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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774782/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-ethanol-intoxication-in-tbi-is-associated-with-the-suppression-of-erbb-signaling-in-pv-positive-interneurons
#1
Akila Chandrasekar, Florian Olde Heuvel, Martin Wepler, Rida Rehman, Annette Palmer, Alberto Catanese, Birgit Linkus, Albert Ludolph, Tobias Boeckers, Markus Huber-Lang, Peter Radermacher, Francesco Roselli
Ethanol intoxication (EI) is a frequent comorbidity of TBI, but the impact of EI on TBI pathogenic cascades and prognosis is unclear: although clinical evidence suggests that EI may have neuroprotective effects, experimental support is, to date, inconclusive. We aimed at elucidating the impact of EI on TBI-associated neurological deficits, signaling pathways and pathogenic cascades, in order to identify new modifiers of TBI pathophysiology. We have shown that ethanol administration (5g/Kg) before trauma enhances behavioral recovery in a weight-drop TBI model; neuronal survival in the injured somatosensory cortex was enhanced by EI...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771284/non-cell-autonomous-otx2-homeoprotein-regulates-visual-cortex-plasticity-through-gadd45b-g
#2
Jessica Apulei, Namsuk Kim, Damien Testa, Jérôme Ribot, David Morizet, Clémence Bernard, Laurent Jourdren, Corinne Blugeon, Ariel A Di Nardo, Alain Prochiantz
The non-cell autonomous transfer of OTX2 homeoprotein transcription factor into juvenile mouse cerebral cortex regulates parvalbumin interneuron maturation and critical period timing. By analyzing gene expression in primary visual cortex of wild-type and Otx2+/GFP mice at plastic and nonplastic ages, we identified several putative genes implicated in Otx2-dependent visual cortex plasticity for ocular dominance. Cortical OTX2 infusion in juvenile mice induced Gadd45b/g expression through direct regulation of transcription...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766029/seizure-suppressant-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-encapsulated-bdnf-producing-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Chiara Falcicchia, Giovanna Paolone, Dwaine F Emerich, Francesca Lovisari, William J Bell, Tracie Fradet, Lars U Wahlberg, Michele Simonato
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may represent a therapeutic for chronic epilepsy, but evaluating its potential is complicated by difficulties in its delivery to the brain. Here, we describe the effects on epileptic seizures of encapsulated cell biodelivery (ECB) devices filled with genetically modified human cells engineered to release BDNF. These devices, implanted into the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated rats, highly decreased the frequency of spontaneous seizures by more than 80%. These benefits were associated with improved cognitive performance, as epileptic rats treated with BDNF performed significantly better on a novel object recognition test...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757347/role-of-inhibitory-control-in-modulating-focal-seizure-spread
#4
Jyun-You Liou, Hongtao Ma, Michael Wenzel, Mingrui Zhao, Eliza Baird-Daniel, Elliot H Smith, Andy Daniel, Ronald Emerson, Rafael Yuste, Theodore H Schwartz, Catherine A Schevon
Focal seizure propagation is classically thought to be spatially contiguous. However, distribution of seizures through a large-scale epileptic network has been theorized. Here, we used a multielectrode array, wide field calcium imaging, and two-photon calcium imaging to study focal seizure propagation pathways in an acute rodent neocortical 4-aminopyridine model. Although ictal neuronal bursts did not propagate beyond a 2-3-mm region, they were associated with hemisphere-wide field potential fluctuations and parvalbumin-positive interneuron activity outside the seizure focus...
May 10, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748633/precocious-deposition-of-perineuronal-nets-on-parvalbumin-inhibitory-neurons-transplanted-into-adult-visual-cortex
#5
Karen P Bradshaw, Dario X Figueroa Velez, Mariyam Habeeb, Sunil P Gandhi
The end of the critical period for primary visual cortex (V1) coincides with the deposition of perineuronal nets (PNN) onto Parvalbumin (PV) inhibitory neurons. Recently, we found that transplantation of embryonic inhibitory neurons into adult V1 reinstates a new critical period. Here we used Wisteria Floribunda Agglutinin (WFA) staining to compare the deposition of PNNs onto neurons during normal development and following transplantation at equivalent cell ages. In accord with previous findings, PV and PNN expression increases from negligible levels at postnatal day 14 (P14) to mature levels by P70...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740596/neuregulin-1-type-i-overexpression-is-associated-with-reduced-nmda-receptor-mediated-synaptic-signaling-in-hippocampal-interneurons-expressing-pv-or-cck
#6
Dimitrios Kotzadimitriou, Wiebke Nissen, Melinda Paizs, Kathryn Newton, Paul J Harrison, Ole Paulsen, Karri Lamsa
Hypofunction of N -methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ), a heritable disorder with many susceptibility genes. However, it is still unclear how SZ risk genes interfere with NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission in diverse inhibitory interneuron populations. One putative risk gene is neuregulin 1 ( NRG1 ), which signals via the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB4, itself a schizophrenia risk gene. The type I isoform of NRG1 shows increased expression in the brain of SZ patients, and ErbB4 is enriched in GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV) or cholecystokinin (CCK)...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740280/common-ribs-of-inhibitory-synaptic-dysfunction-in-the-umbrella-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Rachel Ali Rodriguez, Christina Joya, Rochelle M Hines
The term neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) is an umbrella term used to group together a heterogeneous class of disorders characterized by disruption in cognition, emotion, and behavior, early in the developmental timescale. These disorders are heterogeneous, yet they share common behavioral symptomatology as well as overlapping genetic contributors, including proteins involved in the formation, specialization, and function of synaptic connections. Advances may arise from bridging the current knowledge on synapse related factors indicated from both human studies in NDD populations, and in animal models...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739572/determination-of-a-major-allergen-in-fish-samples-by-simple-and-effective-label-free-capillary-electrophoretic-analysis-after-background-suppression-in-ion-exchange-chromatography
#8
Linglin Fu, Jinru Zhou, Chong Wang, Yan Zhang, Aijin Ma, Yanbo Wang
A simple analytical method using ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) coupled with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was newly developed for detection and quantification of parvalbumin (PV), a major allergen, in fish. The procedure of IEC for simple enrichment of PV crude extract was optimized. By using 25 mmol/L borate-borax buffer with 15 kV separation voltage at pH 9.2 for CZE separation, the migration time, separation efficiency and electrophoretic resolution greatly improved. Under the optimal conditions, PV was determined in 2...
