Read by QxMD icon Read


Petrina Yau-Pok Lau, Linda Katona, Peter Saghy, Kathryn Newton, Peter Somogyi, Karri P Lamsa
Long-term plasticity is well documented in synapses between glutamatergic principal cells in the cortex both in vitro and in vivo. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and -depression (LTD) have also been reported in glutamatergic connections to hippocampal GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV+) or nitric oxide synthase (NOS+) in brain slices, but plasticity in these cells has not been tested in vivo. We investigated synaptically-evoked suprathreshold excitation of identified hippocampal neurons in the CA1 area of urethane-anaesthetized rats...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Martin Larsson, Grazyna Lietzau, David Nathanson, Claes-Göran Östenson, Carina Mallard, Maria E Johansson, Thomas Nyström, Cesare Patrone, Vladimer Darsalia
Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients often develop early cognitive and sensorimotor impairments. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind these problems are largely unknown. Recent studies demonstrate that dysfunctional γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons are involved in age-related cognitive decline. We hypothesized that similar, but earlier dysfunction is taking place under T2D in the neocortex and striatum (two brain areas important for cognition and sensorimotor functions). We also hypothesized that the T2D-induced effects are pharmacologically reversible by anti-diabetic drugs targeting the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R)...
October 25, 2016: Bioscience Reports
Christoph Bode, Franziska Richter, Christine Spröte, Tanja Brigadski, Anne Bauer, Simone Fietz, Jean-Marc Fritschy, Angelika Richter
GABAergic disinhibition has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of several basal ganglia disorders, including dystonia, a common movement disorder. Previous studies have shown a deficit of striatal GABAergic interneurons (IN) in the dt(sz) mutant hamster, one of the few phenotypic animal models of dystonia. However, mechanisms underlying this deficit are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the migration and/or maturation of striatal IN during postnatal development (18days of age) and at age of highest severity of dystonia (33days of age) in this hamster model...
October 22, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Courtney L Huff, Rachel L Morano, James P Herman, Bryan K Yamamoto, Gary A Gudelsky
3,4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) is a unique psychostimulant that continues to be a popular drug of abuse. It has been well documented that MDMA reduces markers of 5-HT axon terminals in rodents, as well as humans. A loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hippocampus following MDMA treatment has only been documented recently. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MDMA reduces glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-IR, another biochemical marker of GABA neurons, in the hippocampus and that this reduction in GAD67-IR neurons and an accompanying increase in seizure susceptibility involve glutamate receptor activation...
October 20, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Beata Hermanowicz-Sobieraj, Anna Robak
The study describes the immunoreactivity of calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV), their distribution pattern and the co-distribution of CB and CR as well as CB and PV in the septum of the guinea pig during development. Immunohistochemistry was conducted on embryonic (E40, E50, E60), newborn (P0) and postnatal (P5, P10, P20, P40, P100) guinea pig brains. The presence of both CB and CR was detected at E40, while PV began to be observed at E60. Immunoreactivity for CB was constant throughout ontogeny...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Dohoung Kim, Huijeong Jeong, Juhyeong Lee, Jeong-Wook Ghim, Eun Sil Her, Seung-Hee Lee, Min Whan Jung
Inhibitory interneurons are thought to play crucial roles in diverse brain functions. However, roles of different inhibitory interneuron subtypes in working memory remain unclear. We found distinct activity patterns and stimulation effects of two major interneuron subtypes, parvalbumin (PV)- and somatostatin (SOM)-expressing interneurons, in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice performing a spatial working memory task. PV interneurons showed weak target-dependent delay-period activity and were strongly inhibited by reward...
October 12, 2016: Neuron
Robert G Averkin, Viktor Szemenyei, Sándor Bordé, Gábor Tamás
Ultra-high-frequency network events in the hippocampus are instrumental in a dialogue with the neocortex during memory formation, but the existence of transient ∼200 Hz network events in the neocortex is not clear. Our recordings from neocortical layer II/III of freely behaving rats revealed field potential events at ripple and high-gamma frequencies repeatedly occurring at troughs of spindle oscillations during sleep. Juxtacellular recordings identified subpopulations of fast-spiking, parvalbumin-containing basket cells with epochs of firing at ripple (∼200 Hz) and high-gamma (∼120 Hz) frequencies detected during spindles and centered with millisecond precision at the trough of spindle waves in phase with field potential events but phase shifted relative to pyramidal cell firing...
