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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934250/changes-in-striatal-activity-and-functional-connectivity-in-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#1
Magali Cabanas, Fares Bassil, Nicole Mons, Maurice Garret, Yoon H Cho
Hereditary Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with progressive motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. A primary consequence of the HD mutation is the preferential loss of medium spiny projection cells with relative sparing of local interneurons in the striatum. In addition, among GABAergic striatal projection cells, indirect pathway cells expressing D2 dopamine receptors are lost earlier than direct pathway cells expressing D1 receptors. To test in vivo the functional integrity of direct and indirect pathways as well as interneurons in the striatum of male R6/1 transgenic mice, we assessed their c-Fos expression levels induced by a striatal-dependent cognitive task and compared them with age-matched wild-type littermates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925523/bdnf-haplo-insufficiency-impairs-high-frequency-cortical-oscillations-in-mice
#2
Nigel C Jones, Matthew Hudson, Joshua Foreman, Gil Rind, Rachel Hill, Elizabeth E Manning, Maarten van den Buuse
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous aetiology involving genetic and environmental factors. Deficiencies in both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NMDA receptor function have been implicated in the disorder, and may play causal and synergistic roles. Perturbations in the regulation of electrophysiological signals, including high-frequency (gamma: 30-80 Hz and beta: 20-30 Hz) neuronal oscillations, are also associated with the disorder. This study investigated the influence of BDNF deficiency and NMDA receptor hypofunction on electrophysiological responses to brief acoustic stimuli...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922832/fast-spiking-parvalbumin-interneurons-are-frequently-myelinated-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-mice-and-humans
#3
J Stedehouder, J J Couey, D Brizee, B Hosseini, J A Slotman, C M F Dirven, G Shpak, A B Houtsmuller, S A Kushner
Myelination, the insulating ensheathment of axons by oligodendrocytes, is thought to both optimize signal propagation and provide metabolic support. Despite the well-established physiological importance of myelination to neuronal function, relatively little is known about the myelination of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex. Here, we report that a large fraction of myelin in mouse cerebral cortex ensheaths GABAergic interneurons, reaching up to 80% in hippocampal subregions. Moreover, we find that a very high proportion of neocortical and hippocampal parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exhibit axonal myelination...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921934/mirror-trends-of-plasticity-and-stability-indicators-in-primate-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Miguel Á García-Cabezas, Mary Kate P Joyce, Yohan J John, Basilis Zikopoulos, Helen Barbas
Research on plasticity markers in the cerebral cortex has largely focused on their timing of expression and role in shaping circuits during critical and normal periods. By contrast, little attention has been focused on the spatial dimension of plasticity-stability across cortical areas. The rationale for this analysis is based on the systematic variation in cortical structure that parallels functional specialization and raises the possibility of varying levels of plasticity. Here we investigated in adult rhesus monkeys the expression of markers related to synaptic plasticity or stability in prefrontal limbic and eulaminate areas that vary in laminar structure...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921856/disruption-of-perineuronal-nets-increases-the-frequency-of-sharp-wave-ripple-events
#5
ZhiYong Sun, P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Adam Caccavano, Megan Allen, Jason Balmuth, Stefano Vicini, Jian-Young Wu, Katherine Conant
Hippocampal sharp wave ripples (SWRs) represent irregularly occurring synchronous neuronal population events that are observed during phases of rest and slow wave sleep. SWR activity that follows learning involves sequential replay of training-associated neuronal assemblies and is critical for systems level memory consolidation. SWRs are initiated by CA2 or CA3 pyramidal cells and require initial excitation of CA1 pyramidal cells as well as participation of parvalbumin (PV) expressing fast spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919853/p47phox-cdk5-drp1-mediated-mitochondrial-fission-evokes-pv-cell-degeneration-in-the-rat-dentate-gyrus-following-status-epilepticus
#6
Ji-Eun Kim, Tae-Cheon Kang
Parvalbumin (PV) is one of the calcium-binding proteins, which plays an important role in the responsiveness of inhibitory neurons to an adaptation to repetitive spikes. Furthermore, PV neurons are highly vulnerable to status epilepticus (SE, prolonged seizure activity), although the underlining mechanism remains to be clarified. In the present study, we found that p47Phox expression was transiently and selectively increased in PV neurons 6 h after SE. This up-regulated p47Phox expression was accompanied by excessive mitochondrial fission...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916300/distinct-neuronal-populations-in-the-basolateral-and-central-amygdala-are-activated-with-acute-pain-conditioned-fear-and-fear-conditioned-analgesia
#7
Ryan K Butler, Sarah Ehling, Megan Barbar, Jess Thomas, Mary A Hughes, Charles E Smith, Vladimir M Pogorelov, Dipendra K Aryal, William C Wetsel, B Duncan X Lascelles
Fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA) is modulated by brain areas involved in the descending inhibitory pain pathway such as the basolateral (BLA) and central amygdala (CEA). The BLA contains Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and parvalbumin (PV) neurons. CEA neurons are primarily inhibitory (GABAergic) that comprise enkephalin (ENK) interneurons and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) - neurons that project to the periaqueductal grey. The purpose of our experiment was to determine the pattern of activation of CaMKII/PV and ENK/CRF neurons following the expression of acute pain, conditioned fear, and FCA...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905384/heteromeric-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-glycine-receptors-regulate-excitability-in-parvalbumin-expressing-dorsal-horn-neurons-through-phasic-and-tonic-glycinergic-inhibition
