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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727687/hippocampus-dependent-memory-and-allele-specific-gene-expression-in-adult-offspring-of-alcohol-consuming-dams-after-neonatal-treatment-with-thyroxin-or-metformin
#1
E Tunc-Ozcan, S L Wert, P H Lim, A Ferreira, E E Redei
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), the result of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE), affects 2-11% of children worldwide, with no effective treatments. Hippocampus-based learning and memory deficits are key symptoms of FASD. Our previous studies show hypothyroxinemia and hyperglycemia of the alcohol-consuming pregnant rat, which likely affects fetal neurodevelopment. We administered vehicle, thyroxine (T4) or metformin to neonatal rats post FAE and rats were tested in the hippocampus-dependent contextual fear-conditioning paradigm in adulthood...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719855/high-fat-diet-and-aging-interact-to-produce-neuroinflammation-and-impair-hippocampal-and-amygdalar-dependent-memory
#2
Sarah J Spencer, Heather D'Angelo, Alita Soch, Linda R Watkins, Steven F Maier, Ruth M Barrientos
More Americans are consuming diets higher in saturated fats and refined sugars than ever before, and based on increasing obesity rates, this is a growing trend among older adults as well. While high saturated fat diet (HFD) consumption has been shown to sensitize the inflammatory response to a subsequent immune challenge in young adult rats, the inflammatory effect of HFD in the already-vulnerable aging brain has not yet been assessed. Here, we explored whether short-term (3 days) consumption of HFD would serve as a neuroinflammatory trigger in aging animals, leading to cognitive deficits...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716957/ampa-receptors-control-fear-extinction-through-an-arc-dependent-mechanism
#3
Simon Trent, Philip Barnes, Jeremy Hall, Kerrie L Thomas
Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) supports fear memory through synaptic plasticity events requiring actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. We have previously shown that reducing hippocampal Arc levels through antisense knockdown leads to the premature extinction of contextual fear. Here we show that the AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX elevates hippocampal Arc levels during extinction and blocks extinction that can be rescued by reducing Arc. Increasing Arc levels with CNQX also overcomes the actin-destabilizing properties of cytochalasin D and promotes extinction...
August 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716956/a-comparison-of-behavioral-and-pharmacological-interventions-to-attenuate-reactivated-fear-memories
#4
Roque I Ferrer Monti, Joaquín M Alfei, Matías Mugnaini, Adrián M Bueno, Tom Beckers, Gonzalo P Urcelay, Victor A Molina
Two experiments using rats in a contextual fear memory preparation compared two approaches to reduce conditioned fear: (1) pharmacological reconsolidation blockade and (2) reactivation-plus-extinction training. In Experiment 1, we explored different combinations of reactivation-plus-extinction parameters to reduce conditioned fear and attenuate reacquisition. In Experiment 2, memory reactivation was followed by extinction training or administration of midazolam (MDZ) (vs. vehicle) to reduce conditioned fear and attenuate spontaneous recovery...
August 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716955/acute-exercise-enhances-the-consolidation-of-fear-extinction-memory-and-reduces-conditioned-fear-relapse-in-a-sex-dependent-manner
#5
Courtney A Bouchet, Brian A Lloyd, Esteban C Loetz, Caroline E Farmer, Mykola Ostrovskyy, Natalie Haddad, Rebecca M Foright, Benjamin N Greenwood
Fear extinction-based exposure therapy is the most common behavioral therapy for anxiety and trauma-related disorders, but fear extinction memories are labile and fear tends to return even after successful extinction. The relapse of fear contributes to the poor long-term efficacy of exposure therapy. A single session of voluntary exercise can enhance the acquisition and consolidation of fear extinction in male rats, but the effects of exercise on relapse of fear after extinction are not well understood. Here, we characterized the effects of 2 h of voluntary exercise during the consolidation phase of contextual or auditory fear extinction learning on long-term fear extinction memory and renewal in adult, male and female, Long-Evans rats...
August 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716952/differential-involvement-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-across-variants-of-contextual-fear-conditioning
#6
Nicholas A Heroux, Patrese A Robinson-Drummer, Hollie R Sanders, Jeffrey B Rosen, Mark E Stanton
The context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) is a contextual fear conditioning paradigm in which learning about the context, acquiring the context-shock association, and retrieving/expressing contextual fear are temporally dissociated into three distinct phases. In contrast, learning about the context and the context-shock association happens concurrently in standard contextual fear conditioning (sCFC). By infusing the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol into medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in adolescent Long-Evans rats, the current set of experiments examined the functional role of the mPFC in each phase of the CPFE and sCFC...