September 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735555/genetic-activation-inactivation-and-deletion-reveal-a-limited-and-nuanced-role-for-somatostatin-containing-basal-forebrain-neurons-in-behavioral-state-control
#9
Christelle Anaclet, Roberto De Luca, Anne Venner, Olga Malyshevskaya, Michael Lazarus, Elda Arrigoni, Patrick M Fuller
Recent studies have identified an especially important role for basal forebrain GABAergic (BFVGAT ) neurons in the regulation of behavioral waking and fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. However, BFVGAT neurons comprise several neurochemically and anatomically distinct sub-populations, including parvalbumin- and somatostatin-containing BFVGAT neurons (BFParv and BFSOM ), and it was recently reported that optogenetic activation of BFSOM neurons increases the probability of a wakefulness to non-rapid-eye movement (NREM) sleep transition when stimulated during the animal's rest period...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729502/sucrose-or-sucrose-and-caffeine-differentially-impact-memory-and-anxiety-like-behaviours-and-alter-hippocampal-parvalbumin-and-doublecortin
#10
Tanya J Xu, Amy C Reichelt
Caffeinated sugar-sweetened "energy" drinks are a subset of soft drinks that are popular among young people worldwide. High sucrose diets impair cognition and alter aspects of emotional behaviour in rats, however, little is known about sucrose combined with caffeine. Rats were allocated to 2 h/day 10% sucrose (Suc), 10% sucrose plus 0.04% caffeine (CafSuc) or control (water) conditions. The addition of caffeine to sucrose appeared to increase the rewarding aspect of sucrose, as the CafSuc group consumed more solution than the Suc group...
April 11, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728449/schaffer-collateral-inputs-to-ca1-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons-follow-different-connectivity-rules
#11
Osung Kwon, Linqing Feng, Shaul Druckmann, Jinhyun Kim
Neural circuits, governed by a complex interplay between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, are the substrate for information processing, and the organization of synaptic connectivity in neural network is an important determinant of circuit function. Here, we analyzed the fine structure of connectivity in hippocampal CA1 excitatory and inhibitory neurons innervated by Schaffer collaterals (SCs) using mGRASP in male mice. Our previous study revealed spatially structured synaptic connectivity between CA3-CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs)...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715538/age-and-sex-dependent-effects-of-methamphetamine-on-cognitive-flexibility-and-5-ht-2c-receptor-localization-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-of-sprague-dawley-rats
#12
Emily R Hankosky, Sara R Westbrook, Rachel M Haake, Jari Willing, Lori T Raetzman, Janice M Juraska, Joshua M Gulley
Adolescents and females experience worse outcomes of drug use compared to adults and males. This could result from age- and sex-specific consequences of drug exposure on brain function and cognitive behavior. In the current study, we examined whether a history of intravenous methamphetamine (METH) self-administration impacted cognitive flexibility and 5-HT2C R localization in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in an age- and sex-dependent manner. Strategy shifting was assessed in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats that had self-administered METH (0...
April 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714166/differential-inputs-to-striatal-cholinergic-and-parvalbumin-interneurons-imply-functional-distinctions
#13
Jason R Klug, Max D Engelhardt, Cara N Cadman, Hao Li, Jared B Smith, Sarah Ayala, Elora W Williams, Hilary Hoffman, Xin Jin
Striatal cholinergic (ChAT) and parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exert powerful influences on striatal function in health and disease, yet little is known about the organization of their inputs. Here using rabies tracing, electrophysiology and genetic tools, we compare the whole-brain inputs to these two types of striatal interneurons and dissect their functional connectivity in mice. ChAT interneurons receive a substantial cortical input from associative regions of cortex, such as the orbitofrontal cortex. Amongst subcortical inputs, a previously unknown inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus input to striatal PV interneurons is identified...