October 12, 2016: Neuron
Helena Soler, Jonatan Dorca-Arévalo, Marta González, Sara Esmeralda Rubio, Jesús Ávila, Eduardo Soriano, Marta Pascual
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia nowadays, has been linked to alterations in the septohippocampal pathway (SHP), among other circuits in the brain. In fact, the GABAergic component of the SHP, which controls hippocampal rhythmic activity crucial for learning and memory, is altered in the J20 mouse model of AD-a model that mimics the amyloid pathology of this disease. However, AD is characterized by another pathophysiological hallmark: the hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein Tau...
September 15, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Daniel Enterría-Morales, Ivette López-López, José López-Barneo, Xavier d'Anglemont de Tassigny
Gender difference in Parkinson's disease (PD) suggests that female sex steroids may promote dopaminergic neuron survival and protect them from degeneration. The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is believed to be dopaminotrophic; thus it is considered as a potential therapeutic target in PD. Additionally, GDNF is endogenously synthetized in the caudate/putamen of humans and striatum in rodents. A neuroprotective role of estrogens on the nigrostriatal pathway via the stimulation of GDNF has been proposed...
2016: PloS One
K R Torres-da-Silva, A V Da Silva, N O Barioni, G W L Tessarin, J A De Oliveira, E Ervolino, J A C Horta-Junior, C A Casatti
The spinal cord is involved in local, ascending and descending neural pathways. Few studies analyzed the distribution of neuromediators in the laminae of non-human primates along all segments. The present study described the classic neuromediators in the spinal cord of the non-human primate Sapajus spp. through histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) method showed neuronal somata in the intermediolateral column (IML), central cervical nucleus (CCN), laminae I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and X, besides dense presence of nerve fibers in laminae II and IX...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Hannah Hamburg, Svenja V Trossbach, Verian Bader, Caroline Chwiesko, Anja Kipar, Magdalena Sauvage, William R Crum, Anthony C Vernon, Hans J Bidmon, Carsten Korth
To date, unequivocal neuroanatomical features have been demonstrated neither for sporadic nor for familial schizophrenia. Here, we investigated the neuroanatomical changes in a transgenic rat model for a subset of sporadic chronic mental illness (CMI), which modestly overexpresses human full-length, non-mutant Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), and for which aberrant dopamine homeostasis consistent with some schizophrenia phenotypes has previously been reported. Neuroanatomical analysis revealed a reduced density of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and reduced dopaminergic fibres in the striatum...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kathryn D Baker, Amy C Reichelt
Anxiety disorders and obesity are both common in youth and young adults. Despite increasing evidence that over-consumption of palatable high-fat/high-sugar "junk" foods leads to adverse neurocognitive outcomes, little is known about the effects of palatable diets on emotional memories and fear regulation. In the present experiments we examined the effects of daily 2h consumption of a high-fat/high-sugar (HFHS) food across adolescence on fear inhibition and anxiety-like behaviour in young adult rats. Rats exposed to the HFHS diet exhibited impaired retention of fear extinction and increased anxiety-like behaviour in an emergence test compared to rats fed a standard diet...
October 5, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Elizabeth Ak Phillips, Andrea R Hasenstaub
Bidirectional manipulations-activation and inactivation-are widely used to identify the functions supported by specific cortical interneuron types. Implicit in much of this work is the notion that tonic activation and inactivation will both produce valid, internally consistent insights into interneurons' computational roles. Here, using single-unit recordings in auditory cortex of awake mice, we show that this may not generally hold true. Optogenetically manipulating somatostatin-positive (Sst+) or parvalbumin-positive (Pvalb+) interneurons while recording tone-responses showed that Sst+ inactivation increased response gain, while Pvalb+ inactivation weakened tuning and decreased information transfer, implying that these neurons support delineable computational functions...
