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Etienne Combrisson, Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti, Juan Lp Soto, Golnoush Alamian, Philippe Kahane, Jean-Philippe Lachaux, Aymeric Guillot, Karim Jerbi
Goal-directed motor behavior is associated with changes in patterns of rhythmic neuronal activity across widely distributed brain areas. In particular, movement initiation and execution are mediated by patterns of synchronization and desynchronization that occur concurrently across distinct frequency bands and across multiple motor cortical areas. To date, motor-related local oscillatory modulations have been predominantly examined by quantifying increases or suppressions in spectral power. However, beyond signal power, spectral properties such as phase and phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) have also been shown to carry information with regards to the oscillatory dynamics underlying motor processes...
November 30, 2016: NeuroImage
Young Rong Bang, Hong Jun Jeon, Soyoung Youn, In-Young Yoon
The aim of this study was to find electroencephalographic (EEG) changes in subjects with drug-naïve idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) who had no cognitive impairment. A total of 57 iRBD patients confirmed by polysomnography (PSG) and 33 sex and age-matched healthy controls were included and their waking EEG was recorded from five cortical regions for 15minutes. Power spectral analyses by fast Fourier transforms were performed on EEG data. In PSG data, the iRBD patients showed sleep disturbances of short total sleep time, decreased sleep efficiency, increased sleep latency and frequent awakening compared to controls...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Yaniv Zager, David Kain, Natalie Landa, Jonathan Leor, Elad Maor
BACKGROUND: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a non-thermal cell ablation approach that induces selective damage to cell membranes only. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate and optimize its use for in-vivo myocardial decellularization. METHODS: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were used to compare myocardial damage of seven different IRE protocols with anterior myocardial infarction damage. An in-vivo open thoracotomy model was used, with two-needle electrodes in the anterior ventricular wall...
2016: PloS One
Jens B Frøkjær, Carina Graversen, Christina Brock, Ahmad Khodayari-Rostamabad, Søren S Olesen, Tine M Hansen, Eirik Søfteland, Magnus Simrén, Asbjørn M Drewes
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with structural and functional changes of the central nervous system. We used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess resting state cortical activity and explored associations to relevant clinical features. Multichannel resting state EEG was recorded in 27 healthy controls and 24 patients with longstanding DM and signs of autonomic dysfunction. The power distribution based on wavelet analysis was summarized into frequency bands with corresponding topographic mapping. Source localization analysis was applied to explore the electrical cortical sources underlying the EEG...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Mostafa Jalilifar, Ali Yadollahpour, Ahmad Ali Moazedi, Zohreh Ghotbeddin
PURPOSE: Determining different seizure stage specific features in a kindling model is a crucial step in developing efficient objective techniques for early prediction and treatment of seizures. This study identified and categorized kindling stages based on their electrophysiological features through processing extracellular field potentials of Amygdala rapid kindling. METHODS: Thirteen Wistar rats (200±10g) were divided into 2 groups including kindle (n=7) and sham (n=6) and respectively underwent an amygdala rapid kindling and placebo stimulation...
