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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804392/the-impact-of-aging-stereotypes-on-dementia-worry
#1
Joie Molden, Molly Maxfield
Dementia worry, an anxiety-related response to the possibility of developing dementia, represents an important yet underexplored health concern for an aging population. Such a construct is likely impacted by stereotypes concerning aging, including biased associations of aging with inevitable cognitive decline. The present article explores the impact of mixed positive and negative aging stereotype messages on levels of dementia worry. The Fear of Alzheimer's Disease Scale (FADS) was used to measure impact of priming with different proportions of positive and negative aging stereotype words...
March 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802645/p2x7-purinergic-receptors-participate-in-the-expression-and-extinction-processes-of-contextual-fear-conditioning-memory-in-mice
#2
L B Domingos, S C Hott, A L B Terzian, L B M Resstel
The purinergic system consists of two large receptor families - P2X and P2Y. Both are activated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP), although presenting different functions. These receptors are present in several brain regions, including those involved in emotion and stress-related behaviors. Hence, they seem to participate in fear- and anxiety-related responses. However, few studies have investigated the purinergic system in threatening situations, as observed in contextual fear conditioning (CFC). Therefore, this study investigated the involvement of purinergic receptors in the expression and extinction of aversive memories...
August 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799972/increased-pain-sensitivity-in-accident-related-chronic-pain-patients-with-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress
#3
Henrik Bjarke Vaegter, Tonny Elmose Andersen, Mathea Harvold, Per Grunwald Andersen, Thomas Graven-Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent in chronic pain, and associated with increased pain, hyperalgesia and psychological distress. This study aimed to investigate anti-nociceptive and pro-nociceptive pain mechanisms, pain intensity, and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and fear of movement) in patients with accident-related chronic spinal pain with (N=44) and without (N=64) comorbid PTSD characteristics. METHODS: Cuff algometry was performed on lower legs to assess pressure pain threshold (cPPT), tolerance (cPTT), temporal summation of pain (TSP: increase in pain scores to ten repeated stimulations), and conditioning pain modulation (CPM: increase in cPPT during cuff pain conditioning on the contralateral leg)...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799658/dynamic-blowout-risk-analysis-using-loss-functions
#4
Majeed Abimbola, Faisal Khan
Most risk analysis approaches are static; failing to capture evolving conditions. Blowout, the most feared accident during a drilling operation, is a complex and dynamic event. The traditional risk analysis methods are useful in the early design stage of drilling operation while falling short during evolving operational decision making. A new dynamic risk analysis approach is presented to capture evolving situations through dynamic probability and consequence models. The dynamic consequence models, the focus of this study, are developed in terms of loss functions...
August 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798714/buffering-impostor-feelings-with-kindness-the-mediating-role-of-self-compassion-between-gender-role-orientation-and-the-impostor-phenomenon
#5
Alexandra Patzak, Marlene Kollmayer, Barbara Schober
The impostor phenomenon (IP) refers to high-achievers who underestimate their abilities and thus fear being unmasked as impostors. IP sufferers attribute their success to factors other than their abilities, entailing negative emotions, unfavorable motivations, and reduced well-being. The IP was originally conceptualized as a predominantly female experience, and is thus seen as an important psychological barrier for female academic careers. Empirical findings of gender differences in the IP are equivocal, but sparse research on associations between gender-role orientation and the IP indicates that feminine students suffer more intensely from the IP than masculine students...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796560/facial-emotion-decoding-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Marco De Risi, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Angelo Picardi, Sara Casciato, Liliana G Grammaldo, Alfredo D'Aniello, Deborah Lanni, Stefano Meletti, Nicola Modugno
PURPOSE: In line with the growing attention on non-motor symptoms and disturbance of affective and emotional processing in Parkinson's disease, we aimed to study different aspects of facial emotion expression evaluation in a group of PD without cognitive decline in treatment with common antiparkinsonian drugs, matched for sex, age, and education with healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 30 patients (13 male; mean age: 63.3±6.7; mean age of disease onset: 56...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794427/neuroimaging-biomarkers-to-associate-obesity-and-negative-emotions
#7
Bo-Yong Park, Jisu Hong, Hyunjin Park
Obesity is a serious medical condition highly associated with health problems such as diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. Obesity is highly associated with negative emotional states, but the relationship between obesity and emotional states in terms of neuroimaging has not been fully explored. We obtained 196 emotion task functional magnetic resonance imaging (t-fMRI) from the Human Connectome Project database using a sampling scheme similar to a bootstrapping approach. Brain regions were specified by automated anatomical labeling atlas and the brain activity (z-statistics) of each brain region was correlated with body mass index (BMI) values...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794414/the-interplay-of-social-group-biases-in-social-threat-learning
#8
Armita Golkar, Andreas Olsson
Learning from other individuals (e.g. social learning) is subjected to biases affecting whom to learn from. Consistent with research in animals, showing similarity-based learning biases and a general tendency to display pro-social responses to in-group individuals, we recently demonstrated that social learning of both fear and safety was enhanced when information was transmitted between same-race individuals. Here, we addressed how two different social group categories jointly affect the transmission of fears by investigating the interplay between racial and supporter group membership...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791887/anxiety-sensitivity-moderates-the-painful-effects-of-feeling-burdensome-to-others
#9
Angie S LeRoy, Qian Lu, Michael J Zvolensky, Jeffrey Ramirez, Christopher P Fagundes
Perceived burdensomeness (PB), the perception of being a burden to others, is associated with pain and physical symptoms. Anxiety sensitivity (AS), the fear of arousal-related sensations, arising from beliefs that the sensations may have adverse personal consequences (physical, cognitive, and social), may increase risk for pain responding, particularly in anxiety-provoking (e.g. socially threatening) contexts. Accordingly, individuals high in AS may have a stronger pain response when experiencing PB than those low in AS...
