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Fear conditioning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777479/frontal-delta-beta-cross-frequency-coupling-in-high-and-low-social-anxiety-an-index-of-stress-regulation
#1
Eefje S Poppelaars, Anita Harrewijn, P Michiel Westenberg, Melle J W van der Molen
Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between frontal delta (1-4 Hz) and beta (14-30 Hz) oscillations has been suggested as a candidate neural correlate of social anxiety disorder, a disorder characterized by fear and avoidance of social and performance situations. Prior studies have used amplitude-amplitude correlation (AAC) as a CFC measure and hypothesized it as a candidate neural mechanism of affective control. However, using this metric has yielded inconsistent results regarding the direction of CFC, and the functional significance of coupling strength is uncertain...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776015/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-potentiates-fear-memory-salience-through-functional-modulation-of-mesolimbic-dopaminergic-activity-states
#2
Aurelie Fitoussi, Jordan Zunder, Huibing Tan, Steven R Laviolette
Chronic or acute exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in cannabis, has been associated with numerous neuropsychiatric side-effects, including dysregulation of emotional processing and associative memory formation. Clinical and pre-clinical evidence suggests that the effects of THC are due to the ability to modulate mesolimbic dopamine (DA) activity states in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which THC modulates mesolimbic DA function and emotional processing are not well understood...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776011/predicting-nonadherence-to-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-in-women-with-early-stage-breast-cancer
#3
Arden L Corter, Reuben Broom, David Porter, Vernon Harvey, Michael Findlay
BACKGROUND: Failing to take endocrine therapy (ET) as prescribed (nonadherence) increases risk of morbidity and mortality from breast cancer recurrence. We explored predictors of nonadherence, including demographic, clinical, treatment and personal factors, among women newly prescribed ET for early stage breast cancer. We also examined predictors of their thoughts about stopping treatment (TST). METHODS: A baseline survey prior to ET assessed demographics, illness beliefs, beliefs about medicines, fear of recurrence, symptoms and negative affect...
May 18, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775673/gender-dependent-contribution-of-muscarinic-receptors-in-memory-retrieval-under-sub-chronic-stress
#4
Habiba Rashid, Touqeer Ahmed
Stress induces retrograde amnesia in humans and rodents. Muscarinic antagonism under normal physiological conditions causes gender dependent impairment in episodic memory retrieval. We aimed to explore the gender dependent role of muscarinic receptors in memory retrieval under sub-chronic stress condition. Male and female mice were trained for Morris water maze test and contextual fear conditioning, followed by 3 hour restraint stress per day for five days. Stress was either given alone or in combination with a daily subcutaneous injection of scopolamine (1 mg/kg) or donepezil (1 mg/kg)...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775590/social-isolation-co-opts-fear-and-aggression-circuits
#5
Jose Rodriguez-Romaguera, Garret D Stuber
Social isolation is a stressful condition that often leads to maladaptive behaviors. In this issue of Cell, Zelikowsky et al. find that chronic social isolation stress triggers an increase in neuronal tachykinin signaling across distinct brain regions that mediate fear and aggression, elucidating the neural basis of these maladaptive responses.
May 17, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773974/orexin-a-differentially-influences-the-extinction-retention-of-recent-and-remote-fear-memory
#6
Le Shi, Wenhao Chen, Jiahui Deng, Sijing Chen, Ying Han, Muhammad Z Khan, Jiajia Liu, Jianyu Que, Yanping Bao, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Recently the role of the orexin system in the learning and memory, especially orexin A, which could enhance fear memory through regulating the activity of amygdala, has drawn considerable attention. However, the relationship between orexin A and extinction memory remains unclear. To investigate the effect of orexin A on extinction memory in humans, we recruited 43 male subjects and divided them into a recent group and remote group. After acquiring Pavlovian fear conditioning, individuals in recent group experienced fear extinction 24 h after acquisition, and remote group underwent extinction 2 weeks later...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770155/neuroprotective-effect-and-molecular-mechanism-of-6-gingerol-against-scopolamine-induced-amnesia-in-c57bl-6-mice
#7
Chang-Yul Kim, Yongtaek Seo, Chan Lee, Gyu Hwan Park, Jung-Hee Jang
We have investigated the neuroprotective and memory enhancing effect of [6]-gingerol (GIN), a pungent ingredient of ginger, using an animal model of amnesia. To determine the neuroprotective effect of GIN on cognitive dysfunction, scopolamine (SCO, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into C57BL/6 mice, and a series of behavioral tests were conducted. SCO-induced behavior changes and memory impairments, such as decreased alteration (%) in Y-maze test, increased mean escape latency in water maze test, diminished step-through latency in passive avoidance test, and shortened freezing time in fear condition test, were significantly prevented and restored by the oral administration of GIN (10 or 25 mg/kg/day)...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768426/the-ryerson-audio-visual-database-of-emotional-speech-and-song-ravdess-a-dynamic-multimodal-set-of-facial-and-vocal-expressions-in-north-american-english