September 19, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Charmaine Demanuele, Ullrich Bartsch, Bengi Baran, Sheraz Khan, Mark G Vangel, Roy Cox, Matti Hämäläinen, Matthew W Jones, Robert Stickgold, Dara S Manoach
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia patients have correlated deficits in sleep spindle density and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In addition to spindle density, memory consolidation is thought to rely on the precise temporal coordination of spindles with slow waves (SWs). We investigated whether this coordination is intact in schizophrenia and its relation to motor procedural memory consolidation. METHODS: Twenty-one chronic medicated schizophrenia patients and 17 demographically-matched healthy controls underwent two nights of polysomnography with training on the finger tapping motor sequence task (MST) on the second night and testing the following morning...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
Prisca Eser, David Herzig, Marcel Vogt, Roger Stämpfli, Moreno Trovato, Daniela Schäfer Olstad, Lukas Trachsel, Christina Deluigi, Kerstin Wustmann, Matthias Greutmann, Daniel Tobler, Dominik Stambach, Jean-Paul Schmid, Markus Schwerzmann, Matthias Wilhelm
PURPOSE: Patients with Fontan circulation have reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in supine position. However, neither cardiac autonomic nervous activity (CANA) in response to orthostatic challenge nor vagal reactivation by means of heart rate (HR) recovery after cessation of exercise have previously been investigated in Fontan patients. The aim of this study was to compare HRV in supine and standing position, as well as HR recovery between Fontan patients and healthy controls. METHODS: Eight Fontan patients (4 male/4 female) without pacemakers and 12 healthy volunteers (5m/7f) with minimum age of 18years were recruited...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Charmain A Fernando, Yajun Liu, Grzegorz Sowa, Steven S Segal
Caveolin-2 (Cav2) is a major protein component of caveolae in membranes of vascular smooth muscle and endothelium, yet its absence alters the ultrastructure of skeletal muscle fibers. To gain insight into Cav2 function in skeletal muscle, we tested the hypothesis that genetic deletion of Cav2 would alter microvascular reactivity and depress contractile function of skeletal muscle in vivo. In the left gluteus maximus muscle (GM) of anesthetized Cav2(-/-) and wild-type (WT) male mice (age, 6 mo), microvascular responses to physiological agonists and to GM contractions were studied at 34°C...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Daniel N Hertle, Marina Heer, Edgar Santos, Michael Schöll, Christina M Kowoll, Christian Dohmen, Jennifer Diedler, Roland Veltkamp, Rudolf Graf, Andreas W Unterberg, Oliver W Sakowitz
OBJECTIVE: Spreading depolarization (SD) occurs after traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, malignant hemispheric stroke and intracranial hemorrhage. SD has been associated with secondary brain injury, which can be reduced by ketamine. In this present study frequency bands of electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings were investigated with regards to SDs. METHODS: A total of 43 patients after acute brain injury were included in this retrospective and explorative study...
July 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Birgit Mathes, Ksenia Khalaidovski, Annika S Wienke, Christina Schmiedt-Fehr, Canan Basar-Eroglu
OBJECTIVE: During adolescence event-related modulations of the neural response may increase. For slow event-related components, such as the P3, this developmental change may be masked due to increased amplitude levels of ongoing delta and theta oscillations in adolescents. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study design, EEG was measured in 51 participants between 13 and 24years. A visual oddball paradigm was used to elicit the P3. Our analysis focused on fronto-parietal activations within the P3 time-window and the concurrent time-frequency characteristics in the delta (∼0...
July 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
I Zakharova, J C Kohlmeyer, M E Kornhuber
OBJECTIVE: Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) could be suitable for elucidating the properties of synaptic potentials (SPs). Two experiments were designed for this purpose. METHODS: 1st experiment: the sural nerve was stimulated in 13 subjects with single or trains of 3 stimuli (1Hz or 0.4Hz), the within train interstimulus interval (ISI) was stepwise extended from 2 to 10ms. Cz' against Fz, time interval 500ms. 2nd experiment: Gating was investigated in a paired stimulus paradigm with intervals of 0...
July 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Yutaka Nonoda, Makoto Miyakoshi, Alejandro Ojeda, Scott Makeig, Csaba Juhász, Sandeep Sood, Eishi Asano
OBJECTIVE: High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) can be spontaneously generated by seizure-onset and functionally-important areas. We determined if consideration of the spectral frequency bands of coupled slow-waves could distinguish between epileptogenic and physiological HFOs. METHODS: We studied a consecutive series of 13 children with focal epilepsy who underwent extraoperative electrocorticography. We measured the occurrence rate of HFOs during slow-wave sleep at each electrode site...
June 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Oluwaseun Akeju, Andrew H Song, Allison E Hamilos, Kara J Pavone, Francisco J Flores, Emery N Brown, Patrick L Purdon
OBJECTIVES: Ketamine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist commonly administered as a general anesthetic. However, neural circuit mechanisms to explain ketamine anesthesia-induced unconsciousness in humans are yet to be clearly defined. Disruption of frontal-parietal network connectivity has been proposed as a mechanism to explain this brain state. However, this mechanism was recently demonstrated at subanesthetic doses of ketamine in awake-patients. Therefore, we investigated whether there is an electroencephalogram (EEG) signature specific for ketamine anesthesia-induced unconsciousness...
