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Andreas Fehlner, Sebastian Hirsch, Martin Weygandt, Thomas Christophel, Eric Barnhill, Mykola Kadobianskyi, Jürgen Braun, Johannes Bernarding, Ralf Lützkendorf, Ingolf Sack, Stefan Hetzer
PURPOSE: To improve the resolution of elasticity maps by adapting motion and distortion correction methods for phase-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrasts such as magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), a technique for measuring mechanical tissue properties in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRE data of the brain were acquired with echo-planar imaging (EPI) at 3T (n = 14) and 7T (n = 18). Motion and distortion correction parameters were estimated using the magnitude images...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Daniel Stäb, Steffen Bollmann, Christian Langkammer, Kristian Bredies, Markus Barth
With the advent of ultra-high field MRI scanners in clinical research, susceptibility based MRI has recently gained increasing interest because of its potential to assess subtle tissue changes underlying neurological pathologies/disorders. Conventional, but rather slow, three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequences are typically employed to assess the susceptibility of tissue. 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI) represents a fast alternative but generally comes with echo-time restrictions, geometrical distortions and signal dropouts that can become severe at ultra-high fields...
October 20, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Candice Morrissey
Diastolic dysfunction ranging from impaired relaxation of the left ventricle to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a common finding in the cardiac surgery population. It is important for the peri-operative echocardiographer to have a developed understanding of the pathophysiology of diastolic dysfunction and the echocardiographic features that determine where on the spectrum of diastolic function and dysfunction a patient lies.
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Thomas McCaffrey, Michela Guglieri, Alexander P Murphy, Katherine Md Bushby, Anna Johnson, John P Bourke
Introduction The significance of abnormal cardiac measures in asymptomatic females who harbor dystrophin gene mutations is controversial. Methods Echo-measures of ventricular function were compared with published norms in a cross-sectional study of 130 (age 39 ± 15.7 years) 'carriers' of Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy (DBMD). Correlations between cardiomyopathy (CM) and mutation, CK levels, age, and muscle symptoms were investigated. Results Depending on definition, CM prevalence was 3-33%. Ejection fraction (Simpson) was < 55% in 9 (13%) and < 40% in 2 (2...
October 19, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Grzegorz Bauman, Francesco Santini, Orso Pusterla, Oliver Bieri
PURPOSE: To present a technique for simultaneous mapping of T1 , T2 , and relative spin density (M0 ) in human lung using inversion recovery ultra-fast steady-state free precession (IR-ufSSFP) imaging. METHODS: Pulmonary relaxometry with IR-ufSSFP is based on an interleaved time series acquisition of 2D images acquired at 1.5T. The technique was tested in a phantom and in four healthy volunteers using breath-hold and electrocardiogram triggering. Typically, 30 transient state images were acquired in a single breath-hold within < 10 s...
