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Fear conditioning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434095/patient-reported-outcomes-in-cancer-survivors-a-population-wide-cross-sectional-study
#1
Michael Jefford, Andrew C Ward, Karolina Lisy, Karen Lacey, Jon D Emery, Adam W Glaser, Hannah Cross, Mei Krishnasamy, Sue-Anne McLachlan, Jim Bishop
PURPOSE: There is a lack of robust population-based data regarding the lived experience of cancer survivors. This study assessed the quality of life (QoL) of survivors of breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma or melanoma 1, 3 and 5 years post-diagnosis. Associations between various demographic and disease-related factors and QoL were assessed. METHODS: A cross-sectional postal survey was undertaken. Eligible participants were identified from a population-based cancer registry...
April 22, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431906/transgenic-mice-with-increased-astrocyte-expression-of-ccl2-show-altered-behavioral-effects-of-alcohol
#2
Jennifer G Bray, Amanda J Roberts, Donna L Gruol
Emerging research provides strong evidence that activation of CNS glial cells occurs in neurological diseases and brain injury and results in elevated production of neuroimmune factors. These factors can contribute to pathophysiological processes that lead to altered CNS function. Recently, studies have also shown that both acute and chronic alcohol consumption can produce activation of CNS glial cells and the production of neuroimmune factors, particularly the chemokine CCL2. The consequences of alcohol-induced increases in CCL2 levels in the CNS have yet to be fully elucidated...
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430628/critical-role-of-matrix-metallopeptidase-9-in-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-age-dependent-cognitive-decline
#3
Jiangjiang Bi, Weiran Shan, Ailin Luo, Zhiyi Zuo
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant clinical syndrome. Neuroinflammation is an important pathological process for POCD. However, it is not clear how systemic inflammation induced by surgery on peripheral tissues or organs is transmitted into the brain. We determined whether matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), a protein that can increase blood-brain barrier permeability, is critical in this transmission. The role of MMP9 in age-dependent cognitive decline was also determined...
February 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430606/ketamine-administered-pregnant-rats-impair-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-via-the-creb-pathway
#4
Xinran Li, Cen Guo, Yanan Li, Lina Li, Yuxin Wang, Yiming Zhang, Yue Li, Yu Chen, Wenhan Liu, Li Gao
Ketamine has been reported to impair the capacity for learning and memory. This study examined whether these capacities were also altered in the offspring and investigated the role of the CREB signaling pathway in pregnant rats, subjected to ketamine-induced anesthesia. On the 14th day of gestation (P14), female rats were anesthetized for 3 h via intravenous ketamine injection (200 mg/Kg). Morris water maze task, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and olfactory tasks were executed between the 25th to 30th day after birth (B25-30) on rat pups, and rats were sacrificed on B30...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425495/the-biglen-gpr171-peptide-receptor-system-within-the-basolateral-amygdala-regulates-anxiety-like-behavior-and-contextual-fear-conditioning
#5
Erin N Bobeck, Ivone Gomes, Darlene Pena, Kirstie A Cummings, Roger L Clem, Mihaly Mezei, Lakshmi A Devi
Studies show that neuropeptide-receptor systems in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) play an important role in the pathology of anxiety and other mood disorders. Since GPR171, a recently deorphanized receptor for the abundant neuropeptide BigLEN, is expressed in the BLA, we investigated its role in fear and anxiety-like behaviors. To carry out these studies we identified small molecule ligands using a homology model of GPR171 to virtually screen a library of compounds. One of the hits, MS0021570_1, was identified as a GPR171 antagonist based on its ability to block (i) BigLEN-mediated activation of GPR171 in heterologous cells, (ii) BigLEN-mediated hyperpolarization of BLA pyramidal neurons, and (iii) feeding induced by DREADD-mediated activation of BigLEN containing AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423069/trypophobia-an-investigation-of-clinical-features
#6
Michelle Vlok-Barnard, Dan J Stein
Objective: Trypophobia refers to the fear of, or aversion to, clusters of holes. We assessed clinical features of trypophobia and investigated whether it most resembled a specific phobia or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Methods: An online survey was conducted to gather information on sociodemographic variables, course and duration, severity, associated features, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and levels of psychological distress and impairment in individuals with trypophobia...
