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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329382/adolescent-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposure-produces-enduring-changes-in-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-a-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia-susceptibility
#1
David D Aguilar, Andrea Giuffrida, Daniel J Lodge
Background: Epidemiological studies recognize cannabis intake as a risk factor for schizophrenia, yet the majority of adolescents who use marijuana do not develop psychosis. Similarly, the abuse of synthetic cannabinoids poses a risk for psychosis. For these reasons, it is imperative to understand the effects of adolescent cannabinoid exposure in susceptible individuals. Method: We have recently developed a novel rodent model of schizophrenia susceptibility, the F2 MAM rat, where only a proportion (~40%) of rats display a schizophrenia-like phenotype...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318409/oncomodulin-expression-reveals-new-insights-into-the-cellular-organization-of-the-murine-utricle-striola
#2
Larry F Hoffman, Kristel R Choy, David R Sultemeier, Dwayne D Simmons
Oncomodulin (OCM, aka β-parvalbumin) is an EF-hand calcium binding protein that is expressed in a restricted set of hair cells in the peristriolar region of the mammalian utricle. In the present study, we determined the topologic distribution of OCM among hair cell phenotypes to advance our understanding of the cellular organization of the striola and the relationship of these phenotypes with characteristics of tissue polarity. The distributions of OCM-positive (OCM+) hair cells were quantified in utricles of mature C57Bl/6 mice...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314192/parvalbumin-producing-striatal-interneurons-receive-excitatory-inputs-onto-proximal-dendrites-from-the-motor-thalamus-in-male-mice
#3
Yasutake Nakano, Fuyuki Karube, Yasuharu Hirai, Kenta Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Hioki, Shinichiro Okamoto, Hiroshi Kameda, Fumino Fujiyama
In rodents, the dorsolateral striatum regulates voluntary movement by integrating excitatory inputs from the motor-related cerebral cortex and thalamus to produce contingent inhibitory output to other basal ganglia nuclei. Striatal parvalbumin (PV)-producing interneurons receiving this excitatory input then inhibit medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and modify their outputs. To understand basal ganglia function in motor control, it is important to reveal the precise synaptic organization of motor-related cortical and thalamic inputs to striatal PV interneurons...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311610/interneuron-specific-signaling-evokes-distinctive-somatostatin-mediated-responses-in-adult-cortical-astrocytes
#4
Letizia Mariotti, Gabriele Losi, Annamaria Lia, Marcello Melone, Angela Chiavegato, Marta Gómez-Gonzalo, Michele Sessolo, Serena Bovetti, Angelo Forli, Micaela Zonta, Linda Maria Requie, Iacopo Marcon, Arianna Pugliese, Cécile Viollet, Bernhard Bettler, Tommaso Fellin, Fiorenzo Conti, Giorgio Carmignoto
The signaling diversity of GABAergic interneurons to post-synaptic neurons is crucial to generate the functional heterogeneity that characterizes brain circuits. Whether this diversity applies to other brain cells, such as the glial cells astrocytes, remains unexplored. Using optogenetics and two-photon functional imaging in the adult mouse neocortex, we here reveal that parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons, two key interneuron classes in the brain, differentially signal to astrocytes inducing weak and robust GABAB receptor-mediated Ca2+ elevations, respectively...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295931/somatostatin-and-parvalbumin-inhibitory-synapses-onto-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-are-regulated-by-distinct-mechanisms
#5
Meryl E Horn, Roger A Nicoll
Excitation-inhibition balance is critical for optimal brain function, yet the mechanisms underlying the tuning of inhibition from different populations of inhibitory neurons are unclear. Here, we found evidence for two distinct pathways through which excitatory neurons cell-autonomously modulate inhibitory synapses. Synapses from parvalbumin-expressing interneurons onto hippocampal pyramidal neurons are regulated by neuronal firing, signaling through L-type calcium channels. Synapses from somatostatin-expressing interneurons are regulated by NMDA receptors, signaling through R-type calcium channels...
January 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289553/advanced-aging-causes-diaphragm-functional-abnormalities-global-proteome-remodeling-and-loss-of-mitochondrial-cysteine-redox-flexibility-in-mice
#6
Rachel C Kelley, Brian McDonagh, Leonardo F Ferreira
AIM: Inspiratory muscle (diaphragm) function declines with age, contributing to exercise intolerance and impaired airway clearance. Studies of diaphragm dysfunction in rodents have focused on moderate aging (~24months); thus, the impact of advanced age on the diaphragm and potential mechanisms of dysfunction are less clear. Therefore, we aimed to define the effects of advanced age on the mechanics, morphology, and global and redox proteome of the diaphragm. METHODS: We studied diaphragm from young (6months) and very old male mice (30months)...
