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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811646/pafah1b1-haploinsufficiency-disrupts-gaba-neurons-and-synaptic-e-i-balance-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#1
Matthew T Dinday, Kelly M Girskis, Sunyoung Lee, Scott C Baraban, Robert F Hunt
Hemizygous mutations in the human gene encoding platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit alpha (Pafah1b1), also called Lissencephaly-1, can cause classical lissencephaly, a severe malformation of cortical development. Children with this disorder suffer from deficits in neuronal migration, severe intellectual disability, intractable epilepsy and early death. While many of these features can be reproduced in Pafah1b1(+/-) mice, the impact of Pafah1b1(+/-) on the function of individual subpopulations of neurons and ultimately brain circuits is largely unknown...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809843/tuning-in-the-hippocampal-theta-band-in-vitro-methodologies-for-recording-from-the-isolated-rodent-septohippocampal-circuit
#2
Frédéric Manseau, Sylvain Williams
This protocol outlines the procedures for preparing and recording from the isolated whole hippocampus, of WT and transgenic mice, along with recent improvements in methodologies and applications for the study of theta oscillations. A simple characterization of the isolated hippocampal preparation is presented whereby the relationship between internal hippocampal theta oscillators is examined together with the activity of pyramidal cells, and GABAergic interneurons, of the cornu ammonis-1 (CA1) and subiculum (SUB) areas...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798343/isoflurane-produces-antidepressant-effects-and-induces-trkb-signaling-in-rodents
#3
Hanna Antila, Maria Ryazantseva, Dina Popova, Pia Sipilä, Ramon Guirado, Samuel Kohtala, Ipek Yalcin, Jesse Lindholm, Liisa Vesa, Vinicius Sato, Joshua Cordeira, Henri Autio, Mikhail Kislin, Maribel Rios, Sâmia Joca, Plinio Casarotto, Leonard Khiroug, Sari Lauri, Tomi Taira, Eero Castrén, Tomi Rantamäki
A brief burst-suppressing isoflurane anesthesia has been shown to rapidly alleviate symptoms of depression in a subset of patients, but the neurobiological basis of these observations remains obscure. We show that a single isoflurane anesthesia produces antidepressant-like behavioural effects in the learned helplessness paradigm and regulates molecular events implicated in the mechanism of action of rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine: activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptor TrkB, facilitation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798132/single-cell-methylomes-identify-neuronal-subtypes-and-regulatory-elements-in-mammalian-cortex
#4
Chongyuan Luo, Christopher L Keown, Laurie Kurihara, Jingtian Zhou, Yupeng He, Junhao Li, Rosa Castanon, Jacinta Lucero, Joseph R Nery, Justin P Sandoval, Brian Bui, Terrence J Sejnowski, Timothy T Harkins, Eran A Mukamel, M Margarita Behrens, Joseph R Ecker
The mammalian brain contains diverse neuronal types, yet we lack single-cell epigenomic assays that are able to identify and characterize them. DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic mark that distinguishes cell types and marks regulatory elements. We generated >6000 methylomes from single neuronal nuclei and used them to identify 16 mouse and 21 human neuronal subpopulations in the frontal cortex. CG and non-CG methylation exhibited cell type-specific distributions, and we identified regulatory elements with differential methylation across neuron types...