April 13, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417664/low-dose-systemic-scopolamine-disrupts-context-conditioning-in-rats
#7
Laura Luyten, Shauni Nuyts, Tom Beckers
Cholinergic neurotransmission plays a key role in learning and memory. Prior research with rats indicated that a low dose of pre-training scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg), a cholinergic receptor antagonist, did not affect cued fear conditioning, but did block renewal when injected before extinguishing a conditioned tone, opening up opportunities to pharmacologically improve exposure therapy for anxiety patients. Before translating these findings to the clinic, it is important to carefully examine how scopolamine affects contextual fear memories...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416079/management-of-childhood-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-an-integrative-review-of-the-literature
#8
Louise Fleming, Marcia Van Riper, Kathleen Knafl
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an endocrine condition that requires parents to administer steroids up to three times daily, supplementing maintenance doses with oral or injectable doses during times of illness. The purpose of this integrative review was to explore the management, care, and associated health issues for children with CAH and the family response to the condition. Four literature indexes were searched, with 39 articles included. Four themes emerged: (a) Health- and Development-Related Issues, (a) Effects of Excess Androgens, (c) Life Experience of CAH, and (d) Managing and Averting Adrenal Crisis...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415680/long-term-neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-offspring-via-ngf-erk-creb-signaling-pathway-caused-by-ketamine-exposure-during-the-second-trimester-of-pregnancy-in-rats
#9
Yanan Li, Xinran Li, Cen Guo, Lina Li, Yuxin Wang, Yiming Zhang, Yu Chen, Wenhan Liu, Li Gao
Early life exposure to ketamine caused neurohistopathologic changes and persistent cognitive dysfunction. For this study, a pregnant rat model was developed to investigate neurocognitive effects in the offspring, following ketamine exposure during the second trimester. Pregnant rats on gestational day 14 (equal to midtrimester pregnancy in humans), intravenously received 200 mg/kg ketamine for 3 h. Their behavior was tested (Morris water maze, odor recognition test, and fear conditioning) at postnatal days (P25-30)...
March 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414478/enhancing-effects-of-contingency-instructions-on-fear-acquisition-and-extinction-in-anxiety-disorders
#10
Puck Duits, Jan Richter, Johanna M P Baas, Iris M Engelhard, Anke Limberg-Thiesen, Ivo Heitland, Alfons O Hamm, Danielle C Cath
Explicit instructions regarding stimulus-threat associations increase acquisition and extinction of fear in healthy participants. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of contingency instructions on fear acquisition and extinction in patients with anxiety disorders. Patients with various anxiety disorders (N = 104) and healthy comparison participants (N = 93) participated in a differential fear conditioning task (within-subjects design). Approximately halfway through the acquisition phase, participants were instructed about the stimulus-threat association, and approximately halfway through the extinction phase, participants were informed that the unconditioned stimulus (US) would no longer be administered...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411272/disconnection-of-the-perirhinal-and-postrhinal-cortices-impairs-recognition-of-objects-in-context-but-not-contextual-fear-conditioning
#11
Victoria R Heimer-McGinn, D L Poeta, K Aghi, M Udawatta, R D Burwell
The perirhinal cortex (PER) is known to process object information, whereas the rodent postrhinal cortex (POR), homolog to the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) in primates, is thought to process spatial information. A number of studies, however, provide evidence that both areas are involved in processing contextual information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the rat POR relies on object information received from the PER to form complex representations of context. Using three fear conditioning paradigms (signaled, unsignaled, and renewal) and two context-guided object recognition tasks (with 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional objects), we examined the effects of crossed excitotoxic lesions to the POR and the contralateral PER...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411153/antagonism-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-disrupts-the-context-preexposure-facilitation-effect
#12
P A Robinson-Drummer, N A Heroux, M E Stanton
Cholinergic function plays a role in a variant of context fear conditioning known as the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE; Robinson-Drummer, Dokovna, Heroux, & Stanton, 2016). In the CPFE, acquisition of a context representation, the context-shock association, and expression of context fear occur across successive phases, usually 24hr apart. Systemic administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, prior to each phase (context preexposure, immediate-shock training, and testing) disrupts the CPFE in juvenile rats (Robinson-Drummer et al...
April 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410461/gradients-of-fear-how-perception-influences-fear-generalization
#13
Dieter Struyf, Jonas Zaman, Dirk Hermans, Bram Vervliet
The current experiment investigated whether overgeneralization of fear could be due to an inability to perceptually discriminate the initial fear-evoking stimulus from similar stimuli, as fear learning-induced perceptual impairments have been reported but their influence on generalization gradients remain to be elucidated. Three hundred and sixty-eight healthy volunteers participated in a differential fear conditioning paradigm with circles of different sizes as conditioned stimuli (CS), of which one was paired to an aversive IAPS picture...