#8
M A Gradwell, K A Boyle, R J Callister, D I Hughes, B A Graham
The dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord is an important site for modality specific processing of sensory information and is essential for contextually relevant sensory experience. Parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory interneurons (PV + INs) have functional properties and connectivity that enables them to segregate tactile and nociceptive information. Here we examine inhibitory drive to PV + INs using targeted patch-clamp recording in spinal cord slices from adult transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein in PV + INs...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903039/polyploidy-and-the-cellular-and-areal-diversity-of-rat-cortical-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons
#9
Johanna Sigl-Glöckner, Michael Brecht
In many species, polyploidy, in which an increase in nuclear DNA content is accompanied by an increase in cell size, contributes to cellular diversity. In the rat visual cortex, most neurons are small and homogeneous in size, while layer 5 cells are heterogeneous, containing some very large neurons. To measure DNA content, we quantified nuclear chromocenters and integrated DNA/DAPI fluorescence. The results suggest that most cortical neurons, non-neuronal cells, parvalbumin-positive interneurons, and large entorhinal layer 2 stellate projection neurons are diploid...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887876/cell-specific-gain-modulation-by-synaptically-released-zinc-in-cortical-circuits-of-audition
#10
Charles T Anderson, Manoj Kumar, Shanshan Xiong, Thanos Tzounopoulos
In many excitatory synapses, mobile zinc is found within glutamatergic vesicles and is coreleased with glutamate. Ex vivo studies established that synaptically released (synaptic) zinc inhibits excitatory neurotransmission at lower frequencies of synaptic activity but enhances steady state synaptic responses during higher frequencies of activity. However, it remains unknown how synaptic zinc affects neuronal processing in vivo. Here, we imaged the sound-evoked neuronal activity of the primary auditory cortex in awake mice...
September 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883753/inhibition-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-excitatory-neuronal-activity-induces-conditioned-place-preference-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-inflammatory-pain
#11
Sukjae Joshua Kang, Siyong Kim, Jaehyun Lee, Chuljung Kwak, Kyungmin Lee, Min Zhuo, Bong-Kiun Kaang
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is known for its role in perception of nociceptive signals and the associated emotional responses. Recent optogenetic studies, involving modulation of neuronal activity in the ACC, show that the ACC can modulate mechanical hyperalgesia. In the present study, we used optogenetic techniques to selectively modulate excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons in the ACC in a model of chronic inflammatory pain to assess their motivational effect in the conditioned place preference (CPP) test...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871229/gabapentin-modulates-hcn4-channel-voltage-dependence
#12
Han-Shen Tae, Kelly M Smith, A Marie Phillips, Kieran A Boyle, Melody Li, Ian C Forster, Robert J Hatch, Robert Richardson, David I Hughes, Brett A Graham, Steven Petrou, Christopher A Reid
Gabapentin (GBP) is widely used to treat epilepsy and neuropathic pain. There is evidence that GBP can act on hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) channel-mediated Ih in brain slice experiments. However, evidence showing that GBP directly modulates HCN channels is lacking. The effect of GBP was tested using two-electrode voltage clamp recordings from human HCN1, HCN2, and HCN4 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Whole-cell recordings were also made from mouse spinal cord slices targeting either parvalbumin positive (PV(+)) or calretinin positive (CR(+)) inhibitory neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865483/suppression-of-cortical-seizures-by-optic-stimulation-of-the-reticular-thalamus-in-pv-mhchr2-yfp-bac-transgenic-mice
#13
Wei Jen Chang, Wei Pang Chang, Bai Chuang Shyu
Deep brain stimulation in thalamic regions has been proposed as a treatment for epilepsy. The electrical current excites thalamocortical activity which is controlled by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons in the reticular thalamic nucleus (nRT). Previous studies showed that enhancing GABAergic inhibitory strength in the nRT reduces the duration and power of seizures, indicating that the thalamus plays an important role in modulating cortical seizures. The aim of the present study was to apply optogenetics to study the role of the nRT in modulating cortical seizures...
September 2, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861331/alteration-of-interneuron-immunoreactivity-and-autophagic-activity-in-rat-hippocampus-after-single-high-dose-whole-brain-irradiation
#14
Yi-Bing Ouyang, Shoucheng Ning, John R Adler, Bruce Maciver, Susan J Knox, Rona Giffard
The effects of high dose gamma radiation on brain tissue are poorly understood, with both limited and major changes reported. The present study compared the effects of gamma irradiation on the expression of interneuron markers within the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region with expression in control matched rats. This area was chosen for study because of its well-characterized circuitry. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 60 Gy of whole brain gamma radiation and after 24 or 48 hours, the brains were removed, fixed and sectioned to quantitate expression of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin-D28K (CB), reelin, neuropeptide-Y (NPY), and somatostatin...