October 10, 2016: ELife
Jun Yamada, Shozo Jinno
Subsets of GABAergic neurons are surrounded by perineuronal nets (PNNs), which play a critical role in regulation of neural plasticity and neuroprotection. Although the plant lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) has been commonly used to label PNNs, WFA just detects N-acetyl-D -galactosamine on aggrecan, a member of the lectican family. In this study, we used WFA and the antibody against the core protein of aggrecan (ACAN) to investigate the molecular heterogeneity of aggrecan-based PNNs around five subclasses of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) GABAergic neurons in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the mouse hippocampus...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Nadia Kafui Adotevi, Beulah Leitch
Absence seizures arise from disturbances within the corticothalamocortical network, however the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying seizure generation arising from different genetic backgrounds are not fully understood. While recent experimental evidence suggests that changes in inhibitory microcircuits in the cortex may contribute to generation of the hallmark spike-wave discharges, it is still unclear if altered cortical inhibition is a result of interneuron dysfunction due to compromised glutamatergic excitation and/or changes in cortical interneuron number...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience
Jesus Martin-Cortecero, Angel Nuñez
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in higher functions such as memory and attention. In order to demonstrate sensory responses in the mPFC, we used electrophysiological recordings of urethane-anesthetized rats to record somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) or auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) elicited by whisker deflections and click stimulation, respectively. Contralateral whisker stimulation or auditory stimuli were also applied to study sensory interference in the mPFC. Interference with other sensory stimuli or recent stimulation history reduced whisker responses in the infralimbic and prelimbic cortices of the ventral mPFC...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Niels Niethard, Masashi Hasegawa, Takahide Itokazu, Carlos N Oyanedel, Jan Born, Takashi R Sato
Sleep is characterized by unique patterns of cortical activity alternating between the stages of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. How these patterns relate to the balanced activity of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons in cortical circuits is unknown. We investigated cortical network activity during wakefulness, SWS, and REM sleep globally and locally using in vivo calcium imaging in mice. Wide-field imaging revealed a reduction in pyramidal cell activity during SWS compared with wakefulness and, unexpectedly, a further profound reduction in activity during REM sleep...
September 20, 2016: Current Biology: CB
X Yang, C Yao, T Tian, X Li, H Yan, J Wu, H Li, L Pei, D Liu, Q Tian, L-Q Zhu, Y Lu
The entorhinal cortex (EC) is one of the most vulnerable brain regions that is attacked during the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we report that the synaptic terminals of pyramidal neurons in the EC layer II (ECIIPN) directly innervate CA1 parvalbumin (PV) neurons (CA1PV) and are selectively degenerated in AD mice, which exhibit amyloid-β plaques similar to those observed in AD patients. A loss of ECIIPN-CA1PV synapses disables the excitatory and inhibitory balance in the CA1 circuit and impairs spatial learning and memory...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Farid N Garas, Rahul S Shah, Eszter Kormann, Natalie M Doig, Federica Vinciati, Kouichi C Nakamura, Matthijs C Dorst, Yoland Smith, Peter J Magill, Andrew Sharott
Corticostriatal afferents can engage parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) interneurons to rapidly curtail the activity of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), thus shaping striatal output. Schemes of basal ganglia circuit dynamics generally consider striatal PV+ interneurons to be homogenous, despite considerable heterogeneity in both form and function. We demonstrate that the selective co-expression of another calcium-binding protein, secretagogin (Scgn), separates PV+ interneurons in rat and primate striatum into two topographically-, physiologically- and structurally-distinct cell populations...
2016: ELife
Rinaldo David D'Souza, Andrew Max Meier, Pawan Bista, Quanxin Wang, Andreas Burkhalter
Diverse features of sensory stimuli are selectively processed in distinct brain areas. The relative recruitment of inhibitory and excitatory neurons within an area controls the gain of neurons for appropriate stimulus coding. We examined how such a balance of inhibition and excitation is differentially recruited across multiple levels of a cortical hierarchy by mapping the locations and strengths of synaptic inputs to pyramidal and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing neurons in feedforward and feedback pathways interconnecting primary (V1) and two higher visual areas...
September 26, 2016: ELife
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"