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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093553/enhancement-of-visual-cortex-plasticity-by-dark-exposure
#1
Irina Erchova, Asta Vasalauskaite, Valentina Longo, Frank Sengpiel
Dark rearing is known to delay the time course of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity in the visual cortex. Recent evidence suggests that a period of dark exposure (DE) may enhance or reinstate plasticity even after closure of the critical period, mediated through modification of the excitatory-inhibitory balance and/or removal of structural brakes on plasticity. Here, we investigated the effects of a week of DE on the recovery from a month of monocular deprivation (MD) in the primary visual cortex (V1) of juvenile mice...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093551/multiple-shared-mechanisms-for-homeostatic-plasticity-in-rodent-somatosensory-and-visual-cortex
#2
REVIEW
Melanie A Gainey, Daniel E Feldman
We compare the circuit and cellular mechanisms for homeostatic plasticity that have been discovered in rodent somatosensory (S1) and visual (V1) cortex. Both areas use similar mechanisms to restore mean firing rate after sensory deprivation. Two time scales of homeostasis are evident, with distinct mechanisms. Slow homeostasis occurs over several days, and is mediated by homeostatic synaptic scaling in excitatory networks and, in some cases, homeostatic adjustment of pyramidal cell intrinsic excitability. Fast homeostasis occurs within less than 1 day, and is mediated by rapid disinhibition, implemented by activity-dependent plasticity in parvalbumin interneuron circuits...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088609/leukemia-inhibitory-factor-impairs-structural-and-neurochemical-development-of-rat-visual-cortex-in-vivo
#3
Maren Engelhardt, Graziella di Cristo, Jochen Grabert, Silke Patz, Lamberto Maffei, Nicoletta Berardi, Petra Wahle
Minipump infusions into visual cortex in vivo at the onset of the critical period have revealed that the proinflammatory cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) delays the maturation of thalamocortical projection neurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus, and tecto-thalamic projection neurons of the superior colliculus, and cortical layer IV spiny stellates and layer VI pyramidal neurons. Here, we report that P12-20 LIF infusion inhibits somatic maturation of pyramidal neurons and of all interneuron types in vivo...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087765/synapsin-ii-regulation-of-gabaergic-synaptic-transmission-is-dependent-on-interneuron-subtype
#4
Pedro Feliciano, Heidi Matos, Rodrigo Andrade, Maria Bykhovskaia
: Synapsins are epilepsy susceptibility genes that encode phosphoproteins reversibly associated with synaptic vesicles. Synapsin II (SynII) gene deletion produces a deficit in inhibitory synaptic transmission, and this defect is thought to cause epileptic activity. We systematically investigated how SynII affects synchronous and asynchronous release components of inhibitory transmission in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. We found that the asynchronous GABAergic release component is diminished in SynII deleted (SynII(-)) slices...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080173/evaluation-of-long-term-cryostorage-of-brain-tissue-sections-for-quantitative-histochemistry
#5
Larissa I Estrada, Amy A Robinson, Ana C Amaral, Eustathia L Giannaris, Nadine C Heyworth, Farzad Mortazavi, Laura B Ngwenya, Debra E Roberts, Howard J Cabral, Ronald J Killiany, Douglas L Rosene
Storage of tissue sections for long periods allows multiple samples, acquired over months or years, to be processed together, in the same reagents, for quantitative histochemical studies. Protocols for freezer storage of free-floating frozen sections using sucrose with different additives have been reported and assert that storage has no effect on histochemistry, but no quantitative support has been provided. The present study analyzed the efficacy of long-term storage of brain tissue sections at -80C in buffered 15% glycerol...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074478/ultrastructural-analysis-of-parvalbumin-synapses-in-human-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#6
Jill R Glausier, Rosalinda C Roberts, David A Lewis
Coordinated activity of neural circuitry in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) supports a range of cognitive functions. Altered DLPFC activation is implicated in a number of human psychiatric and neurological illnesses. Proper DLPFC activity is, in part, maintained by two populations of neurons containing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV): local inhibitory interneurons that form Type II synapses, and long-range glutamatergic inputs from the thalamus that form Type I synapses. Understanding the contributions of each PV neuronal population to human DLPFC function requires a detailed examination of their anatomical properties...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074441/activation-of-parvalbumin-positive-neurons-in-both-retina-and-primary-visual-cortex-improves-the-feature-selectivity-of-primary-visual-cortex-neurons
#7
Jinggang Duan, Hang Fu, Jiayi Zhang
