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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938487/regulation-of-endogenous-male-rodent-glp-1-secretion-and-human-islet-insulin-secretion-by-antagonism-of-somatostatin-receptor-5
#1
Thomas B Farb, Marta Adeva, Thomas J Beauchamp, Over Cabrera, David A Coates, Tamika DeShea Meredith, Brian A Droz, Alexander Efanov, James V Ficorilli, Susan L Gackenheimer, Maria A Martinez-Grau, Victoriano Molero, Gema Ruano, Michael A Statnick, Todd M Suter, Samreen K Syed, Miguel A Toledo, Francis S Willard, Xin Zhou, Krister B Bokvist, David G Barrett
Incretin and insulin responses to nutrient loads are suppressed in persons with diabetes, resulting in decreased glycemic control. Whereas agents including sulfonylureas and Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) partially reverse these effects and provide therapeutic benefit, their modes of action limit efficacy. Because somatostatin (SST) has been shown to suppress both insulin and GLP-1 secretion through the Gi-coupled SST receptor 5 (SSTR5) isoform in vitro, antagonism of SSTR5 may improve glycemic control via intervention in both pathways...
September 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935581/crosstalks-between-kisspeptin-neurons-and-somatostatin-neurons-are-not-photoperiod-dependent-in-the-ewe-hypothalamus
#2
Laurence Dufourny, Didier Lomet
Seasonal reproduction is under the control of gonadal steroid feedback, itself synchronized by day-length or photoperiod. As steroid action on GnRH neurons is mostly indirect and therefore exerted through interneurons, we looked for neuroanatomical interactions between kisspeptin (KP) neurons and somatostatin (SOM) neurons, two populations targeted by sex steroids, in three diencephalic areas involved in the central control of ovulation and/or sexual behavior: the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the preoptic area (POA) and the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl)...
September 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935562/n-2-methoxyphenyl-benzenesulfonamide-a-novel-regulator-of-neuronal-g-protein-gated-inward-rectifier-k-channels
#3
Kenneth B Walsh, Elaine A Gay, Bruce E Blough, David W Geurkink
G protein-gated inward rectifier K(+) (GIRK) channels are members of the super-family of proteins known as inward rectifier K(+) (Kir) channels and are expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. Neuronal GIRK channels are the downstream targets of a number of neuromodulators including opioids, somatostatin, dopamine and cannabinoids. Previous studies have demonstrated that the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel, another member of the Kir channel family, is regulated by sulfonamide drugs. Therefore, to determine if sulfonamides also modulate GIRK channels, we screened a library of arylsulfonamide compounds using a GIRK channel fluorescent assay that utilized pituitary AtT20 cells expressing GIRK channels along with the somatostatin type-2 and -5 receptors...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931779/the-efficacy-of-medical-treatment-in-patients-with-acromegaly-in-clinical-practice
#4
Seo Young Lee, Jung Hee Kim, Ji Hyun Lee, Yong Hwy Kim, Hyang Jin Cha, Sang Wan Kim, Sun Ha Paek, Chan Soo Shin
Although somatostatin analogues (SSAs) are recommended as the first-line medical therapy for acromegaly, dopamine agonists (DAs) are also a therapeutic option for treatment. We aimed to assess and compare the efficacies of DAs and SSAs in treating acromegaly in clinical practice. We included 89 patients with acromegaly who took DAs (bromocriptine [BCT], n = 63; cabergoline [CAB], n = 11) or SSAs (n = 15) as a primary medical therapy for more than 3 months in the Seoul National University Hospital. The CAB (45...
September 20, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927353/recurrent-metastatic-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-case-of-sustained-response-to-prolonged-treatment-with-somatostatin-analogues
#5
Juana María Cano, Rocío Galán, Rafael López
BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare disease. Treatment options for recurrent disease are limited. Somatostatin analogues might have a role as anticancer agents agents in MTC, although the evidence is inconclusive. PATIENT FINDINGS: A 64-year old male was diagnosed with MTC in January 2010. Total thyroidectomy with neck dissection (stage IVA, pT2pN1bM0, R1) was performed, followed by adjuvant locoregional radiotherapy. Two years later, the patient developed recurrent metastatic disease evidenced by elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and calcitonin levels, and a positive uptake (Octreoscan®) in the right adrenal gland and pancreatic head...
September 19, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924491/sstr4-childhood-adversity-self-efficacy-and-suicide-risk-in-alcoholics
#6
Dominika Berent, Gerard Emilien, Michał Podgórski, Ewa Kusideł, Dominika Kulczycka-Wojdala, Bożena Szymańska, Marian Macander, Zofia Pawłowska
BACKGROUND: Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) are known to develop poor social skills, to report a higher number of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and to attempt suicide more frequently than the general population. The background for the association between ACEs and a higher risk of suicide still remains understudied. SSTR4 rs2567608 is a functional polymorphism of the gene for somatostatin receptor subtype 4, predominantly found in the CA1 hippocampus area and involved in memory formation...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923214/commentary-somatostatin-analogs-how-we-choose-and-why
#7
Diane Reidy-Lagunes, Nitya Raj, Leonard Saltz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923213/long-acting-somatostatin-analogues-in-the-treatment-of-unresectable-metastatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#8
REVIEW
Thomas Enzler, Tito Fojo
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of neoplasms with an annual incidence of ~35 cases per 100,000 people in the United States. The updated World Health Organization (WHO) classification system of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP)-NETs categorizes these tumors according to site of origin, clinical syndrome, and degree of differentiation. Well-differentiated NETs arising from the gastrointestinal tract or lungs (formerly known as carcinoid tumors) are often indolent and slow-growing...
