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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351109/coordination-of-the-environmental-influences-on-child-health-outcomes-program-so-the-whole-is-greater-than-the-sum-of-its-parts
#1
Brian Smith, Susan Knox, Daniel K Benjamin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) program's mission is to enhance the health of children for generations to come. In this manuscript, we describe the structure of the ECHO Coordinating Center (ECHO-CC) and its role in developing the infrastructure for the ECHO program. RECENT FINDINGS: The ECHO-CC supports ECHO's mission by developing the framework of the ECHO program, coordinating multiple levels of membership in the ECHO community, developing ECHO policies and procedures, and fostering communication and engagement inside and outside of ECHO...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350260/modulation-rate-transfer-functions-from-four-species-of-stranded-odontocete-stenella-longirostris-feresa-attenuata-globicephala-melas-and-mesoplodon-densirostris
#2
Adam B Smith, Aude F Pacini, Paul E Nachtigall
Odontocete marine mammals explore the environment by rapidly producing echolocation signals and receiving the corresponding echoes, which likewise return at very rapid rates. Thus, it is important that the auditory system has a high temporal resolution to effectively process and extract relevant information from click echoes. This study used auditory evoked potential methods to investigate auditory temporal resolution of individuals from four different odontocete species, including a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), and Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349525/value-of-ct-pulmonary-angiography-to-predict-short-term-outcome-in-patient-with-pulmonary-embolism
#3
Ahmed M Osman, Emad H Abdeldayem
To evaluate the role of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in the assessment of pulmonary embolism (PE) severity and the related CT cardiac changes, reflecting the clinical status of the patients and predicting the outcome. A prospective study of 184 patients presented with suspicious acute PE. All patients underwent CTPA followed by ECHO. Pulmonary artery obstructive index (PAOI) using Qanadli Score was calculated and cardiac changes recorded. The patients' outcome was followed up for 30 days. Only 150 patients completed the study; 26...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347375/probing-the-anomalous-dynamical-phase-in-long-range-quantum-spin-chains-through-fisher-zero-lines
#4
Valentin Zauner-Stauber, Jad C Halimeh
Using the framework of infinite matrix product states, the existence of an anomalous dynamical phase for the transverse-field Ising chain with sufficiently long-range interactions was first reported in J. C. Halimeh and V. Zauner-Stauber [Phys. Rev. B 96, 134427 (2017)10.1103/PhysRevB.96.134427], where it was shown that anomalous cusps arise in the Loschmidt-echo return rate for sufficiently small quenches within the ferromagnetic phase. In this work we further probe the nature of the anomalous phase through calculating the corresponding Fisher-zero lines in the complex time plane...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347273/additive-scaling-law-for-structural-organization-of-chromatin-in-chicken-erythrocyte-nuclei
#5
E G Iashina, E V Velichko, M V Filatov, W G Bouwman, C P Duif, A Brulet, S V Grigoriev
Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) on nuclei of chicken erythrocytes demonstrates the cubic dependence of the scattering intensity Q^{-3} in the range of momentum transfer Q∈10^{-3}-10^{-2}nm^{-1}. Independent spin-echo SANS measurements give the spin-echo function, which is well described by the exponential law in a range of sizes (3×10^{2})-(3×10^{4}) nm. Both experimental dependences reflect the nature of the structural organization of chromatin in the nucleus of a living cell, which corresponds to the correlation function γ(r)=ln(ξ/r) for r<ξ, where ξ=(3...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347233/dynamics-and-energy-spectra-of-aperiodic-discrete-time-quantum-walks
#6
N Lo Gullo, C V Ambarish, Th Busch, L Dell'Anna, C M Chandrashekar