August 11, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795135/male-and-female-mice-lacking-neuroligin-3-modify-the-behavior-of-their-wild-type-littermates
#5
Shireene Kalbassi, Sven O Bachmann, Ellen Cross, Victoria H Roberton, Stéphane J Baudouin
In most mammals, including humans, the postnatal acquisition of normal social and nonsocial behavior critically depends on interactions with peers. Here we explore the possibility that mixed-group housing of mice carrying a deletion of Nlgn3, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorders, and their wild-type littermates induces changes in each other's behavior. We have found that, when raised together, male Nlgn3 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates displayed deficits in sociability. Moreover, social submission in adult male Nlgn3 knockout mice correlated with an increase in their anxiety...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791333/combining-theory-model-and-experiment-to-explain-how-intrinsic-theta-rhythms-are-generated-in-an-in-vitro-whole-hippocampus-preparation-without-oscillatory-inputs
#6
Katie A Ferguson, Alexandra P Chatzikalymniou, Frances K Skinner
Scientists have observed local field potential theta rhythms (3-12 Hz) in the hippocampus for decades, but understanding the mechanisms underlying their generation is complicated by their diversity in pharmacological and frequency profiles. In addition, interactions with other brain structures and oscillatory drives to the hippocampus during distinct brain states has made it difficult to identify hippocampus-specific properties directly involved in theta generation. To overcome this, we develop cellular-based network models using a whole hippocampus in vitro preparation that spontaneously generates theta rhythms...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774782/does-layer-4-in-the-barrel-cortex-function-as-a-balanced-circuit-when-responding-to-whisker-movements
#7
Tommer Argaman, David Golomb
Neurons in one barrel in layer 4 (L4) in the mouse vibrissa somatosensory cortex are innervated mostly by neurons from the VPM nucleus and by other neurons within the same barrel. During quiet wakefulness or whisking in air, thalamic inputs vary slowly in time, and excitatory neurons rarely fire. A barrel in L4 contains a modest amount of neurons; the synaptic conductances are not very strong and connections are not sparse. Are the dynamical properties of the L4 circuit similar to those expected from fluctuation-dominated, balanced networks observed for large, strongly-coupled and sparse cortical circuits? To resolve this question, we analyze a network of 150 inhibitory parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons innervated by the VPM thalamus with random connectivity, without or with 1600 low-firing excitatory neurons...
July 31, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768803/modulation-of-prefrontal-cortex-excitation-inhibition-balance-rescues-social-behavior-in-cntnap2-deficient-mice
#8
Aslihan Selimbeyoglu, Christina K Kim, Masatoshi Inoue, Soo Yeun Lee, Alice S O Hong, Isaac Kauvar, Charu Ramakrishnan, Lief E Fenno, Thomas J Davidson, Matthew Wright, Karl Deisseroth
Alterations in the balance between neuronal excitation and inhibition (E:I balance) have been implicated in the neural circuit activity-based processes that contribute to autism phenotypes. We investigated whether acutely reducing E:I balance in mouse brain could correct deficits in social behavior. We used mice lacking the CNTNAP2 gene, which has been implicated in autism, and achieved a temporally precise reduction in E:I balance in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) either by optogenetically increasing the excitability of inhibitory parvalbumin (PV) neurons or decreasing the excitability of excitatory pyramidal neurons...
August 2, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764040/quantitative-analysis-of-species-specificity-of-two-anti-parvalbumin-antibodies-for-detecting-southern-hemisphere-fish-species-demonstrating-strong-phylogenetic-association
#9
Ji Liang, Chui Choo Tan, Steve L Taylor, Joseph L Baumert, Andreas L Lopata, N Alice Lee
This study aimed to develop a novel approach to determine the correlation between the parvalbumin (PAV) contents and their corresponding immunoreactivity (detectability) in southern hemisphere fish species. The immuno-detected PAV contents of the test fish species were estimated by a quantitative SDS-PAGE. A quantitative Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) was formatted to assess relative immunoreactivity of PAV. Sixteen species (forty-three percent) displayed a positive correlation with the anti-cod PAV polyclonal antibody, but no correlation with the anti-carp PAV monoclonal antibody...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761170/intravenous-infusion-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-promotes-functional-recovery-and-neuroplasticity-after-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#10