April 5, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409651/reliability-of-fear-assessment-in-growing-pigs-exposed-to-a-novel-object-test-in-commercial-conditions
#14
Antoni Dalmau, Eva Mainau, Antonio Velarde
The objective of this study was to assess the reliability and feasibility of a novel object test assessing fear in pigs in commercial conditions. A total of 18 commercial farms were visited, and 321 pens housing 4,220 growing pigs were assessed. Three balloons were used as a novel stimulus. Measures were (a) the time it took for the first pig to contact 1 of the balloons, (b) percentage of nonhuman animals watching the balloons each for 10 s, and (c) percentage of animals touching the balloons during periods of 5 s...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408165/alterations-in-protein-phosphorylation-in-the-amygdala-of-the-5xfamilial-alzheimer-s-disease-animal-model
#15
Eun-Jeong Yang, Usman Mahmood, Hyunju Kim, Moonseok Choi, Yunjung Choi, Jean-Pyo Lee, Moon-Jeong Chang, Hye-Sun Kim
Alzheimer's disease is the most common disease underlying dementia in humans. Two major neuropathological hallmarks of AD are neuritic plaques primarily composed of amyloid beta peptide and neurofibrillary tangles primarily composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. In addition to impaired memory function, AD patients often display neuropsychiatric symptoms and abnormal emotional states such as confusion, delusion, manic/depressive episodes and altered fear status. Brains from AD patients show atrophy of the amygdala which is involved in fear expression and emotional processing as well as hippocampal atrophy...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408006/a-novel-patient-derived-conceptual-model-of-the-impact-of-celiac-disease-in-adults-implications-for-patient-reported-outcome-and-health-related-quality-of-life-instrument-development
#16
Daniel A Leffler, Sarah Acaster, Katy Gallop, Melinda Dennis, Ciarán P Kelly, Daniel C Adelman
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a chronic inflammatory condition with wide ranging effects on individual's lives caused by a combination of symptoms and the burden of adhering to a gluten-free diet (GFD). OBJECTIVES: To further understand patients' experience of celiac disease, the impact it has on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and to develop a conceptual model describing this impact. METHODS: Adults with celiac disease on a GFD reporting symptoms within the previous 3 months were included; patients with refractory celiac disease and confounding medical conditions were excluded...
April 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407507/concurrent-validation-of-an-index-to-estimate-fall-risk-in-community-dwelling-seniors-through-a-wireless-sensor-insole-system-a-pilot-study
#17
Mirko Di Rosa, Jeff M Hausdorff, Vera Stara, Lorena Rossi, Liam Glynn, Monica Casey, Stefan Burkard, Antonio Cherubini
Falls are a major health problem for older adults with immediate effects, such as fractures and head injuries, and longer term effects including fear of falling, loss of independence, and disability. The goals of the WIISEL project were to develop an unobtrusive, self-learning and wearable system aimed at assessing gait impairments and fall risk of older adults in the home setting; assessing activity and mobility in daily living conditions; identifying decline in mobility performance and detecting falls in the home setting...
April 4, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406119/factors-affecting-anxiety-fear-of-surgical-procedures-in-dentistry
#18
C N Eroglu, H Ataoğlu, K Küçük
AIM: To compare dental anxiety and fear during procedures performed under local anesthesia either in the operating room or in the clinic as well as to investigate the potential factors that might influence this psychological condition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Patients who were admitted to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the universities in two cities, which have a different sociocultural patient profile, were enrolled. In addition to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS), and Dental Fear Scale (DFS), the patients were asked to answer the questions concerning previous dental experience, education level, and previous psychiatric therapy...
April 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405162/barriers-and-enablers-of-physical-activity-engagement-for-patients-with-copd-in-primary-care
#19
Maria-Christina Kosteli, Nicola R Heneghan, Carolyn Roskell, Sarah E Williams, Peymane Adab, Andrew P Dickens, Alexandra Enocson, David A Fitzmaurice, Kate Jolly, Rachel Jordan, Sheila Greenfield, Jennifer Cumming
BACKGROUND: Given that physical activity (PA) has a positive impact on COPD symptoms and prognosis, this study examined the factors that both encourage and limit participation in PA for individuals with COPD in a primary care setting from the perspective of social cognitive theory. METHODS: A purposive sample of 26 individuals with a range of COPD severity (age range: 50-89 years; males =15) were recruited from primary care to participate in one of four focus groups...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403387/skin-conductance-responses-and-neural-activations-during-fear-conditioning-and-extinction-recall-across-anxiety-disorders
#20
Marie-France Marin, Rachel G Zsido, Huijin Song, Natasha B Lasko, William D S Killgore, Scott L Rauch, Naomi M Simon, Mohammed R Milad
Importance: The fear conditioning and extinction neurocircuitry has been extensively studied in healthy and clinical populations, with a particular focus on posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite significant overlap of symptoms between posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety disorders, the latter has received less attention. Given that dysregulated fear levels characterize anxiety disorders, examining the neural correlates of fear and extinction learning may shed light on the pathogenesis of underlying anxiety disorders...
April 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
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