June 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Lei Cao, Stuart L Graham, Paul M Pilowsky
The role of vagal function in cardiovascular risk in older women remains unclear. Autonomic modulation following carbohydrate ingestion (CI) and postural stress (PS) were investigated in 14 healthy men and 21 age-matched postmenopausal women (age: 65.0 ± 2.1 vs. 64.1 ± 1.6 years), with normal and comparable insulin sensitivity. Continuous noninvasive finger arterial pressure and ECG were recorded in the lying and the standing positions before and after ingestion of a carbohydrate-rich meal (600 kcal, carbohydrate 78%, protein 13%, and fat 8%)...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Álvaro Costa, Eduardo Iáñez, Andrés Úbeda, Enrique Hortal, Antonio J Del-Ama, Ángel Gil-Agudo, José M Azorín
Rehabilitation techniques are evolving focused on improving their performance in terms of duration and level of recovery. Current studies encourage the patient's involvement in their rehabilitation. Brain-Computer Interfaces are capable of decoding the cognitive state of users to provide feedback to an external device. On this paper, cortical information obtained from the scalp is acquired with the goal of studying the cognitive mechanisms related to the users' attention to the gait. Data from 10 healthy users and 3 incomplete Spinal Cord Injury patients are acquired during treadmill walking...
2016: PloS One
Marjukka Jussila, Outi Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Eero Huupponen, Anna-Maria Lapinlampi, Juha Penttala, Sari-Leena Himanen
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes different symptoms in children, even though polysomnographic parameters that assess sleep quality may remain normal. Our spectral analysis of NREM sleep revealed local deep sleep reductions in adult OSA patients. We hypothesize that our method would also reveal local changes in pediatric OSA patients. METHODS: Polysomnographies were part of a larger study evaluating snoring in school-aged children. All right-handed children with OSA with matched peers (n=10+10) were included...
May 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Addison Mayberry, Yamin Tun, Pan Hu, Duncan Smith-Freedman, Deepak Ganesan, Benjamin Marlin, Christopher Salthouse
The human eye offers a fascinating window into an individual's health, cognitive attention, and decision making, but we lack the ability to continually measure these parameters in the natural environment. The challenges lie in: a) handling the complexity of continuous high-rate sensing from a camera and processing the image stream to estimate eye parameters, and b) dealing with the wide variability in illumination conditions in the natural environment. This paper explores the power-robustness tradeoffs inherent in the design of a wearable eye tracker, and proposes a novel staged architecture that enables graceful adaptation across the spectrum of real-world illumination...
September 2015: Proceedings of the ... Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking / Sponsored By ACM SIGMOBILE, in Cooperation with ACM SIGCOMM and SIGMETRICS and the IEEE Communications Society. International Conference on Mobi..
Mehtap Aykac Cebicci, Serap Tomruk Sutbeyaz, Sema Sezgin Goksu, Sehriban Hocaoglu, Arzu Oguz, Ayse Atilabey
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in patients with secondary lymphedema after breast cancer treatment. DESIGN: Prospective clinical pilot study. SETTING: Education and research hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Women with a diagnosis of lymphedema secondary to breast cancer (N=11). INTERVENTIONS: Patients were treated for 12 sessions of ESWT with 2500 impulses each...
September 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Guangting Mai, James W Minett, William S-Y Wang
A growing number of studies indicate that multiple ranges of brain oscillations, especially the delta (δ, <4Hz), theta (θ, 4-8Hz), beta (β, 13-30Hz), and gamma (γ, 30-50Hz) bands, are engaged in speech and language processing. It is not clear, however, how these oscillations relate to functional processing at different linguistic hierarchical levels. Using scalp electroencephalography (EEG), the current study tested the hypothesis that phonological and the higher-level linguistic (semantic/syntactic) organizations during auditory sentence processing are indexed by distinct EEG signatures derived from the δ, θ, β, and γ oscillations...
June 2016: NeuroImage
Natalie H Kelly, John C Schimenti, F Patrick Ross, Marjolein C H van der Meulen
Mechanical loading is an anabolic stimulus that increases bone mass, and thus a promising method to counteract osteoporosis-related bone loss. The mechanism of this anabolism remains unclear, and needs to be established for both cortical and cancellous envelopes individually. We hypothesized that cortical and cancellous bone display different gene expression profiles at baseline and in response to mechanical loading. To test this hypothesis, the left tibiae of 10-week-old female C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to one session of axial tibial compression (9N, 1200cycles, 4Hz triangle waveform) and euthanized 3 and 24h following loading...
May 2016: Bone
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