Eliana Sammali, Claudia Alia, Gloria Vegliante, Valentina Colombo, Nadia Giordano, Francesca Pischiutta, Giorgio B Boncoraglio, Mario Barilani, Lorenza Lazzari, Matteo Caleo, Maria-Grazia De Simoni, Giuseppe Gaipa, Giuseppe Citerio, Elisa R Zanier
Transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSC) promotes functional recovery after stroke in animal models, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain incompletely understood. We tested the efficacy of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) compliant hBM-MSC, injected intravenously 3.5 hours after injury in mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). We addressed whether hBM-MSC are efficacious and if this efficacy is associated with cortical circuit reorganization using neuroanatomical analysis of GABAergic neurons (parvalbumin; PV-positive cells) and perineuronal nets (PNN), a specialized extracellular matrix structure which acts as an inhibitor of neural plasticity...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761082/selective-activation-of-parvalbumin-interneurons-prevents-stress-induced-synapse-loss-and-perceptual-defects
#11
C-C Chen, J Lu, R Yang, J B Ding, Y Zuo
Stress, a prevalent experience in modern society, is a major risk factor for many psychiatric disorders. Although sensorimotor abnormalities are often present in these disorders, little is known about how stress affects the sensory cortex. Combining behavioral analyses with in vivo synaptic imaging, we show that stressful experiences lead to progressive, clustered loss of dendritic spines along the apical dendrites of layer (L) 5 pyramidal neurons (PNs) in the mouse barrel cortex, and such spine loss closely associates with deteriorated performance in a whisker-dependent texture discrimination task...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760861/feedback-inhibition-shapes-emergent-computational-properties-of-cortical-microcircuit-motifs
#12
Zeno Jonke, Robert Legenstein, Stefan Habenschuss, Wolfgang Maass
Cortical microcircuits are very complex networks, but they are composed of a relatively small number of stereotypical motifs. Hence one strategy for throwing light on the computational function of cortical microcircuits is to analyze emergent computational properties of these stereotypical microcircuit motifs. We are addressing here the question how spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) shapes the computational properties of one motif that has frequently been studied experimentally: interconnected populations of pyramidal cells and parvalbumin-positive inhibitory cells in layer 2/3...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758205/clustered-organization-and-region-specific-identities-of-estrogen-producing-neurons-in-the-forebrain-of-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#13
Maaya Z Ikeda, Amanda A Krentzel, Tessa J Oliver, Garrett B Scarpa, Luke Remage-Healey
A fast, neuromodulatory role for estrogen signaling has been reported in many regions of the vertebrate brain. Regional differences in the cellular distribution of aromatase (estrogen synthase) in several species suggest that mechanisms for neuroestrogen signaling differ between and even within brain regions. A more comprehensive understanding of neuroestrogen signaling depends on characterizing the cellular identities of neurons that express aromatase. Calcium-binding proteins such as parvalbumin and calbindin are molecular markers for interneuron subtypes, and are co-expressed with aromatase in human temporal cortex...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751664/afferent-specific-role-of-nmda-receptors-for-the-circuit-integration-of-hippocampal-neurogliaform-cells
#14
R Chittajallu, J C Wester, M T Craig, E Barksdale, X Q Yuan, G Akgül, C Fang, D Collins, S Hunt, K A Pelkey, C J McBain
Appropriate integration of GABAergic interneurons into nascent cortical circuits is critical for ensuring normal information processing within the brain. Network and cognitive deficits associated with neurological disorders, such as schizophrenia, that result from NMDA receptor-hypofunction have been mainly attributed to dysfunction of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons that paradoxically express low levels of synaptic NMDA receptors. Here, we reveal that throughout postnatal development, thalamic, and entorhinal cortical inputs onto hippocampal neurogliaform cells are characterized by a large NMDA receptor-mediated component...