#8
Steven R Livingstone, Frank A Russo
The RAVDESS is a validated multimodal database of emotional speech and song. The database is gender balanced consisting of 24 professional actors, vocalizing lexically-matched statements in a neutral North American accent. Speech includes calm, happy, sad, angry, fearful, surprise, and disgust expressions, and song contains calm, happy, sad, angry, and fearful emotions. Each expression is produced at two levels of emotional intensity, with an additional neutral expression. All conditions are available in face-and-voice, face-only, and voice-only formats...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768201/activation-of-ephb2-forward-signaling-enhances-memory-consolidation
#9
Jessica M Alapin, Monica Dines, Maria Vassiliev, Tal Tamir, Alon Ram, Clifford Locke, Ji Yu, Raphael Lamprecht
EphB2 is involved in enhancing synaptic transmission and gene expression. To explore the roles of EphB2 in memory formation and enhancement, we used a photoactivatable EphB2 (optoEphB2) to activate EphB2 forward signaling in pyramidal neurons in lateral amygdala (LA). Photoactivation of optoEphB2 during fear conditioning, but not minutes afterward, enhanced long-term, but not short-term, auditory fear conditioning. Photoactivation of optoEphB2 during fear conditioning led to activation of the cAMP/Ca2+ responsive element binding (CREB) protein...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763466/the-enhancement-effect-of-estradiol-on-contextual-fear-conditioning-in-female-mice
#10
Yui K Matsumoto, Masanori Kasai, Kazuya Tomihara
Several studies have reported regulatory effects of estrogens on fear conditioning in female rodents. However, these studies used different doses, durations, and/or administration methods, and reported inconsistent results. To clarify the effect of estrogen on fear conditioning, we investigated the effects of different doses and durations of estradiol administration on freezing behavior during contextual fear conditioning in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. In Experiment 1, OVX ICR mice received a single subcutaneous (s...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757960/comparison-of-factors-associated-with-fear-of-falling-between-older-adults-with-and-without-a-fall-history
#11
Seonhye Lee, Eunmi Oh, Gwi-Ryung Son Hong
Background : Although fear of falling (FOF) has been studied since FOF has negative consequences for the elderly, there is limited information about the risk factors of FOF, including the environment. The purpose of this study was to describe individual and environmental factors of FOF between those with and without a fall history from an ecological aspect and to examine whether individual and environmental factors differently affect the FOF according to the state of fall history in community-dwelling older adults in Korea...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756314/exploring-attentional-biases-towards-facial-expressions-of-pain-in-men-and-women
#12
E Keogh, F Cheng, S Wang
BACKGROUND: Interpersonal factors may help explain why men and women differ in their perception and expression of pain. Whilst the focus is often on the person in pain, how observers respond to those in pain is important. This study explored whether male-female differences exist in the way observers attend to expressions of pain in others. METHODS: 53 adults (26 females) completed a visual dot-probe task, to measure selective attentional biases to facial expressions of pain and fear...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755331/immediate-early-genes-memory-and-psychiatric-disorders-focus-on-c-fos-egr1-and-arc
#13
REVIEW
Francisco T Gallo, Cynthia Katche, Juan F Morici, Jorge H Medina, Noelia V Weisstaub
Many psychiatric disorders, despite their specific characteristics, share deficits in the cognitive domain including executive functions, emotional control and memory. However, memory deficits have been in many cases undervalued compared with other characteristics. The expression of Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) such as, c-fos , Egr1 and arc are selectively and promptly upregulated in learning and memory among neuronal subpopulations in regions associated with these processes. Changes in expression in these genes have been observed in recognition, working and fear related memories across the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749116/neonatal-pain-and-stress-disrupts-later-life-pavlovian-fear-conditioning-and-sensory-function-in-rats-evidence-for-a-two-hit-model
#14
Seth M Davis, Makaela Rice, Jacob Rudlong, Victoria Eaton, Tamara King, Michael A Burman
Early life trauma has been linked to increased risks for anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. We used rodent models of acute and inflammatory neonatal pain to explore effects on fear conditioning and somatosensory function. Hindpaw needle pricks or handling on postnatal days (PNDs) 1-7 caused lasting impacts on affective and somatosensory function when assessed at later ages, PNDs 24 (postweaning), 45 (adolescence), or 66 (adulthood). First, auditory, but not contextual, freezing was mildly disrupted regardless of age...