April 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922859/spatial-embryonic-origin-delineates-gabaergic-hub-neurons-driving-network-dynamics-in-the-developing-entorhinal-cortex
#9
Laura Mòdol, Vitor Hugo Sousa, Arnaud Malvache, Thomas Tressard, Agnes Baude, Rosa Cossart
Coordinated neuronal activity is essential for the development of cortical circuits. GABAergic hub neurons that function in orchestrating early neuronal activity through a widespread net of postsynaptic partners are therefore critical players in the establishment of functional networks. Evidence for hub neurons was previously found in the hippocampus, but their presence in other cortical regions remains unknown. We examined this issue in the entorhinal cortex, an initiation site for coordinated activity in the neocortex and for the activity-dependent maturation of the entire entorhinal-hippocampal network...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920153/optimizing-somatostatin-analog-use-in-well-or-moderately-differentiated-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#10
REVIEW
Alberto Carmona-Bayonas, Paula Jiménez-Fonseca, Ana Custodio, Enrique Grande, Jaume Capdevila, Carlos López, Alex Teule, Rocío Garcia-Carbonero
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin analogues, aiming to control tumor secretion or growth, constitute the most attractive therapeutic option for patients with well-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the current state-of-the-art knowledge gaps and potential opportunities for future development and optimization of this therapeutic modality. METHOD: A contextualized systematic review with a narrative component was conducted using PubMed, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar...
September 18, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916903/merkel-cell-carcinoma-epidemiology-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Teresa Amaral, Ulrike Leiter, Claus Garbe
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer with a neuroendocrine phenotype. Incidence varies according to the geographic regions but is overall increasing. Different risk factors have been identified namely advanced age, immunosuppression, and ultraviolet light exposure. An association between MCC and polyomavirus infection is known. However, the exact mechanism that leads to carcinogenesis is yet to be fully understood. Surgery when feasible is the recommended treatment for localized disease, followed by adjuvant radiation or chemoradiation...
September 16, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913777/diabetes-and-the-small-intestine
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan Gotfried, Stephen Priest, Ron Schey
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its associated complications are becoming increasingly prevalent. Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with diabetes is known as diabetic enteropathy (DE) and may manifest as either diarrhea, fecal incontinence, constipation, dyspepsia, nausea, and vomiting or a combination of symptoms. The long-held belief that vagal autonomic neuropathy is the primary cause of DE has recently been challenged by newer theories of disease development. Specifically, hyperglycemia and the resulting oxidative stress on neural networks, including the nitrergic neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), are now believed to play a central role in the development of DE...
September 15, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913338/clinical-validation-of-a-pixon-based-reconstruction-method-allowing-a-twofold-reduction-in-planar-images-time-of-111in-pentetreotide-somatostatin-receptor-scintigraphy
#13
Philippe Thuillier, David Bourhis, Philippe Robin, Nathalie Keromnes, Ulrike Schick, Pierre-Yves Le Roux, Véronique Kerlan, Philippe Chaumet-Riffaud, Pierre-Yves Salaün, Ronan Abgral
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of Pixon-based reconstruction method on planar somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS). METHODS: All patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) disease who were referred for SRS to our department during 1-year period from January to December 2015 were consecutively included. Three nuclear physicians independently reviewed all the data sets of images which included conventional images (CI; 15 min/view) and processed images (PI) obtained by reconstructing the first 450 s extracted data using Oncoflash(®) software package...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913157/non-functioning-gastroenteropancreatic-gep-tumors-a-111-in-pentetreotide-spect-ct-diagnostic-study
#14
Angela Spanu, Orazio Schillaci, Bastiana Piras, Diego F Calvisi, Antonio Falchi, Roberta Danieli, Susanna Nuvoli, Franca Dore, Giuseppe Madeddu
In a retrospective study performed in non-functioning GEP tumor patients we further investigated (111)In-Pentetreotide SPECT/CT usefulness in diagnosis, staging and follow-up also evaluating whether the procedure may give more information than conventional imaging procedures (CIP), such as CT, MRI, US. We enrolled 104 consecutive patients with non-functioning GEP tumors, 30 in initial diagnosis and staging phases (IDS) and 74 in follow-up (FU). All patients underwent somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) whole body scan at 4, 24 and, if necessary, 48 hours followed by abdominal and chest SPECT/CT after (111)In-Pentetreotide 148-222 MBq i...