July 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746863/cortical-interneurons-differentially-regulate-the-effects-of-acoustic-context
#15
Elizabeth A K Phillips, Christoph E Schreiner, Andrea R Hasenstaub
Both behavioral and neural responses to sounds are generally modified by the acoustic context in which they are encountered. As an example, in the auditory cortex, preceding sounds can powerfully suppress responses to later, spectrally similar sounds-a phenomenon called forward suppression (FWS). Whether cortical inhibitory networks shape such suppression or whether it is wholly regulated by common mechanisms such as synaptic depression or spike frequency adaptation is controversial. Here, we show that optogenetically suppressing somatostatin-positive (Sst+) interneurons weakens forward suppression, often revealing facilitation in neurons that are normally forward-suppressed...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740229/connexin-hemichannel-blockade-improves-survival-of-striatal-gaba-ergic-neurons-after-global-cerebral-ischaemia-in-term-equivalent-fetal-sheep
#16
Robert Galinsky, Joanne O Davidson, Christopher A Lear, Laura Bennet, Colin R Green, Alistair J Gunn
Basal ganglia injury at term remains a major cause of disability, such as cerebral palsy. In this study we tested the hypotheses that blockade of astrocytic connexin hemichannels with a mimetic peptide would improve survival of striatal phenotypic neurons after global cerebral ischaemia in term-equivalent fetal sheep, and that neuronal survival would be associated with electrophysiological recovery. Fetal sheep (0.85 gestation) were randomly assigned to receive a short or long (1 or 25 h) intracerebroventricular infusion of a mimetic peptide or vehicle, starting 90 minutes after 30 minutes of cerebral ischaemia...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738349/towards-an-integrated-view-of-early-molecular-changes-underlying-vulnerability-to-social-stress-in-psychosis
#17
Henry Barron, Sina Hafizi, Romina Mizrahi
Psychotic disorders are heterogeneous and complex, involving many putative causal factors interacting along the course of disease development. Many of the factors implicated in the pathogenesis of psychosis also appear to be involved in disease onset and subsequent neuroprogression. Herein, we highlight the pertinent literature implicating inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of psychosis, and the potential contribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). We also emphasize the role of peripubertal social stress in psychosis, and the ways in which hippocampal dysfunction can mediate dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and cortisol release...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735749/initiation-of-behavioral-response-to-antidepressants-by-cholecystokinin-neurons-of-the-dentate-gyrus
#18
Lucian Medrihan, Yotam Sagi, Zintis Inde, Oleh Krupa, Chelsea Daniels, Adrien Peyrache, Paul Greengard
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly used class of antidepressant drugs, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which their therapeutic action is initiated are poorly understood. Here we show that serotonin 5-HT1B receptors in cholecystokinin (CCK) inhibitory interneurons of the mammalian dentate gyrus (DG) initiate the therapeutic response to antidepressants. In these neurons, 5-HT1B receptors are expressed presynaptically, and their activation inhibits GABA release. Inhibition of GABA release from CCK neurons disinhibits parvalbumin (PV) interneurons and, as a consequence, reduces the neuronal activity of the granule cells...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735013/simultaneous-intrinsic-signal-imaging-of-auditory-and-visual-cortex-reveals-profound-effects-of-acute-hearing-loss-on-visual-processing
#19
Manuel Teichert, Jürgen Bolz
It has been suggested that primary sensory cortices do not work in isolation but receive subthreshold inputs originating from other senses. However, repercussions of an acute loss of one sense on multimodal sensory processing remain elusive. Here we investigated the early effects of acute hearing loss on visual processing in adult mice. For this, we developed a method to simultaneously map the primary auditory (A1) and visual cortex (V1) using periodic intrinsic optical imaging. We found that reducing sound evoked A1 responsiveness due to the induction of conductive hearing loss (CHL) led to a concomitant increase of visually driven V1 activity...
July 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733354/selective-silencing-of-hippocampal-parvalbumin-interneurons-induces-development-of-recurrent-spontaneous-limbic-seizures-in-mice
#20
Meinrad Drexel, Roman A Romanov, James Wood, Stefan Weger, Regine Heilbronn, Peer Wulff, Ramon O Tasan, Tibor Harkany, Günther Sperk
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent form of focal epilepsies and generally associated with malfunctioning of the hippocampal formation. Recently, a preferential loss of parvalbumin (PV) neurons has been observed in the subiculum of TLE patients and in animal models of TLE. To demonstrate a possible causative role of defunct PV neurons in the generation of TLE, we permanently inhibited GABA release selectively from PV neurons of the ventral subiculum by injecting a viral vector expressing tetanus toxin light chain in male mice...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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