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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155576/chronic-arsenic-exposure-increases-a%C3%AE-1-42-production-and-rage-expression-in-rat-brain
#1
Sandra Aurora Niño, Guadalupe Martel-Gallegos, Adriana Castro-Zavala, Benita Ortega-Berlanga, Juan Manuel Delgado, Hector Hernandez-Mendoza, E Romero-Guzman, Judith Rios-Lugo, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, María Esther Jiménez-Capdeville, Sergio Zarazua
Chronic arsenic exposure during development is associated with alterations of chemical transmission and demyelination, which result in cognitive deficits and peripheral neuropathies. At cellular level, arsenic toxicity involves increased generation of reactive species that induce severe cellular alterations such as DNA fragmentation, apoptosis and lipid peroxidation. It has been proposed that arsenic-associated neurodegeneration could evolve to Alzheimer disease in later life.1,2 In this study, the effects of chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (3 ppm by drinking water) in Wistar rats on the production and elimination of Amyloid-β (Aβ) were evaluated...
November 20, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155265/neuroanatomical-distribution-and-function-of-the-vasopressin-v1b-receptor-in-the-rat-brain-deciphered-using-specific-fluorescent-ligands
#2
Maithé Corbani, Rafik Marir, Miguel Trueba, Magda Chafai, Anne Vincent, Amélie M Borie, Michel G Desarménien, Yoichi Ueta, Csaba Tomboly, Aleksandra Olma, Maurice Manning, Gilles Guillon
It is now accepted that vasopressin, through V1A/V1B receptors, centrally regulates cognitive functions such as memory, affiliation, stress, fear and depression. However, the respective roles of these receptor isoforms and their contribution to stress-related pathologies remain uncertain. The development of new therapeutic treatments requires a precise knowledge of the distribution of these receptors within the brain, which has been so far hampered by the lack of selective V1B markers. In the present study, we have determined the pharmacological properties of three new potent rat V1B fluorescent ligands and demonstrated that they constitute valuable tools for simultaneous visualization and activation of native V1B receptors in living rat brain tissue...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155005/effects-of-genetic-and-environmental-risk-for-schizophrenia-on-hippocampal-activity-and-psychosis-like-behavior-in-mice
#3
Daniel Scott, Carol A Tamminga
Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness most notably characterized by psychotic symptoms. In humans, psychotic disorders are associated with specific hippocampal pathology. However, animal model systems for psychosis often lack this pathology, and have been weak in providing a representation of psychosis. We utilized a double-risk model system combining genetic risk with environmental stress. We hypothesized these factors will induce hippocampal subfield pathology consistent with human findings, as well as behavioral phenotypes relevant to psychosis...
November 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154809/facilitated-acquisition-of-the-classically-conditioned-eyeblink-response-in-active-duty-military-expressing-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms
#4
Justin D Handy, Pelin Avcu, Nora Ko, Alejandro Ortiz, Michael J Doria, Richard J Servatius
OBJECTIVE: Learning diathesis models underscore the role of hyper-conditioning in the development of PTSD following trauma exposure. Eyeblink classical conditioning is one method of examining associative learning biases independent of fear and threat produced by trauma. Facilitated learning is apparent in individuals self-expressing PTSD symptoms, as well as behaviorally inhibited (BI) temperament, a vulnerability factor for PTSD. Here, we examine eyeblink conditioning in active duty military personnel and relate learning with PTSD symptomology...
November 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154366/generalization-of-conditioned-auditory-fear-is-regulated-by-maternal-effects-on-ventral-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#5
Huy-Bin Nguyen, Carine Parent, Yiu Chung Tse, Tak Pan Wong, Michael J Meaney
Maternal care shapes individual differences in fear-associated neural circuitry. In rats, maternal licking and grooming (LG) in early life regulates ventral hippocampal (VH) function and plasticity in adulthood, but its consequent effect on the regulation of fear memories remains unknown. We report an effect of maternal care on generalization of learned fear, such that offspring of high LG mothers express generalized fear responses when confronted with neutral stimuli following auditory fear conditioning. These animals simultaneously display a reduction in the magnitude of VH-LTP expressed and reduced input-output transformation in Schaffer Collateral synapses...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154281/gradual-cerebral-hypoperfusion-impairs-fear-conditioning-and-object-recognition-learning-and-memory-in-mice-potential-roles-of-neurodegeneration-and-cholinergic-dysfunction
#6
Jogender Mehla, Sean Lacoursiere, Emily Stuart, Robert J McDonald, Majid H Mohajerani
In the present study, male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to gradual cerebral hypoperfusion by implanting an ameroid constrictor (AC) on the left common carotid artery (CCA) and a stenosis on the right CCA. In the sham group, all surgical procedures were kept the same except no AC was implanted and stenosis was not performed. One month following the surgical procedures, fear conditioning and object recognition tests were conducted to evaluate learning and memory functions and motor functions were assessed using a balance beam test...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153459/-intrafamilial-disruptive-behaviour-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-present-data-and-treatment-prospects
#7
E Bousquet, N Franc, C Ha, D Purper-Ouakil
Child-to-parent violence is a form of family violence that is still a well-kept secret. Abused parents can be victims of different types of abuse. Children can use both physical and psychological violence such as financial threats to take control of the home. In this situation, parents often no longer dare to contradict their children by fear of triggering uncontrollable violence. Although the phenomenon recently drew the attention of the media, there is still little knowledge about its prevalence and clinical characteristics...