December 28, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286389/differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-cortical-interneuron-precursors
#7
David J Tischfield, Stewart A Anderson
GABAergic cortical interneurons are a heterogeneous population of cells that play critical roles in regulating the output of excitatory pyramidal neurons as well as synchronizing the outputs of pyramidal neuron ensembles. Deficits in interneuron function have been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism, and epilepsy. The derivation of cortical interneurons from embryonic stem cells not only allows for the study of their development and function, but provides insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of cortical interneuron-related disorders...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277705/topographic-specializations-of-catecholaminergic-cells-and-ganglion-cells-and-distribution-of-calcium-binding-proteins-in-the-crepuscular-rock-cavy-kerodon-rupestris-retina
#8
Francisco Gilberto Oliveira, Expedito Silva do Nascimento-Júnior, Judney Cley Cavalcante, Fausto Pierdoná Guzen, Jeferson de Souza Cavalcante, Joacil Germano Soares, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalcanti, Leandro Moura de Freitas, Miriam Stela Maris de Oliveira Costa, Belmira Lara da Silveira Andrade-da-Costa
The rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris) is a crepuscular Hystricomorpha rodent that has been used in comparative analysis of retinal targets, but its retinal organization remains to be investigated. In order to better characterize its visual system, the present study analyzed neurochemical features related to the topographic organization of catecholaminergic cells and ganglion cells, as well the distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the outer and inner retina. Retinal sections and/or wholemounts were processed using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), GABA, calbindin, parvalbumin and calretinin immunohistochemistry or Nissl staining...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275206/chronic-treatment-with-fluoxetine-or-clozapine-of-socially-isolated-rats-prevents-subsector-specific-reduction-of-parvalbumin-immunoreactive-cells-in-the-hippocampus
#9
Dragana Filipović, Andrijana Stanisavljević, Nebojša Jasnić, Rick E Bernardi, Dragos Inta, Ivana Perić, Peter Gass
The dysfunction of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons, the most abundant type of hippocampal GABAergic inhibitory interneuron, has been implicated in mood disorders. We recently reported that adult male Wistar rats exposed to three weeks of social isolation show depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and a reduced number of PV+ interneurons in all hippocampal subregions. As GABA neurotransmission has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target of antidepressant and antipsychotic medications, we examined whether treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine (15 mg/kg/day) or the antipsychotic clozapine (20 mg/kg/day) during three weeks of social isolation in rats offered protection from the isolation stress-induced reduction in the number of PV+ interneurons in hippocampal subregions...
December 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274075/optogenetic-dissection-of-roles-of-specific-cortical-interneuron-subtypes-in-gabaergic-network-synchronization
#10
Andrew Bohannon, John J Hablitz
In the presence of the A-type K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyrdine, spontaneous synchronous network activity develops in the neocortex of mice of either sex. This aberrant synchrony persists in the presence of excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists (EAA blockers), and is thought to arise from synchronous firing of cortical interneurons (INs). Whereas much attention has been given to the mechanisms underlying this GABAergic synchrony, the contribution of specific IN subtypes to the generation of these long-lasting discharges (LLDs) is incompletely understood...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259548/differential-effects-of-parkinson-s-disease-on-interneuron-subtypes-within-the-human-anterior-olfactory-nucleus
#11
Isabel Ubeda-Bañon, Alicia Flores-Cuadrado, Daniel Saiz-Sanchez, Alino Martinez-Marcos
Synucleinopathies (including α-synucleinopathies), which include Parkinson's disease (PD), manifest themsevles early on (stage 1) in the olfactory system; preferentially in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON). In particular, the non-motor, early manifestations of PD include hyposmia, which is the partial loss of the sense of smell. The neural basis of hyposmia in PD, however, is poorly understood; but the AON appears to be a key structure in the disease's progression. We analyzed whether α-synuclein was involved in the differential interneuron vulnerability associated with PD in the retrobulbar, cortical anterior and cortical posterior divisions of the AON...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259026/early-vglut1-specific-parallel-fiber-synaptic-deficits-and-dysregulated-cerebellar-circuit-in-the-kiko-mouse-model-of-friedreich-ataxia
#12
Hong Lin, Jordi Magrane, Elisia M Clark, Sarah M Halawani, Nathan Warren, Amy Rattelle, David R Lynch
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with progressive ataxia that affects both the peripheral and central nervous system (CNS). While later CNS neuropathology involves loss of large principal neurons and glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic terminals in the cerebellar dentate nucleus, early pathological changes in FRDA cerebellum remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we report early cerebellar VGLUT1 (SLC17A7)-specific parallel fiber (PF) synaptic deficits and dysregulated cerebellar circuit in the frataxin knock-in/knockout (KIKO) FRDA mouse model...
December 19, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249656/brain-computer-interface-with-inhibitory-neurons-reveals-subtype-specific-strategies
#13
Akinori Mitani, Mingyuan Dong, Takaki Komiyama
Brain-computer interfaces have seen an increase in popularity due to their potential for direct neuroprosthetic applications for amputees and disabled individuals. Supporting this promise, animals-including humans-can learn even arbitrary mapping between the activity of cortical neurons and movement of prosthetic devices [1-4]. However, the performance of neuroprosthetic device control has been nowhere near that of limb control in healthy individuals, presenting a dire need to improve the performance. One potential limitation is the fact that previous work has not distinguished diverse cell types in the neocortex, even though different cell types possess distinct functions in cortical computations [5-7] and likely distinct capacities to control brain-computer interfaces...