We investigate the role of different aperiodic sequences in the dynamics of single quantum particles in discrete space and time. For this we consider three aperiodic sequences, namely, the Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and Rudin-Shapiro sequences, as examples of tilings the diffraction spectra of which have pure point, singular continuous, and absolutely continuous support, respectively. Our interest is to understand how the order, intrinsically introduced by the deterministic rule used to generate the aperiodic sequences, is reflected in the dynamical properties of the quantum system...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347042/probing-the-excited-state-quantum-phase-transition-through-statistics-of-loschmidt-echo-and-quantum-work
#7
Qian Wang, H T Quan
By analyzing the probability distributions of the Loschmidt echo (LE) and quantum work, we examine the nonequilibrium effects of a quantum many-body system, which exhibits an excited-state quantum phase transition (ESQPT). We find that depending on the value of the controlling parameter the distribution of the LE displays different patterns. At the critical point of the ESQPT, both the averaged LE and the averaged work show a cusplike shape. Furthermore, by employing the finite-size scaling analysis of the averaged work, we obtain the critical exponent of the ESQPT...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346710/an-extensive-caseous-calcification-of-the-mitral-annulus-complicated-with-severe-mitral-regurgitation
#8
Alper Karakus, Hakan Tibilli, Ibrahim H Inanc, Hakan Tasolar, Serdar Turkmen, Erdal Akturk
Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA) is considered a rare variant of mitral annular calcification (MAC) due to caseous transformation of the inner material and prevalence of CCMA, about 0.63% of all MAC cases and 0.06%-0.07% of the population. The precise pathophysiology of CCMA is still unknown. It is a chronic degenerative disorder common in the elderly, particularly in women. Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA) is a soft peri-annular extensive calcification, resembling cardiac tumors, abscesses, vegetation, or calcified thrombus, which is composed of an admixture of calcium, fatty acids, and cholesterol with a toothpaste-like texture...
January 18, 2018: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345626/accelerating-acquisition-strategies-for-low-frequency-conductivity-imaging-using-mreit
#9
Yizhuang Song, Jin Keun Seo, Munish Chauhan, Aprinda Indahlastari, Neeta Ashok Kumar, Rosalind Sadleir
We sought to improve efficiency of Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography data acquisition so that fast conductivity changes or electric field variations could be monitored. Undersampling of k-space was used to decrease acquisition times in spin-echo-based sequences by a factor of two. Full MREIT data were reconstructed using continuity assumptions and preliminary scans gathered without current. We found that phase data were reconstructed faithfully from undersampled data. Conductivity reconstructions of phantom data were also possible...
January 18, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344985/probing-the-microscopic-environment-of-23-na-ions-in-brain-tissue-by-mri-on-the-accuracy-of-different-sampling-schemes-for-the-determination-of-rapid-biexponential-t2-decay-at-low-signal-to-noise-ratio
#10
Jonathan M Lommen, Sebastian Flassbeck, Nicolas G R Behl, Sebastian Niesporek, Peter Bachert, Mark E Ladd, Armin M Nagel
PURPOSE: To investigate and to reduce influences on the determination of the short and long apparent transverse relaxation times ( T2,s*, T2,l*) of 23 Na in vivo with respect to signal sampling. METHODS: The accuracy of T2* determination was analyzed in simulations for five different sampling schemes. The influence of noise in the parameter fit was investigated for three different models. A dedicated sampling scheme was developed for brain parenchyma by numerically optimizing the parameter estimation...
January 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344979/in-vivo-estimation-of-transverse-relaxation-time-constant-t2-of-17-human-brain-metabolites-at-3t
#11
Patrik O Wyss, Claudio Bianchini, Milan Scheidegger, Ioannis A Giapitzakis, Andreas Hock, Alexander Fuchs, Anke Henning
PURPOSE: The transverse relaxation times T2 of 17 metabolites in vivo at 3T is reported and region specific differences are addressed. METHODS: An echo-time series protocol was applied to one, two, or three volumes of interest with different fraction of white and gray matter including a total number of 106 healthy volunteers and acquiring a total number of 128 spectra. The data were fitted with the 2D fitting tool ProFit2, which included individual line shape modeling for all metabolites and allowed the T2 calculation of 28 moieties of 17 metabolites...