2017: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912908/gastrin-releasing-peptide-and-glucose-metabolism-following-pancreatitis
#15
Sayali A Pendharkar, Marie Drury, Monika Walia, Murray Korc, Maxim S Petrov
BACKGROUND: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a pluripotent peptide that has been implicated in both gastrointestinal inflammatory states and classical chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes. Abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) after pancreatitis, an exemplar inflammatory disease involving the gastrointestinal tract, is associated with persistent low-grade inflammation and altered secretion of pancreatic and gut hormones as well as cytokines. While GRP is involved in secretion of many of them, it is not known whether GRP has a role in AGM...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911153/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-a-sex-dependent-predictor-of-aggressiveness-in-nonfunctioning-pituitary-adenomas-sstr-and-sex-hormone-receptor-distribution-in-nfpa
#16
Kristin Astrid Øystese, Olivera Casar-Borota, Kjersti Ringvoll Normann, Manuela Zucknick, Jens Petter Berg, Jens Bollerslev
Context: Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are fairly common and require a multidisciplinary approach. Reliable markers of a clinically aggressive course are lacking. Medical treatment is not available, and transsphenoidal surgery is the preferred primary treatment. Objective: We aimed to characterize the somatostatin, estrogen, and progesterone receptor distribution for NFPAs and compare it with factors of tumor aggressiveness. Design: Tumor samples for immunohistochemistry (n = 145) and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (n = 106) analyses of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) 1, SSTR2, SSTR3, SSTR5, estrogen receptor α (ERα), and progesterone receptor (PR) were measured by immunoreactive score (IRS) and messenger RNA relative quantity and retrospectively compared with variables of aggressiveness...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910148/bulk-scale-formulation-of-therapeutic-doses-of-clinical-grade-ready-to-use-177-lu-dota-tate-the-intricate-radiochemistry-aspects
#17
Anupam Mathur, Vrinda Prashant, Navin Sakhare, Sudipta Chakraborty, K V Vimalnath, Repaka Krishna Mohan, Chanda Arjun, Barkha Karkhanis, Ravi Seshan, Sandip Basu, Aruna Korde, Sharmila Banerjee, Ashutosh Dash, Satbir Singh Sachdev
INTRODUCTION: (177)Lu-DOTA-TATE is a clinically useful and promising therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) overexpressing somatostatin receptors. Currently, the radiopharmaceutical is prepared in-house at nuclear medicine centers, thereby restricting its use to limited centers only. In this article, the authors describe systematic studies toward bulk scale formulation of "ready-to-use" (177)Lu-DOTA-TATE using medium specific activity (177)Lu (740-1110 GBq/mg) at a centralized radiopharmacy facility...
September 2017: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905400/somatostatin-receptor-subtype-1-as-a-potential-diagnostic-marker-and-therapeutic-target-in-prostate-cancer
#18
Sergio Pedraza-Arévalo, Daniel Hormaechea-Agulla, Enrique Gómez-Gómez, María J Requena, Luke A Selth, Manuel D Gahete, Justo P Castaño, Raul M Luque
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a highly prevalent neoplasia that is strongly influenced by the endocrine system. Somatostatin (SST) and its five receptors (sst1-5 encoded by SSTR1-5 genes) comprise a pleiotropic system present in most endocrine-related cancers, some of which are successfully treated with SST analogs. Interestingly, it has been reported that SSTR1 is overexpressed in PCa, but its regulation, functional role, and clinical implications are still poorly known. METHODS: PCa specimens (n = 52) from biopsies and control prostates from cystoprostatectomies (n = 12), as well as in silico databases were used to evaluate SSTR1 and miRNAs expression...
September 14, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904697/-acromegaly-features-in-the-aging-population
#19
REVIEW
Nadia Anoun, Hanan El Ouahabi
Somatotroph adenomas are rare in the aging population. Diagnosis of somatotroph adenomas is often long delayed and they are characterized by atypical clinical picture. Their diagnostic criteria are similar to those used for younger patients. Surgery, if possible, is the treatment of choice for acromegaly in the elderly. Somatostatin analogues have shown to be effective in these patients. Prognosis is inversely correlated with patient's age, duration of disease and last GH level under treatment. Beside evolution of disease, age is a major determinant of mortality...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903914/long-term-treatment-with-the-ghrelin-receptor-antagonist-d-lys3-ghrp-6-does-not-improve-glucose-homeostasis-in-non-obese-diabetic-mkr-mice
#20
Rasha Mosa, Lili Huang, Hongzhuo Li, Michael Grist, Derek LeRoith, Chen Chen
Ghrelin secretion has been associated with increased caloric intake and adiposity. The expressions of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in pancreas have raised the interest about the role of ghrelin in glucose homeostasis. Most of the studies showed that ghrelin promoted hyperglycaemia and inhibited insulin secretion. This raised the interest in using GHS-R1a antagonists as therapeutic targets for type 2 diabetes. Available data of GHS-R antagonists are on a short-term basis. Moreover, the complexity of GHS-R1a signalling makes it difficult to understand the mechanism of action of GHS-R1a antagonists...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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