November 16, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152417/assessing-mongolian-gerbil-emotional-behavior-effects-of-two-shock-intensities-and-response-independent-shocks-during-an-extended-inhibitory-avoidance-task
#8
Camilo Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo González-León, Mónica A Arias-Higuera, Angelo Cardona, Lucia G Medina, Laura García-Muñoz, Christian Sánchez, Julián Cifuentes, Juan Carlos Forigua, Andrea Ortiz, Cesar A Acevedo-Triana, Javier L Rico
Despite step-down inhibitory avoidance procedures that have been widely implemented in rats and mice to study learning and emotion phenomena, performance of other species in these tasks has received less attention. The case of the Mongolian gerbil is of relevance considering the discrepancies in the parameters of the step-down protocols implemented, especially the wide range of foot-shock intensities (i.e., 0.4-4.0 mA), and the lack of information on long-term performance, extinction effects, and behavioral patterning during these tasks...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151577/orexin-modulates-behavioral-fear-expression-through-the-locus-coeruleus
#9
Shingo Soya, Tohru M Takahashi, Thomas J McHugh, Takashi Maejima, Stefan Herlitze, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Takeshi Sakurai
Emotionally salient information activates orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, leading to increase in sympathetic outflow and vigilance level. How this circuit alters animals' behavior remains unknown. Here we report that noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (NA(LC) neurons) projecting to the lateral amygdala (LA) receive synaptic input from orexin neurons. Pharmacogenetic/optogenetic silencing of this circuit as well as acute blockade of the orexin receptor-1 (OX1R) decreases conditioned fear responses...
November 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151020/complications-of-regional-citrate-anticoagulation-accumulation-or-overload
#10
Antoine G Schneider, Didier Journois, Thomas Rimmelé
Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is now recommended over systemic heparin for continuous renal replacement therapy in patients without contraindications. Its use is likely to increase throughout the world. However, in the absence of citrate blood level monitoring, the diagnosis of citrate accumulation, the most feared complication of RCA, remains relatively complex. It is therefore commonly mistaken with other conditions. This review aims at providing clarifications on RCA-associated acid-base disturbances and their management at the bedside...
November 19, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146986/cascading-predator-effects-in-a-fijian-coral-reef-ecosystem
#11
Douglas B Rasher, Andrew S Hoey, Mark E Hay
Coral reefs are among Earth's best-studied ecosystems, yet the degree to which large predators influence the ecology of coral reefs remains an open and contentious question. Recent studies indicate the consumptive effects of large reef predators are too diffuse to elicit trophic cascades. Here, we provide evidence that such predators can produce non-consumptive (fear) effects that flow through herbivores to shape the distribution of seaweed on a coral reef. This trophic cascade emerged because reef topography, tidal oscillations, and shark hunting behaviour interact to create predictable "hot spots" of fear on the reef where herbivores withhold feeding and seaweeds gain a spatial refuge...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145753/the-neurodevelopmental-basis-of-early-childhood-disruptive-behavior-irritable-and-callous-phenotypes-as-exemplars
#12
Lauren S Wakschlag, Susan B Perlman, R James Blair, Ellen Leibenluft, Margaret J Briggs-Gowan, Daniel S Pine
The arrival of the Journal's 175th anniversary occurs at a time of recent advances in research, providing an ideal opportunity to present a neurodevelopmental roadmap for understanding, preventing, and treating psychiatric disorders. Such a roadmap is particularly relevant for early-childhood-onset neurodevelopmental conditions, which emerge when experience-dependent neuroplasticity is at its peak. Employing a novel developmental specification approach, this review places recent neurodevelopmental research on early childhood disruptive behavior within the historical context of the Journal...
November 17, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145728/understanding-how-emergency-medicine-physicians-survive-and-thrive-in-rural-practice-a-theoretical-model
#13
Ashra Kolhatkar, Andrea Keesey, Bob Bluman, Brenna Lynn, Tandi Wilkinson
INTRODUCTION: The challenges facing emergency medicine (EM) services in Canada reflect the limitations of the entire healthcare system. The emergency department (ED) is uniquely situated in the healthcare system such that shortcomings in hospital- and community-based services are often first revealed there. This is especially true in rural settings, where there are additional site-specific barriers to the provision of EM care. Existing studies look at the factors that influence rural EM physicians in isolation...