August 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715454/reduction-of-cav1-3-channels-in-dorsal-hippocampus-impairs-the-development-of-dentate-gyrus-newborn-neurons-and-hippocampal-dependent-memory-tasks
#7
Su-Hyun Kim, Ye-Ryoung Park, Boyoung Lee, Byungil Choi, Hyun Kim, Chong-Hyun Kim
Cav1.3 has been suggested to mediate hippocampal neurogenesis of adult mice and contribute to hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes. However, the mechanism of Cav1.3 contribution in these processes is unclear. Here, roles of Cav1.3 of mouse dorsal hippocampus during newborn cell development were examined. We find that knock-out (KO) of Cav1.3 resulted in the reduction of survival of newborn neurons at 28 days old after mitosis. The retroviral eGFP expression showed that both dendritic complexity and the number and length of mossy fiber bouton (MFB) filopodia of newborn neurons at ≥ 14 days old were significantly reduced in KO mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714699/putting-context-in-context-the-effects-of-body-posture-and-emotion-scene-on-adult-categorizations-of-disgust-facial-expressions
#8
Peter J Reschke, Jennifer M Knothe, Lukas D Lopez, Eric A Walle
Affective face perception is influenced by nonfacial contextual elements. However, investigations often conflate body posture and emotion scene, making it unclear whether posture or the combination of posture and scene produces perception-altering effects. This study examined adults' categorizations of disgust facial expressions superimposed onto isolated emotion postures or postures embedded in emotion scenes. Results indicated that emotional postures exerted a significant contextual effect on adults' emotion categorizations of disgust faces...
July 17, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712589/exposure-to-a-contextually-neutral-stressor-potentiates-fear-conditioning-in-juvenile-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#9
Brandon S Demuth, Maud C O Ferrari, Lynn P Weber, David M Janz, Douglas P Chivers
Organisms faced with stressors deploy a suite of adaptive responses in the form of behavioral, physiological and cognitive modifications to overcome the challenge. Interactive effects of these responses are known to influence learning and memory processes and facilitation is thought to be dependent, in part, upon contextual relevance of the stressor to the learning task. Predation is one such stressor for prey animals, and their ability to manage reliable information about predators is essential for adaptive antipredator strategies...
July 13, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711419/-barriers-to-treatment-seeking-among-german-veterans-expert-interviews
#10
Stefan Siegel, Heinrich Rau, Simone Dors, Loni Brants, Michaela Börner, Manuel Mahnke, Peter L Zimmermann, Gerd Willmund, Andreas Ströhle
BACKGROUND: The number of service members of the German armed forces suffering from deployment-related mental health problems is increasing. However, less than 50 % seek professional help, and there is little knowledge about barriers to treatment-seeking. METHODS: The article presents data gathered by the Delphi technique combined with focus groups from 55 health service experts regarding the evaluated barriers to treatment-seeking among German veterans. FINDINGS: According to the interviewed experts, major contextual barriers to treatment-seeking include: 1) intimidating processes and structures, 2) actual stigmatization and discrimination, and 3) deficits in supply...
July 12, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710525/differential-role-of-the-anterior-and-intralaminar-lateral-thalamic-nuclei-in-systems-consolidation-and-reconsolidation
#11
Joëlle Lopez, Karine Gamache, Carmelo Milo, Karim Nader
The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) and the intralaminar/lateral thalamic nuclei (ILN/LT) play different roles in memory processes. The ATN are believed to be part of an extended hippocampal system, and the ILN/LT have strong connections with the medial prefrontal cortex. It was shown that the ILN/LT are involved in systems consolidation. However, whether they are necessary for memory retrieval as well remains unclear. We, therefore, used c-Fos immunohistochemistry and reversible inactivations to investigate the role of the ATN and ILN/LT in recent and remote contextual fear memory retrieval in rats...
July 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708877/median-raphe-region-stimulation-alone-generates-remote-but-not-recent-fear-memory-traces
#12
Diána G Balázsfi, Dóra Zelena, Lívia Farkas, Kornél Demeter, István Barna, Csaba Cserép, Virág T Takács, Gábor Nyíri, Flóra Gölöncsér, Beáta Sperlágh, Tamás F Freund, József Haller
The median raphe region (MRR) is believed to control the fear circuitry indirectly, by influencing the encoding and retrieval of fear memories by amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Here we show that in addition to this established role, MRR stimulation may alone elicit the emergence of remote but not recent fear memories. We substituted electric shocks with optic stimulation of MRR in C57BL/6N male mice in an optogenetic conditioning paradigm and found that stimulations produced agitation, but not fear, during the conditioning trial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705439/activation-of-nociceptin-orphanin-fq-receptors-inhibits-contextual-fear-memory-reconsolidation
#13
Khaoula Rekik, Raquel Faria Da Silva, Morgane Colom, Salvatore Pacifico, Nurulain T Zaveri, Girolamo Calo', Claire Rampon, Bernard Frances, Lionel Mouledous
Several neuropeptidergic systems act as modulators of cognitive performances. Among them, nociceptin, an opioid-like peptide also known as orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), has recently gained attention. Stimulation of its receptor, the N/OFQ opioid receptor (NOP), which is expressed in brain regions involved in emotion, memory and stress response, has inhibitory effects on the acquisition and/or consolidation of spatial and emotional memory in rodents. Recently, N/OFQ was also proposed to be linked to the pathogenesis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in humans...