December 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243106/quantitative-validation-of-immunofluorescence-and-lectin-staining-using-reduced-clarity-acrylamide-formulations
#14
D M Krolewski, V Kumar, B Martin, R Tomer, K Deisseroth, R M Myers, A F Schatzberg, F S Lee, J D Barchas, W E Bunney, H Akil, S J Watson
The CLARITY technique enables three-dimensional visualization of fluorescent-labeled biomolecules in clarified intact brain samples, affording a unique view of molecular neuroanatomy and neurocircuitry. It is therefore, essential to find the ideal combination for clearing tissue and detecting the fluorescent-labeled signal. This method requires the formation of a formaldehyde-acrylamide fixative-generated hydrogel mesh through which cellular lipid is removed with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Several laboratories have used differential acrylamide and detergent concentrations to achieve better tissue clearing and antibody penetration, but the potential effects upon fluorescent signal retention is largely unknown...
December 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241655/citalopram-restores-short-term-memory-deficit-and-non-cognitive-behaviors-in-app-ps1-mice-while-halting-the-advance-of-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology
#15
Qin Zhang, Chen Yang, Tianyao Liu, Liang Liu, Fen Li, Yulong Cai, Keyi Lv, Xin Li, Junwei Gao, Dayu Sun, Haiwei Xu, Qingwu Yang, Xiaotang Fan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. In addition to cognitive impairments, deficits in non-cognitive behaviors are also common neurological sequelae in AD. Here, we show that complex behavioral deficits in 6-month-old APPswe/PSEN1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice include impairments in object recognition, deficient social interaction, increased depression and buried marbles. Citalopram, one of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), ameliorated the amyloid deposition in AD patients and transgenic animal models...
December 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#16
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232412/the-opposite-effects-of-nandrolone-decanoate-and-exercise-on-anxiety-levels-in-rats-may-involve-alterations-in-hippocampal-parvalbumin-positive-interneurons
#17
Dragica Selakovic, Jovana Joksimovic, Ivan Zaletel, Nela Puskas, Milovan Matovic, Gvozden Rosic
The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral effects of chronic (six weeks) nandrolone decanoate (ND, 20 mg/kg, s.c., weekly in single dose) administration (in order to mimic heavy human abuse), and exercise (swimming protocol of 60 minutes a day, five days in a row/two days break), applied alone and simultaneously with ND, in male rats (n = 40). Also, we evaluated the effects of those protocols on hippocampal parvalbumin (PV) content and the possible connection between the alterations in certain parts of hippocampal GABAergic system and behavioral patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227584/npas4-deficiency-and-prenatal-stress-interact-to-affect-social-recognition-in-mice
#18
Kelsey Heslin, Laurence Coutellier
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia have an expansive array of reported genetic and environmental contributing factors. However, none of these factors alone can account for a substantial proportion of cases of either disorder. Instead, many gene-by-environment interactions are responsible for neurodevelopmental disturbances that lead to these disorders. The current experiment used heterozygous knock-out mice to examine a potential interaction between two factors commonly linked to neurodevelopmental disorders and cognitive deficit: imbalanced excitatory/inhibitory signaling in the cortex and prenatal stress (PNS) exposure...
December 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218727/gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-subunit-localization-on-neurochemically-identified-neurons-of-the-human-subthalamic-nucleus
#19
Xi Hua Wu, Jennifer Junru Song, Richard Lewis Maxwell Faull, Henry John Waldvogel
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a critical excitatory signaling center within the basal ganglia circuitry. The activity of subthalamic neurons is tightly controlled by upstream inhibitory signaling centers in the basal ganglia. In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to firstly, visualize and quantify the STN neurochemical organization based on neuronal markers including parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), SMI-32, and GAD65/67 . Secondly, we characterized the detailed regional, cellular and subcellular expression of GABAA (α1 , α2 , α3 , β2/3 , and γ2 ) and GABAB (R1 and R2) receptor subunits within the normal human STN...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215073/solution-structure-of-the-major-fish-allergen-parvalbumin-sco-j-1-derived-from-the-pacific-mackerel
#20
Hiroyuki Kumeta, Haruka Nakayama, Kenji Ogura
Although fish is an important part of the human diet, it is also a common source of food allergy. The major allergen in fish is parvalbumin, a well-conserved Ca2+-binding protein found in the white muscle of many fish species. Here, we studied the solution structure of the parvalbumin Sco j 1, derived from the Pacific mackerel, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We mapped the IgE-binding epitope proposed in a recent study onto the present structure. Interestingly, three of four residues, which were elucidated as key residues of the IgE-binding epitope, were exposed to solvent, whereas one residue faced the inside of the molecule...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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