May 1, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708722/structural-and-functional-components-of-the-skate-sensory-organ-ampullae-of-lorenzini
#14
Xing Zhang, Ke Xia, Lei Lin, Fuming Zhang, Yanlei Yu, Kalib St Ange, Xiaorui Han, Eric Edsinger, Joel Sohn, Robert J Linhardt
The skate, a cartilaginous fish related to sharks and rays, possesses a unique electrosensitive sensory organ known as the ampullae of Lorenzini (AoL). This organ is responsible for the detection of weak electric field changes caused by the muscle contractions of their prey. While keratan sulfate (KS) is believed to be a component of a jelly that fills this sensory organ and has been credited with its high proton conductivity, modern analytical methods have not been applied to its characterization. Surprisingly, total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis demonstrates that the KS from skate jelly is extraordinarily pure, containing no other GAGs...
May 9, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708526/improving-the-application-of-high-molecular-weight-biotinylated-dextran-amine-for-thalamocortical-projection-tracing-in-the-rat
#15
Dongsheng Xu, Jingjing Cui, Jia Wang, Zhiyun Zhang, Chen She, Wanzhu Bai
High molecular weight biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) has been used as a highly sensitive neuroanatomical tracer for many decades. Since the quality of its labeling was affected by various factors, here, we provide a refined protocol for the application of high molecular weight BDA for studying optimal neural labeling in the central nervous system. After stereotactic injection of BDA into the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) of the thalamus in the rat through a delicate glass pipette, BDA was stained with fluorescent streptavidin-Alexa (AF) 594 and counterstained with fluorescent Nissl stain AF500/525...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694842/baseline-striatal-and-nigral-interneuronal-protein-levels-in-two-distinct-mice-strains-differ-in-accordance-with-their-mptp-susceptibility
#16
Bidisha Bhaduri, P L Abhilash, Phalguni Anand Alladi
Epidemiological studies reveal an ethnicity-based bias in prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD), deriving from the differences that exist between Caucasians and African or Asian populations. Experimental mice models provide a scope to analyse the cellular mechanisms of differential susceptibility to PD. C57BL/6 J mice, for instance, are more susceptible to MPTP-induced Parkinsonism whereas CD-1 mice are resistant. In PD-pathogenesis, interneuronal contribution is also likely, although they comprise only 5-10% of the striatal cells...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693705/effect-of-treadmill-exercise-on-spatial-navigation-impairment-associated-with-cerebellar-purkinje-cell-loss-following-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#17
Jae-Min Lee, Chang-Ju Kim, Jong-Min Park, Min Kyung Song, Youn-Jung Kim
In addition to roles in motor coordination, the cerebellum is also associated with cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial navigation deficit induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). Furthermore, whether decreased loss of Purkinje cells, which contain the calcium‑binding protein in the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, attenuates the spatial navigation deficit induced by CCH was also investigated. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham group, bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) group and a BCCAO + exercise (Ex) group...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688033/parvalbumin-promoter-hypermethylation-in-postmortem-brain-in-schizophrenia
#18
Helene A Fachim, Umarat Srisawat, Caroline F Dalton, Gavin P Reynolds
Deficits of brain parvalbumin (PV) are a consistent finding in schizophrenia and models of psychosis. We investigated whether this is associated with abnormal PV gene (PVALB) methylation in the brain in schizophrenia. Bisulfite pyrosequencing was used to determine cytosine (CpG) methylation in a PVALB promoter sequence. Greater PVALB methylation was found in schizophrenia hippocampus, while no differences were observed in prefrontal cortex. LINE-1 methylation, a measure of global methylation, was also elevated in both regions in schizophrenia, although the PVALB change was independent of this effect...
April 24, 2018: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682603/feedforward-inhibition-allows-input-summation-to-vary-in-recurrent-cortical-networks
#19
Mark H Histed
Brain computations depend on how neurons transform inputs to spike outputs. Here, to understand input-output transformations in cortical networks, we recorded spiking responses from visual cortex (V1) of awake mice of either sex while pairing sensory stimuli with optogenetic perturbation of excitatory and parvalbumin-positive inhibitory neurons. We found that V1 neurons' average responses were primarily additive (linear). We used a recurrent cortical network model to determine whether these data, as well as past observations of nonlinearity, could be described by a common circuit architecture...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678876/rapid-disinhibition-by-adjustment-of-pv-intrinsic-excitability-during-whisker-map-plasticity-in-mouse-s1
#20
Melanie A Gainey, Joseph W Aman, Daniel E Feldman
Rapid plasticity of layer (L) 2/3 inhibitory circuits is an early step in sensory cortical map plasticity, but its cellular basis is unclear. We show that, in mice of either sex, 1 day whisker deprivation drives rapid loss of L4-evoked feedforward inhibition and more modest loss of feedforward excitation in L2/3 pyramidal (PYR) cells, increasing E-I conductance ratio. Rapid disinhibition was due to reduced L4-evoked spiking by L2/3 parvalbumin (PV) interneurons, caused by reduced PV intrinsic excitability. This included elevated PV spike threshold, associated with an increase in low-threshold, voltage activated delayed rectifier (presumed Kv1) and A-type potassium currents...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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