July 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688003/increased-training-intensity-induces-proper-membrane-localization-of-actin-remodeling-proteins-in-the-hippocampus-preventing-cognitive-deficits-implications-for-fragile-x-syndrome
#14
L A Martinez, Maria Victoria Tejada-Simon
Behavioral intervention therapy has proven beneficial in the treatment of autism and intellectual disabilities (ID), raising the possibility of certain changes in molecular mechanisms activated by these interventions that may promote learning. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by autistic features and intellectual disability and can serve as a model to examine mechanisms that promote learning. FXS results from mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (Fmr1) that prevents expression of the Fmr1 protein (FMRP), a messenger RNA (mRNA) translation regulator at synapses...
July 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687800/pkc%C3%AE-mediated-phosphorylation-of-lsd1-is-required-for-presynaptic-plasticity-and-hippocampal-learning-and-memory
#15
Chae-Seok Lim, Hye Jin Nam, Jaehyun Lee, Dongha Kim, Ja Eun Choi, SukJae Joshua Kang, Somi Kim, Hyopil Kim, Chuljung Kwak, Kyu-Won Shim, Siyong Kim, Hyoung-Gon Ko, Ro Un Lee, Eun-Hae Jang, Juyoun Yoo, Jaehoon Shim, Md Ariful Islam, Yong-Seok Lee, Jae-Hyung Lee, Sung Hee Baek, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a histone demethylase that participates in transcriptional repression or activation. Recent studies reported that LSD1 is involved in learning and memory. Although LSD1 phosphorylation by PKCα was implicated in circadian rhythmicity, the importance of LSD1 phosphorylation in learning and memory is unknown. In this study, we examined the roles of LSD1 in synaptic plasticity and memory using Lsd1 (SA/SA) knock-in (KI) mice, in which a PKCα phosphorylation site is mutated...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685317/colon-cancer-worry-in-appalachia
#16
Omar F Attarabeen, Usha Sambamoorthi, Kevin T Larkin, Kimberly M Kelly
Appalachia has a higher incidence of and mortality from colon cancer (CC) than other regions of the United States; thus, it is important to know the potential impact of elevated risk on cancer worry. Guided by the Self-regulation model, we investigated the association of demographic, cultural (e.g., fatalism, religious commitment), and psychological factors (e.g., perceived risk, general mood) with CC worry among a sample of Appalachian women. A mixed method design was utilized. Appalachian women completed surveys in the quantitative section (n = 134) and semi-structured interviews in the qualitative section (n = 24)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685102/autism-like-behaviours-and-memory-deficits-result-from-a-western-diet-in-mice
#17
Ekaterina Veniaminova, Raymond Cespuglio, Chi Wai Cheung, Alexei Umriukhin, Nataliia Markova, Elena Shevtsova, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Daniel C Anthony, Tatyana Strekalova
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, induced by a Western diet (WD), evokes central and peripheral inflammation that is accompanied by altered emotionality. These changes can be associated with abnormalities in social behaviour, hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions, and metabolism. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed with a regular chow or with a WD containing 0.2% of cholesterol and 21% of saturated fat for three weeks. WD-treated mice exhibited increased social avoidance, crawl-over and digging behaviours, decreased body-body contacts, and hyperlocomotion...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672216/cumulative-contextual-risk-at-birth-and-adolescent-substance-initiation-peer-mediation-tests
#18
W Alex Mason, Irina Patwardhan, Gail L Smith, Mary B Chmelka, Jukka Savolainen, Stacy-Ann A January, Jouko Miettunen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
BACKGROUND: Children who experience multiple adversities, such as prenatal exposure to drugs and poverty, early in development are at increased risk for the early initiation of alcohol and cigarette use. However, studies that examine potentially malleable processes associated with substance use initiation in the context of exposure to cumulative stressors are scant. This study examined associations between cumulative contextual risk at birth and initiation of alcohol and cigarette use in adolescence, testing childhood peer marginalization and peer aggression and behavior problems as mediating mechanisms...
June 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669783/gabaergic-signaling-within-the-basolateral-amygdala-complex-modulates-resistance-to-the-labilization-reconsolidation-process
#19
Pablo Javier Espejo, Pharm D Vanesa Ortiz, Irene Delia Martijena, Victor Alejandro Molina
It is well known that stress can affect mnemonic processes. In particular, stress before contextual fear conditioning induces a memory which exhibits resistance to being interfered with by Midazolam (MDZ) when applied after memory retrieval. Moreover, stress exposure strongly affects GABAergic transmission within the Basolateral Amygdala Complex (BLA), a brain structure critically involved in fear memory processing. The present study evaluated the involvement of GABAergic signaling within the BLA on the induction of resistance to memory reconsolidation interference...
June 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667669/optogenetic-stimulation-of-dentate-gyrus-engrams-restores-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#20
Jennifer N Perusini, Stephanie A Cajigas, Omid Cohensedgh, Sean C Lim, Ina P Pavlova, Zoe R Donaldson, Christine A Denny
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles. APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice have been developed as an AD model and are characterized by plaque formation at 4-6 months of age. Here, we sought to better understand AD-related cognitive decline by characterizing various types of memory. In order to better understand how memory declines with AD, APP/PS1 mice were bred with ArcCreER(T2) mice. In this line, neural ensembles activated during memory encoding can be indelibly tagged and directly compared with neural ensembles activated during memory retrieval (i...
July 1, 2017: Hippocampus
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