing-interneurons-coordinate-hippocampal-network-dynamics-required-for-memory-consolidation
#15
Nicolette Ognjanovski, Samantha Schaeffer, Jiaxing Wu, Sima Mofakham, Daniel Maruyama, Michal Zochowski, Sara J Aton
Activity in hippocampal area CA1 is essential for consolidating episodic memories, but it is unclear how CA1 activity patterns drive memory formation. We find that in the hours following single-trial contextual fear conditioning (CFC), fast-spiking interneurons (which typically express parvalbumin (PV)) show greater firing coherence with CA1 network oscillations. Post-CFC inhibition of PV+ interneurons blocks fear memory consolidation. This effect is associated with loss of two network changes associated with normal consolidation: (1) augmented sleep-associated delta (0...
April 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366664/memory-retrieval-re-activates-erk1-2-signaling-in-the-same-set-of-ca1-neurons-recruited-during-conditioning
#16
Cristina Zamorano, Jordi Fernández, Daniel R Storm, Xavier Carné, Carlos Sindreu
The hippocampus enables a range of behaviors through its intrinsic circuits and concerted actions with other brain regions. One such important function is the retrieval of episodic memories. How hippocampal cells support retrieval of contextual fear memory remains largely unclear. Here we monitored phospho-activation of extracellular-regulated kinase (Erk1/2) across neuronal populations of the hippocampus to find that CA1 pyramidal neurons, but not cells in CA3 or dentate gyrus, specifically respond to retrieval of an aversive context...
March 31, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345433/the-contextual-malleability-of-approach-avoidance-training-effects-approaching-or-avoiding-fear-conditioned-stimuli-modulates-effects-of-approach-avoidance-training
#17
Gaëtan Mertens, Pieter Van Dessel, Jan De Houwer
Previous research showed that the repeated approaching of one stimulus and avoiding of another stimulus typically leads to more positive evaluations of the former stimuli. In the current study, we examined whether approach and avoidance training (AAT) effects on evaluations of neutral stimuli can be modulated by introducing a regularity between the approach-avoidance actions and a positive or negative (feared) stimulus. In an AAT task, participants repeatedly approached one neutral non-word and avoided another neutral non-word...
March 27, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344069/selective-post-training-time-window-for-memory-consolidation-interference-of-cannabidiol-into-the-prefrontal-cortex-reduced-dopaminergic-modulation-and-immediate-gene-expression-in-limbic-circuits
#18
Matheus Teixeira Rossignoli, Cleiton Lopes-Aguiar, Rafael Naime Ruggiero, Raquel Araujo Do Val da Silva, Lezio Soares Bueno-Junior, Ludmyla Kandratavicius, José Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, José Alexandre Crippa, Jaime Eduardo Cecilio Hallak, Antonio Waldo Zuardi, Raphael Escorsim Szawka, Janete Anselmo-Franci, João Pereira Leite, Rodrigo Neves Romcy-Pereira
The prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala and hippocampus display a coordinated activity during acquisition of associative fear memories. Evidence indicates that PFC engagement in aversive memory formation does not progress linearly as previously thought. Instead, it seems to be recruited at specific time windows after memory acquisition, which has implications for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid of the Cannabis sativa plant, is known to modulate contextual fear memory acquisition in rodents...
March 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341611/extinction-memory-is-facilitated-by-methylphenidate-and-regulated-by-dopamine-and-noradrenaline-receptors
#19
Cristiane R G Furini, Jonny A K Behling, Carolina G Zinn, Mara Lise Zanini, Eduardo Assis Brasil, Luiza Doro Pereira, Ivan Izquierdo, Jociane de Carvalho Myskiw
Extinction is defined as the learned inhibition of retrieval and is the mainstay of exposure therapy, which is widely used to treat drug addiction, phobias and fear disorders. The psychostimulant, methylphenidate (MPH) is known to increase extracellular levels of noradrenaline and dopamine by blocking their reuptake and studies have demonstrated that MPH can modulate hippocampal physiology and/or functions including long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. However, the influence of MPH on fear extinction memory has been insufficiently studied...
March 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341234/radioprotective-effect-of-ursolic-acid-in-radiation-induced-impairment-of-neurogenesis-learning-and-memory-in-adolescent-balb-c-mouse
#20
Feng Ru Tang, Weng Keong Loke, Peiyan Wong, Boo Cheong Khoo
The effect of acute irradiation with 5Gy or fractionated exposure with 0.5Gy continuously for 10days (a total dose of 5Gy) was evaluated in an immature BALB/c mouse model. Radioprotective effect of ursolic acid (at 25mg/kg/daily administered 1h after acute or each of fractionated irradiations, and continuously for 30days) was also investigated. We found that both acute and fractionated irradiation at a total dose of 5Gy did not induce any mortality within 30days after exposure to postnatal day 26 (P26) BALB/c mice, but reduced animal weigh gain in the first few weeks...
March 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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