June 30, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860977/damaged-neocortical-perineuronal-nets-due-to-experimental-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-mice-rats-and-sheep
#15
Wolfgang Härtig, Bianca Mages, Susanne Aleithe, Björn Nitzsche, Stephan Altmann, Henryk Barthel, Martin Krueger, Dominik Michalski
As part of the extracellular matrix (ECM), perineuronal nets (PNs) are polyanionic, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG)-rich coatings of certain neurons, known to be affected in various neural diseases. Although these structures are considered as important parts of the neurovascular unit (NVU), their role during evolution of acute ischemic stroke and subsequent tissue damage is poorly understood and only a few preclinical studies analyzed PNs after acute ischemic stroke. By employing three models of experimental focal cerebral ischemia, this study was focused on histopathological alterations of PNs and concomitant vascular, glial and neuronal changes according to the NVU concept...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860091/a-quantitative-study-of-neurochemically-defined-populations-of-inhibitory-interneurons-in-the-superficial-dorsal-horn-of-the-mouse-spinal-cord
#16
Kieran A Boyle, Maria Gutierrez-Mecinas, Erika Polgár, Nicole Mooney, Emily O'Connor, Takahiro Furuta, Masahiko Watanabe, Andrew J Todd
Around a quarter of neurons in laminae I-II of the dorsal horn are inhibitory interneurons. These play an important role in modulating somatosensory information, including that perceived as pain or itch. Previous studies in rat identified four largely non-overlapping neurochemical populations among these cells, defined by expression of galanin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or parvalbumin. The galanin cells were subsequently shown to coexpress dynorphin. Several recent studies have used genetically modified mice to investigate the function of different interneuron populations, and it is therefore important to determine whether the same pattern applies in mouse, and to estimate the relative sizes of these populations...
August 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859333/%C3%AE-synucleinopathy-in-the-human-amygdala-in-parkinson-disease-differential-vulnerability-of-somatostatin-and-parvalbumin-expressing-neurons
#17
Alicia Flores-Cuadrado, Isabel Ubeda-Bañon, Daniel Saiz-Sanchez, Alino Martinez-Marcos
Olfactory dysfunction and emotional impairment are nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). These symptoms might be correlated with the appearance of Lewy bodies and neurites (ubiquitin and α-synuclein aggregates) in the amygdala (Braak stage 3). α-Synucleinopathy in the amygdala has been studied only occasionally, and no data on cell types involved are available. This work aimed to analyze α-synuclein expression in the basolateral, central, and cortical amygdaloid nuclei in 5 PD patients (Braak stages 3-5) and 5 controls...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857068/anti-manic-efficacy-of-a-novel-kv3-potassium-channel-modulator
#18
Puja K Parekh, Michelle M Sidor, Andrea Gillman, Darius Becker-Krail, Letizia Bettelini, Roberto Arban, Giuseppe S Alvaro, Erika Zambello, Chiara Mutinelli, Yanhua Huang, Charles H Large, Colleen A McClung
Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 voltage-gated potassium channels are expressed on parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in corticolimbic brain regions and contribute to high frequency neural firing. The channels are also expressed on GABAergic neurons of the basal ganglia, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area (VTA) where they regulate firing patterns critical for movement control, reward, and motivation. Modulation of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channels may therefore have potential in the treatment of disorders in which these systems have been implicated, such as bipolar disorder...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855864/persistent-decreases-in-adult-subventricular-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-following-adolescent-intermittent-ethanol-exposure
#19
Wen Liu, Fulton T Crews
Neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and subventricular zone (SVZ) matures during adolescence to adult levels. Binge drinking is prevalent in adolescent humans, and could alter brain neurogenesis and maturation in a manner that persists into adulthood. To determine the impact of adolescent binge drinking on adult neurogenesis, Wistar rats received adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure (5.0 g/kg/day, i.g., 2 days on/2 days off from postnatal day, P25-P54) and sacrificed on P57 or P95. Neural progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and maturation using immunohistochemistry was determined in the DG and SVZ...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854365/neto-auxiliary-subunits-regulate-interneuron-somatodendritic-and-presynaptic-kainate-receptors-to-control-network-inhibition
#20
Megan S Wyeth, Kenneth A Pelkey, Xiaoqing Yuan, Geoffrey Vargish, April D Johnston, Steven Hunt, Calvin Fang, Daniel Abebe, Vivek Mahadevan, André Fisahn, Michael W Salter, Roderick R McInnes, Ramesh Chittajallu, Chris J McBain
Although Netos are considered auxiliary subunits critical for kainate receptor (KAR) function, direct evidence for their regulation of native KARs is limited. Because Neto KAR regulation is GluK subunit/Neto isoform specific, such regulation must be determined in cell-type-specific contexts. We demonstrate Neto1/2 expression in somatostatin (SOM)-, cholecystokinin/cannabinoid receptor 1 (CCK/CB1)-, and parvalbumin (PV)-containing interneurons. KAR-mediated excitation of these interneurons is contingent upon Neto1 because kainate yields comparable effects in Neto2 knockouts and wild-types but fails to excite interneurons or recruit inhibition in Neto1 knockouts...
August 29, 2017: Cell Reports
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