October 19, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Hiroshi Isono, Shinnosuke Hirata, Tadashi Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Hachiya
PURPOSE: Chronic liver disease requires careful follow-up during long-term treatment, and development of a quantitative diagnosis method for liver fibrosis based on an ultrasonic imaging system is highly desired. METHODS: Texture analysis using a co-occurrence matrix was applied to both clinical and simulated ultrasonic images of fibrotic livers. A sequence of matrices was generated for pixel-pair distance, r, and texture feature contrast was chosen to examine the response to r in combination with statistical analysis of echo amplitude distribution using a multi-Rayleigh model...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Jamil Abdolmohammadi, Mohsen Shafiee, Fariborz Faeghi, Douman Arefan, Alireza Zali, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi, Zahra Farshidfar, Ali Kiani Nazarlou, Ali Tavakkoli, Mohammad Yarham
INTRODUCTION: Timely diagnosis of brain tumors could considerably affect the process of patient treatment. To do so, para-clinical methods, particularly MRI, cannot be ignored. MRI has so far answered significant questions regarding tumor characteristics, as well as helping neurosurgeons. In order to detect the tumor cellularity, neuro-surgeons currently have to sample specimens by biopsy and then send them to the pathology unit. The aim of this study is to determine the tumor cellularity in the brain...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
Robert R Edelman, Marcos Botelho, Amit Pursnani, Shivraman Giri, Ioannis Koktzoglou
BACKGROUND: Dark blood imaging of the heart is conventionally performed using a breath-hold, dual-inversion Cartesian fast spin-echo pulse sequence. Our aim was to develop a faster, more flexible approach that would be less motion-sensitive and provide better image quality. For this purpose, we implemented a prototype radial balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) pulse sequence. METHODS: The study was approved by the institutional review board. Six healthy volunteers and 27 subjects undergoing clinically-indicated cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) were imaged using dark blood Cartesian fast spin-echo and radial bSSFP...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Elpis-Athina Vlachopapadopoulou, Marina Vakaki, Fotini-Eleni Karachaliou, Irene Kaloumenou, Kleanthi Kalogerakou, Christina Gali, Stefanos Michalacos
BACKGROUND: During gestation, the primordial thymus migrates from the pharynx to the anterior mediastinum, thus thymic tissue can remain at any point along this path. Intrathyroidal thymic remnants are rare, and their sonographic patterns have only recently been described. This retrospective study presents the sonographic appearance of ectopic intrathyroidal thymus and emphasizes the role of sonography in order to avoid misdiagnosis. METHODS: The population consisted of 42 children, 3...
October 19, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
David Je Callaway, Zimei Bu
The most complex molecular machines are proteins found within cells. Protein dynamics, in particular dynamics on nanoscales, presents us with a novel paradigm for cell signaling: the idea that proteins and protein complexes can communicate directly within themselves to effect long-range information transfer, via coupled domains and correlated residue clusters. This idea has been little explored, in large part because of a paucity of experimental techniques that can address the necessary questions. Here we review recent progress in developing a promising new approach, neutron spin echo spectroscopy...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Hideaki Kaneko, Shuo Zhang, Miho Sekiguchi, Takuya Nikaido, Koshi Makita, Jiro Kurata, Shin-Ichi Konno
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate activity of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in response to lumbar mechanical stimulation in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although a modified activity of the NAc was characterized in cLBP patients, its pathological significance has yet to be determined. We hypothesized that NAc activation in response to pain might differ depending on the extent of psychiatric problems, which might be associated with the affective/motivational background of chronic pain...
October 17, 2016: Spine
Phui Yee Wong, Ravi K Lingam, Surojit Pal, Pushpa Khatri, Robert Nash, Arvind Singh
AIM: The aim of this study is to gain insight into the disease progression and behavior of primary cholesteatoma in a cohort of patients who did not have surgery using non-echoplanar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW MRI) serial monitoring. METHODS: Retrospective longitudinal observational study of 12 cases of middle ear cleft cholesteatoma diagnosed between 2009 and 2014 where surgery was not performed for various reasons. All cases were monitored radiologically with non-echoplanar half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo diffusion weighted imaging annually for a median period of 23 months (between 11 and 45 mo) to evaluate for changes in disease volume and direction of growth...