August 9, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782427/berberine-improves-diabetic-encephalopathy-through-sirt1-er-stress-pathway-in-db-db-mice
#10
Hong-Ying Li, Xin-Chen Wang, Yu-Min Xu, Na-Chuan Luo, Si Luo, Xu-Yi Hao, Shu-Yi Cheng, Jian-Song Fang, Qi Wang, Shi-Jie Zhang, Yun-Bo Chen
The association between diabetes and dementia has been well-demonstrated by epidemiologic studies. Berberine (BBR) has been reported to ameliorate diabetes and diabetic encephalopathy (DE). However, the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we employ a diabetic model, db/db mice, to explore whether BBR could protect DE through SIRT1/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. The behavioral results (Morris water maze, Y-maze spontaneous alternation test and fearing condition test) showed that oral administration of BBR (50 mg/kg) improved the learning and memory ability...
August 7, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780340/physical-activity-levels-in-individuals-with-and-without-patellofemoral-pain
#11
Neal R Glaviano, Andrea Baellow, Susan Saliba
OBJECTIVES: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a chronic condition that results in long-term subjective and objective impairments. PFP has been identified to result in modification in activity levels, however it is unknown the extent of activity levels in individuals with and without PFP. DESIGN: Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: 20 individuals with PFP and 20 healthy individuals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physical activity was assessed by steps per day, minutes of mild, moderate, and high activity over 14 consecutive days...
July 18, 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777975/building-physiological-toughness-some-aversive-events-during-extinction-may-attenuate-return-of-fear
#12
Najwa C Culver, Stephan Stevens, Michael S Fanselow, Michelle G Craske
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although exposure therapy is an effective treatment for anxiety disorders, fear sometimes returns following successful therapy. Recent literature in animal models indicates that incorporating some aversive events into extinction training may offset these return of fear effects. METHODS: The effect of occasional reinforced extinction trials was investigated in a sample of thirty-nine participants using a fear conditioning and extinction paradigm...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775269/hipp-neurons-in-the-dentate-gyrus-mediate-the-cholinergic-modulation-of-background-context-memory-salience
#13
Syed Ahsan Raza, Anne Albrecht, Gürsel Çalışkan, Bettina Müller, Yunus Emre Demiray, Susann Ludewig, Susanne Meis, Nicolai Faber, Roland Hartig, Burkhart Schraven, Volkmar Lessmann, Herbert Schwegler, Oliver Stork
Cholinergic neuromodulation in the hippocampus controls the salience of background context memory acquired in the presence of elemental stimuli predicting an aversive reinforcement. With pharmacogenetic inhibition we here demonstrate that hilar perforant path-associated (HIPP) cells of the dentate gyrus mediate the devaluation of background context memory during Pavlovian fear conditioning. The salience adjustment is sensitive to reduction of hilar neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression via dominant negative CREB expression in HIPP cells and to acute blockage of NPY-Y1 receptors in the dentate gyrus during conditioning...