May 10, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747592/qualitative-exploration-of-barriers-and-facilitators-of-dental-service-utilization-of-pregnant-women-a-triangulation-approach
#15
Hoda Bahramian, Simin Z Mohebbi, Mohammad Reza Khami, Rocio Beatriz Quinonez
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are vulnerable to a wide range of oral health conditions that could be harmful to their own health and future child. Despite the usefulness of regular dental service utilization in prevention and early detection of oral diseases, it is notably low among pregnant women. In this qualitative study, we aimed to explore barriers and facilitators influencing pregnant women's dental service utilization. METHODS: Using a triangulation approach, we included pregnant women (n = 22) from two public health centers, midwives (n = 8) and dentists (n = 12) from 12 other public centers in Tehran (Iran)...
May 10, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747244/nucleus-reuniens-of-the-thalamus-controls-fear-memory-intensity-specificity-and-long-term-maintenance-during-consolidation
#16
Fernanda Troyner, Maira A Bicca, Leandro J Bertoglio
The thalamic nucleus reuniens (NR) has been shown to support bidirectional medial prefrontal cortex-hippocampus communication and synchronization relevant for cognitive processing. Using non-selective or prolonged inactivation of the NR, previous studies reported its activity positively modulates aversive memory consolidation. Here we examined the NR's role in consolidating contextual fear memories with varied strength, at both recent and more remote time points, using muscimol-induced temporary inactivation in rats...
May 10, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745275/animal-models-of-social-stress-the-dark-side-of-social-interactions
#17
Marianela Masis-Calvo, Anna K Schmidtner, Vinícius E de Moura Oliveira, Cindy P Grossmann, Trynke R de Jong, Inga D Neumann
Social stress occurs in all social species, including humans, and shape both mental health and future interactions with conspecifics. Animal models of social stress are used to unravel the precise role of the main stress system - the HPA axis - on the one hand, and the social behavior network on the other, as these are intricately interwoven. The present review aims to summarize the insights gained from three highly useful and clinically relevant animal models of psychosocial stress: the resident-intruder (RI) test, the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC), and the social fear conditioning (SFC)...
May 10, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743496/complex-housing-causes-a-robust-increase-in-dendritic-complexity-and-spine-density-of-medial-prefrontal-cortical-neurons
#18
Archana Ashokan, Jamien Wee Han Lim, Nicholas Hang, Rupshi Mitra
Prelimbic cortex and infralimbic cortex, parts of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, are critical brain regions for generating a flexible behavioral response to changing environmental contingencies. This includes the role of these brain structures in the extinction of learned fear, decision making and retrieval of remote memories. Dendritic structure of medial prefrontal cortex neurons retains significant structural plasticity in adulthood. This has been mainly demonstrated as dendritic atrophy and loss of dendritic spines due to chronic stress...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740084/periodical-reactivation-under-the-effect-of-caffeine-attenuates-fear-memory-expression-in-rats
#19
Lizeth K Pedraza, Rodrigo O Sierra, Fernanda N Lotz, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares
In the last decade, several studies have shown that fear memories can be attenuated by interfering with reconsolidation. However, most of the pharmacological agents used in preclinical studies cannot be administered to humans. Caffeine is one of the world's most popular psychoactive drugs and its effects on cognitive and mood states are well documented. Nevertheless, the influence of caffeine administration on fear memory processing is not as clear. We employed contextual fear conditioning in rats and acute caffeine administration under a standard memory reconsolidation protocol or periodical memory reactivation...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739481/ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-activity-and-pathological-worry-in-generalised-anxiety-disorder
#20
E Via, M A Fullana, X Goldberg, D Tinoco-González, I Martínez-Zalacaín, C Soriano-Mas, C G Davey, J M Menchón, B Straube, T Kircher, J Pujol, N Cardoner, B J Harrison
BACKGROUND: Pathological worry is a hallmark feature of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), associated with dysfunctional emotional processing. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is involved in the regulation of such processes, but the link between vmPFC emotional responses and pathological v. adaptive worry has not yet been examined.AimsTo study the association between worry and vmPFC activity evoked by the processing of learned safety and threat signals. METHOD: In total, 27 unmedicated patients with GAD and 56 healthy controls (HC) underwent a differential fear conditioning paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 9, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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