Several recent studies using either viral or transgenic mouse models have shown different results on whether the activation of parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) neurons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in the primary visual cortex (V1) improves the orientation- and direction-selectivity of V1 neurons. Although this discrepancy was thoroughly discussed in a follow-up communication, the issue of using different models to express ChR2 in V1 was not mentioned. We found that ChR2 was expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and V1 neurons in ChR2(fl/+); PV-Cre mice...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074037/developmental-pruning-of-excitatory-synaptic-inputs-to-parvalbumin-interneurons-in-monkey-prefrontal-cortex
#8
Daniel W Chung, Zachary P Wills, Kenneth N Fish, David A Lewis
Working memory requires efficient excitatory drive to parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Developmental pruning eliminates superfluous excitatory inputs, suggesting that working memory maturation during adolescence requires pruning of excitatory inputs to PV interneurons. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that excitatory synapses on PV interneurons are pruned during adolescence. The density of excitatory synapses, defined by overlapping vesicular glutamate transporter 1-positive (VGlut1+) and postsynaptic density 95-positive (PSD95+) puncta, on PV interneurons was lower in postpubertal relative to prepubertal monkeys...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067903/modulation-of-excitation-on-parvalbumin-interneurons-by-neuroligin-3-regulates-the-hippocampal-network
#9
Jai S Polepalli, Hemmings Wu, Debanjan Goswami, Casey H Halpern, Thomas C Südhof, Robert C Malenka
Hippocampal network activity is generated by a complex interplay between excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons. Although much is known about the molecular properties of excitatory synapses on pyramidal cells, comparatively little is known about excitatory synapses on interneurons. Here we show that conditional deletion of the postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule neuroligin-3 in parvalbumin interneurons causes a decrease in NMDA-receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents and an increase in presynaptic glutamate release probability by selectively impairing the inhibition of glutamate release by presynaptic Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors...
January 9, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060701/perisomatic-gabaergic-synapses-of-basket-cells-effectively-control-principal-neuron-activity-in-amygdala-networks
#10
Judit M Veres, Gergő A Nagy, Norbert Hájos
Efficient control of principal neuron firing by basket cells is critical for information processing in cortical microcircuits, however, the relative contribution of their perisomatic and dendritic synapses to spike inhibition is still unknown. Using in vitro electrophysiological paired recordings we reveal that in the mouse basal amygdala cholecystokinin- and parvalbumin-containing basket cells provide equally potent control of principal neuron spiking. We performed pharmacological manipulations, light and electron microscopic investigations to show that, although basket cells innervate the entire somato-denditic membrane surface of principal neurons, the spike controlling effect is achieved primarily via the minority of synapses targeting the perisomatic region...
January 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053310/simultaneous-high-speed-imaging-and-optogenetic-inhibition-in-the-intact-mouse-brain
#11
Serena Bovetti, Claudio Moretti, Stefano Zucca, Marco Dal Maschio, Paolo Bonifazi, Tommaso Fellin
Genetically encoded calcium indicators and optogenetic actuators can report and manipulate the activity of specific neuronal populations. However, applying imaging and optogenetics simultaneously has been difficult to establish in the mammalian brain, even though combining the techniques would provide a powerful approach to reveal the functional organization of neural circuits. Here, we developed a technique based on patterned two-photon illumination to allow fast scanless imaging of GCaMP6 signals in the intact mouse brain at the same time as single-photon optogenetic inhibition with Archaerhodopsin...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041880/dynamic-cell-type-specific-roles-for-gabaergic-interneurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-optogenetically-inducible-seizures
#12
Sattar Khoshkhoo, Daniel Vogt, Vikaas S Sohal
GABAergic interneurons play critical roles in seizures, but it remains unknown whether these vary across interneuron subtypes or evolve during a seizure. This uncertainty stems from the unpredictable timing of seizures in most models, which limits neuronal imaging or manipulations around the seizure onset. Here, we describe a mouse model for optogenetic seizure induction. Combining this with calcium imaging, we find that seizure onset rapidly recruits parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), and vasoactive intestinal peptitde (VIP)-expressing interneurons, whereas excitatory neurons are recruited several seconds later...