August 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774568/synaptic-dysfunction-in-amygdala-in-intellectual-disorder-models
#14
REVIEW
Marianne Aincy, Hamid Meziane, Yann Herault, Yann Humeau
The amygdala is a part of the limbic circuit that has been extensively studied in terms of synaptic connectivity, plasticity and cellular organization since decades (Ehrlich et al., 2009; Ledoux, 2000; Maren, 2001; McDonald, 1982). Amygdala sub-nuclei, including lateral, basolateral and central amygdala appear now as "hubs" providing in parallel and in series neuronal processing enabling the animal to elicit freezing or escaping behavior in response to external threats. In rodents, these behaviors are easily observed and quantified following associative fear conditioning...
July 31, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774339/measurement-education-and-tracking-in-integrated-care-metric-use-of-a-culturally-adapted-education-tool-versus-standard-education-to-increase-engagement-in-depression-treatment-among-hispanic-patients-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-control-trial
#15
Katherine Sanchez, Brittany H Eghaneyan, Michael O Killian, Leopoldo Cabassa, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Significant mental health disparities exist for Hispanic populations, especially with regard to depression treatment. Stigma and poor communication between patients and their providers result in low use of antidepressant medications and early treatment withdrawal. Cultural factors which influence treatment decisions among Hispanics include fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking medications...
August 3, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769837/trait-anxiety-impacts-the-perceived-gaze-direction-of-fearful-but-not-angry-faces
#16
Zhonghua Hu, Maria Gendron, Qiang Liu, Guang Zhao, Hong Li
Facial expression and gaze direction play an important role in social communication. Previous research has demonstrated the perception of anger is enhanced by direct gaze, whereas, it is unclear whether perception of fear is enhanced by averted gaze. In addition, previous research has shown the anxiety affects the processing of facial expression and gaze direction, but hasn't measured or controlled for depression. As a result, firm conclusions cannot be made regarding the impact of individual differences in anxiety and depression on perceptions of face expressions and gaze direction...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768196/a-cooperative-mechanism-involving-ca-2-permeable-ampa-receptors-and-retrograde-activation-of-gabab-receptors-in-interpeduncular-nucleus-plasticity
#17
Peter Koppensteiner, Riccardo Melani, Ipe Ninan
The medial habenula-interpeduncular nucleus (MHb-IPN) pathway, which connects the limbic forebrain to the midbrain, has recently been implicated in aversive behaviors. The MHb-IPN circuit is characterized by a unique topographical organization, an excitatory role of GABA, and a prominent co-release of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. However, little is known about synaptic plasticity in this pathway. An application of a high-frequency stimulation resulted in a long-lasting potentiation of glutamate release in IPN neurons...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768158/differential-effects-of-stress-on-fear-learning-and-activation-of-the-amygdala-in-pre-adolescent-and-adult-male-rats
#18
Georgia Barbayannis, Daly Franco, Solange Wong, Josselyn Galdamez, Russell D Romeo, Elizabeth P Bauer
Adolescence is accompanied by the maturation of several stress-responsive areas of the brain including the amygdala, a key region for the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. These changes may contribute to the development of stress-related disorders in adolescence, such as anxiety and depression, and increase the susceptibility to these psychopathologies later in life. Here, we assessed the effects of acute restraint stress on fear learning and amygdala activation in pre-adolescent and adult male rats...
July 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767015/dependency-traits-relationship-power-and-health-risks-in-women-receiving-sexually-transmitted-infection-clinic-services
#19
Eric G Benotsch, Ashlee N Sawyer, Aaron M Martin, Elizabeth S Allen, Christopher D Nettles, Doug Richardson, Cornelis A Rietmeijer
In prior research, having traits consistent with a personality disorder has been shown to be related to substance use and high-risk sexual activity; however, few studies have examined relationships between dependency traits and health-jeopardizing behaviors. Individuals with traits consistent with dependent personality disorder may be more likely to be in a primary relationship characterized by unhealthy conditions, including physical abuse from a partner, low assertiveness in sexual situations, and partner infidelity...
July 2017: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765085/a-preregistered-direct-replication-attempt-of-the-retrieval-extinction-effect-in-cued-fear-conditioning-in-rats
#20
Laura Luyten, Tom Beckers
In 2009, Monfils and colleagues proposed a behavioral procedure that was said to result in a permanent attenuation of a previously established fear memory, thereby precluding a possible return of fear after extinction (Monfils, Cowansage, Klann, & LeDoux, 2009). By presenting a single retrieval trial one hour before standard extinction training, they found an enduring reduction of fear. The retrieval-extinction procedure holds great clinical potential, particularly for anxiety patients, but the findings are not undisputed, and several conceptual replications have failed to reproduce the effect...
July 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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