November 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144981/barriers-to-self-compassion-for-female-survivors-of-childhood-maltreatment-the-roles-of-fear-of-self-compassion-and-psychological-inflexibility
#14
Derrecka M Boykin, Sara J Himmerich, Caitlin M Pinciotti, Lindsay M Miller, Lynsey R Miron, Holly K Orcutt
Preliminary evidence has demonstrated the benefits of targeting self-compassion in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, survivors of childhood maltreatment may present with unique challenges that compromise the effectiveness of these and other PTSD treatments. Specifically, childhood maltreatment victims often exhibit a marked fear and active resistance of self-kindness and warmth (i.e., fear of self-compassion). Victims may also attempt to control distressing internal experiences in a way that hinders engagement in value-based actions (i...
November 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144034/considerations-in-surgical-management-of-a-buschke-lowenstein-tumor-in-netherton-syndrome-a-case-report
#15
Rosalind Ashton, Jamil Moledina, Branavan Sivakumar, Jemima E Mellerio, Anna E Martinez
Netherton syndrome is an autosomal recessive ichthyosis caused by mutations in SPINK5, with the classic triad of linearis circumflexa, trichorrhexis invaginata, and atopy. There are few reports of surgical management in individuals with Netherton syndrome and clinicians may be reluctant to operate for fear of wound-healing complications. This report describes a pediatric case of a Buschke-Lowenstein tumor of the natal cleft in a patient with Netherton syndrome that had failed to respond to medical management...
November 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142058/juvenile-female-rats-but-not-male-rats-show-renewal-reinstatement-and-spontaneous-recovery-following-extinction-of-conditioned-fear
#16
Chun Hui J Park, Despina E Ganella, Jee Hyun Kim
Anxiety disorders emerge early, and girls are significantly more likely to develop anxiety compared to boys. However, sex differences in fear during development are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated juvenile male and female rats in the relapse behaviors following extinction of conditioned fear. In all experiments, 18-d-old rats first received three white-noise-footshock pairings on day 1. On day 2, extinction involved 60 white-noise alone trials. In experiment 1, we examined renewal by testing the rats in either the same or different context as extinction on day 3...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141213/cpeb2-activates-grasp1-mrna-translation-and-promotes-ampa-receptor-surface-expression-long-term-potentiation-and-memory
#17
Wen-Hsin Lu, Nai-Hsing Yeh, Yi-Shuian Huang
Activity-dependent synthesis of plasticity-related proteins is necessary to sustain long-lasting synaptic modifications and consolidate memory. We investigated the role of the translational regulator cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 (CPEB2) in learning and memory because regulated mRNA translation contributes to synaptic plasticity. Forebrain-restricted CPEB2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice exhibited impaired hippocampus-dependent memory in contextual fear conditioning and Morris water maze tests...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140532/right-posterior-parietal-cortex-is-involved-in-disengaging-from-threat-a-1-hz-rtms-study
#18
Manon Mulckhuyse, Jan B Engelmann, Dennis J L G Schutter, Karin Roelofs
The right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is implicated in spatial attention, but its specific role in emotional spatial attention remains unclear. In this study, we combined inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a fear-conditioning paradigm to test the role of the right PPC in attentional control of task-irrelevant threatening distractors. In a sham-controlled within-subject design, 1-Hz repetitive TMS was applied to the left and right PPC after which participants performed a visual search task with a distractor that was either associated with a loud noise burst (threat) or not (non-threat)...
November 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137693/another-chance-at-life-jordanian-patients-experience-of-going-through-a-myocardial-infarction
#19
Ali Ahmad Ammouri, Joy Kabasindi Kamanyire, Ahmad H Abu Raddaha, Susan Achora, Arwa Atef Obeidat
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a life-threatening health condition that has physical, spiritual, emotional, and social changes. Understanding feelings and thoughts of patients who suffered MI attacks is essential to recovery. Among Jordanian patients who suffered an acute attack of MI, the aim of the study was to describe the experiences and the varied meanings that they assign to their experiences. METHODS: A qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological research design was used...
November 1, 2017: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137271/environmental-conditions-differentially-affect-neurobehavioral-outcomes-in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy
#20
Mu-Huo Ji, Hui Tang, Dan Luo, Li-Li Qiu, Min Jia, Hong-Mei Yuan, Shan-Wu Feng, Jian-Jun Yang
Brain dysfunction remains a common complication after sepsis development and is an independent risk factor for a poorer prognosis and an increased mortality. Here we tested the hypothesis that the behavioral outcomes after lipopolysaccharides (LPS) administration are exacerbated by an impoverished environment (IE) and alleviated by an enriched environment (EE), respectively. Mice were randomly allocated in a standard environment (SE), an EE, or an IE for 4 weeks after LPS or normal saline (NS) administration...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
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