December 29, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039374/removal-of-perineuronal-nets-unlocks-juvenile-plasticity-through-network-mechanisms-of-decreased-inhibition-and-increased-gamma-activity
#13
Kristian Kinden Lensjø, Mikkel Elle Lepperød, Gunnar Dick, Torkel Hafting, Marianne Fyhn
: Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix structures mainly enwrapping parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons. The assembly of PNNs coincides with the end of the period of heightened visual cortex plasticity in juveniles, while removal of PNNs in adults reopens for plasticity. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain elusive. We have used chronic electrophysiological recordings to investigate accompanying electrophysiological changes to activity-dependent plasticity, and we report on novel mechanisms involved in both induced and critical period plasticity...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031542/parvalbumin-and-autism-different-causes-same-effect
#14
EDITORIAL
Federica Filice, Beat Schwaller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017131/axotomy-leads-to-reduced-calcium-increase-and-earlier-termination-of-ccl2-release-in-spinal-motoneurons-with-upregulated-parvalbumin-followed-by-decreased-neighboring-microglial-activation
#15
Melinda Paizs, Roland Patai, Jozsef Engelhardt, Zoya Katarova, Izabella Obal, Laszlo Siklos
BACKGROUND: Motoneurons with naturally elevated calcium binding protein content, such as parvalbumin, are more resistant against injury. Furthermore, increase of intracellular calcium, which plays a pivotal role in injury of neurons, could be moderated by elevating their calcium binding proteins. OBJECTIVE: To test whether by elevating parvalbumin content of motoneurons, activation of neighboring microglial cells, a robust component of the inflammatory reaction after injury, could be influenced...
December 23, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009257/interneuronal-mechanisms-of-hippocampal-theta-oscillation-in-a-full-scale-model-of-the-rodent-ca1-circuit
#16
Marianne J Bezaire, Ivan Raikov, Kelly Burk, Dhrumil Vyas, Ivan Soltesz
The hippocampal theta rhythm plays important roles in information processing; however, the mechanisms of its generation are not well understood. We developed a data-driven, supercomputer-based, full-scale (1:1) model of the rodent CA1 area and studied its interneurons during theta oscillations. Theta rhythm with phase-locked gamma oscillations and phase-preferential discharges of distinct interneuronal types spontaneously emerged from the isolated CA1 circuit without rhythmic inputs. Perturbation experiments identified parvalbumin-expressing interneurons and neurogliaform cells, as well as interneuronal diversity itself, as important factors in theta generation...
December 23, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003412/dicer-maintains-the-identity-and-function-of-proprioceptive-sensory-neurons
#17
Sean Michael O'Toole, Monica M Ferrer, Jennifer Mekonnen, Haihan Zhang, Yasuyuki Shima, David R Ladle, Sacha B Nelson
Neuronal cell identity is established during development and must be maintained throughout an animal's life (Fishell and Heintz 2013). Transcription factors critical for establishing neuronal identity can be required for maintaining it (Deneris and Hobert 2014). Post-transcriptional regulation also plays an important role in neuronal differentiation (Bian and Sun 2011), but its role in maintaining cell identity is less established. To better understand how post-transcriptional regulation might contribute to cell identity, we examined the proprioceptive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), a highly specialized sensory neuron class, with well established properties that distinguish them from other neurons in the ganglion...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997737/distribution-of-type-i-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf1-receptors-on-gabaergic-neurons-within-the-basolateral-amygdala
#18
Katina C Calakos, Dakota Blackman, Alexandra M Schulz, Elizabeth P Bauer
The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a critical role in mediating anxiety-like responses to stressors, and dysfunction of the CRF system has been linked to the etiology of several psychiatric disorders. Extra-hypothalamic CRF can also modulate learning and memory formation, including amygdala-dependent learning. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) contains dense concentrations of CRF receptors, yet the distribution of these receptors on specific neuronal subtypes within the BLA has not been characterized...
December 20, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995326/using-a-novel-pv-cre-rat-model-to-characterize-pallidonigral-cells-and-their-terminations
#19
Yoon-Mi Oh, Fuyuki Karube, Susumu Takahashi, Kenta Kobayashi, Masahiko Takada, Motokazu Uchigashima, Masahiko Watanabe, Kayo Nishizawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Fumino Fujiyama
In the present study, we generated a novel parvalbumin (PV)-Cre rat model and conducted detailed morphological and electrophysiological investigations of axons from PV neurons in globus pallidus (GP). The GP is considered as a relay nucleus in the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia (BG). Previous studies have used molecular profiling and projection patterns to demonstrate cellular heterogeneity in the GP; for example, PV-expressing neurons are known to comprise approximately 50% of GP neurons and represent majority of prototypic neurons that project to the subthalamic nucleus and/or output nuclei of BG, entopeduncular nucleus and substantia nigra (SN)...
December 19, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993645/the-transcription-factor-npas4-contributes-to-adolescent-development-of-prefrontal-inhibitory-circuits-and-to-cognitive-and-emotional-functions-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#20
Ryan Shepard, Kelsey Heslin, Laurence Coutellier
The adolescent brain is marked by functional and structural modifications, particularly within the inhibitory system of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). These changes are necessary for the acquisition of adult cognitive functions and emotion regulation, and impairments in these processes are associated with neuropathologies such as schizophrenia and affective disorders. The molecular mechanisms regulating this adolescent refinement of prefrontal inhibitory circuits remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the transcription factor Npas4 plays a major role in this process...
December 18, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
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