October 14, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Courtney N Gleason, Deanna L Kerkhof, Elizabeth A Cilia, Maria A Lanyi, Jonathan Finnoff, Dai Sugimoto, Gianmichel D Corrado
OBJECTIVE: The traditional history and physical (H&P) is a poor screening modality to identify athletes at risk for sudden cardiac death. Although better than H&P alone, electrocardiograms (ECG) have also been found to have high false-positive rates. A limited portable ECG by a frontline physician (PEFP) performed during preparticipation physical examination (PPE) allows for direct measurements of the heart to more accurately identify athletes with structural abnormalities. Therefore, it is worthwhile to assess the feasibility of incorporating limited PEFP as part of PPEs...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Svetlana Villevalde, Zhanna Kovbalava
OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria (MAU) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are the signs of subclinical kidney damage, independently predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to investigate the relative role of MAU, cardiac and vascular ultrasonography, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) for the detection of hypertensive target organ damage (TOD) and risk stratification. DESIGN AND METHOD: In 576 non-diabetic hypertensive patients without established cardiovascular or renal disease (291 male, 53...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Telmo Pereira, Armindo Almeida, João Maldonado, Jorge Conde
OBJECTIVE: The Moens-Korteweg equation predicts changes in pulse wave velocity (PWV) following changes in arterial radius, therefore an increase in arterial radius, as seen in a reactive hyperaemia (RH) condition, should slow PWV over a given arterial segment. If this assumption is true, than the deceleration of PWV over the brachial artery (flow-mediated slowing - FMS) should be an equivalent signal of endothelial function during a conventional RH flow-mediated dilation (FMD) procedure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Joji Ishikawa, Ayumi Toba, Yuko Yamanaka, Shintaro Watanabe, Kazumasa Harada
OBJECTIVE: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) diagnosed by Cornell product in electrocardiogram predicted future stroke events at lower thresholds in Japanese general populations than those in western countries; therefore, we thought to evaluate whether the gender-adjustment and the levels of Cornell product to detect echo LVH was appropriate in Japanese subjects. DESIGN AND METHOD: We consecutively enrolled 345 hypertensive patients who were performed echocardiography for the screening of LVH...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Massimo Salvetti, Anna Paini, Claudia Agabiti Rosei, Deborah Stassaldi, Fabio Bertacchini, Giulia Rubagotti, Giulia Maruelli, Laura Verzeri, Carlotta Donini, Maria Lorenza Muiesan, Enrico Agabiti Rosei
OBJECTIVE: The recent results of the SPRINT study suggest that "intensive" reduction of systolic blood pressure (BP) (to less than 120 mmHg) might provide greater cardiovascular protection as compared to less intensive (< 140 mmHg) reduction of BP, at least in some subsets of patients. Only few studies, have investigated the possible effect of tight blood pressure control on indices of left ventricular hypertrophy, and have been mainly based on electrocardiography. Aim of our study was to evaluate cardiac organ damage according to "on treatment" blood pressure values in a large cohort of hypertensive patients undergoing echocardiography (2D, M-mode with conventional and tissue Doppler analysis)at the echo-lab of an ESH Excellence Centre in Italy...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Enrico Agabiti Rosei
Current Hypertension Guidelines emphasize the importance of assessing the presence of preclinical organ damage. In fact, an extensive evaluation of organ damage may increase the number of patients classified at high CV risk and therefore strongly influence the clinical management of patients. Hypertensive heart disease remains to date the form of organ damage for which there is the greatest amount of evidence of a strong independent prognostic significance. In the presence of a chronic pressure overload, a parallel addition of sarcomers takes place with an increase in myocyte width, which in turn increases left ventricular wall thickness; myocyte hypertrophy is also associated with apoptosis, collagen deposition and ventricular fibrosis with an impairment of coronary hemodynamics as well, thus profoundly influencing functional properties of the left (and right) ventricle...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ralf B Loeffler, M Beth McCarville, Anne W Wagstaff, Matthew P Smeltzer, Axel J Krafft, Ruitian Song, Jane S Hankins, Claudia M Hillenbrand
BACKGROUND: Liver R2* values calculated from multi-gradient echo (mGRE) magnetic resonance images (MRI) are strongly correlated with hepatic iron concentration (HIC) as shown in several independently derived biopsy calibration studies. These calibrations were established for axial single-slice breath-hold imaging at the location of the portal vein. Scanning in multi-slice mode makes the exam more efficient, since whole-liver coverage can be achieved with two breath-holds and the optimal slice can be selected afterward...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Geetesh Manik, John Jose, B Hygriv Rao
Intra-cardiac extension of tumour thrombus of follicular carcinoma of thyroid is uncommon. We report a case of advanced thyroid carcinoma where tumour thrombus was well profiled with CT scan and transesophageal echo images and extension was noted from SVC into right atrium, with clinical features of superior vena cava syndrome. The clinical significance of the "ring sign" is discussed.
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
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