January 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343981/assessment-of-pain-score-and-specimen-adequacy-for-ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration-biopsy-of-thyroid-nodules
#12
Li-Jen Liao, Wu-Chia Lo, Wan-Lun Hsu, Po-Wen Cheng, Cheng-Ping Wang
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate pain scores and specimen adequacy for ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) of thyroid nodules without and with local anesthesia (LA). Materials and methods: The US-FNAB procedure was performed on 183 patients with and without LA. One puncture was made for solid nodules, and if patients could tolerate it, a two-puncture technique was used for nodules with a cystic change. Four-point verbal rating scores were assessed by a nursing assistant after completion of US-FNAB...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343625/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-causes-sustained-collecting-lymphatic-vessel-dysfunction
#13
Dennis Jones, Eelco F J Meijer, Cedric Blatter, Shan Liao, Ethel R Pereira, Echoe M Bouta, Keehoon Jung, Shan Min Chin, Peigen Huang, Lance L Munn, Benjamin J Vakoc, Michael Otto, Timothy P Padera
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and is a frequent cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Lymphedema-fluid accumulation in tissue caused by impaired lymphatic vessel function-is a strong risk factor for SSTIs. SSTIs also frequently recur in patients and sometimes lead to acquired lymphedema. However, the mechanism of how SSTIs can be both the consequence and the cause of lymphatic vessel dysfunction is not known. Intravital imaging in mice revealed an acute reduction in both lymphatic vessel contractility and lymph flow after localized MRSA infection...
January 17, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343427/controlled-attenuation-parameter-and-alcoholic-hepatic-steatosis-diagnostic-accuracy-and-role-of-alcohol-detoxification
#14
Maja Thiele, Vanessa Rausch, Gabriele Fluhr, Maria Kjærgaard, Felix Piecha, Johannes Mueller, Beate Katharina Straub, Monica Lupşor-Platon, Victor De-Ledinghen, Helmut Karl Seitz, Sönke Detlefsen, Bjørn Madsen, Aleksander Krag, Sebastian Mueller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a novel non-invasive measure of hepatic steatosis, but has not been evaluated in alcoholic liver disease. We therefore aimed to validate CAP for assessment of biopsy-verified alcoholic steatosis and to study the effect of alcohol detoxification on CAP. METHODS: Cross-sectional, biopsy-controlled, diagnostic study in four European liver centers. Consecutive alcohol-overusing patients underwent concomitant CAP, regular ultrasound and liver biopsy...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342064/minimally-manipulated-bone-marrow-concentrate-compared-with-microfracture-treatment-of-full-thickness-chondral-defects-a-one-year-study-in-an-equine-model
#15
Constance R Chu, Lisa A Fortier, Ashley Williams, Karin A Payne, Taralyn M McCarrel, Megan E Bowers, Diego Jaramillo
BACKGROUND: Microfracture is commonly performed for cartilage repair but usually results in fibrocartilage. Microfracture augmented by autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC) was previously shown to yield structurally superior cartilage repairs in an equine model compared with microfracture alone. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that autologous BMC without concomitant microfracture improves cartilage repair compared with microfracture alone. METHODS: Autologous sternal bone marrow aspirate (BMA) was concentrated using a commercial system...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341000/basic-pulse-sequences-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Daniel Calle, Teresa Navarro
Magnetic resonance images are obtained by a combination of different radiofrequency pulses and gradient waveforms applied to the subject inside a magnetic field. There are multiple pulse sequences used in clinical and preclinical studies adjusted to whatever physician or researches want to analyze, from basic anatomic images to accurate diagnostic techniques as diffusion, perfusion, or functional imaging. In this chapter, we present the most used radiofrequency pulse combinations of the two groups of sequences available in magnetic resonance imaging: spin-echo and gradient-echo sequences...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340936/application-of-color-transformation-techniques-in-pediatric-spinal-cord-mr-images-typically-developing-and-spinal-cord-injury-population
#17
Mahdi Alizadeh, Pallav Shah, Chris J Conklin, Devon M Middleton, Sona Saksena, Adam E Flanders, Laura Krisa, M J Mulcahey, Scott H Faro, Feroze B Mohamed
The purpose of this study was to evaluate an improved and reliable visualization method for pediatric spinal cord MR images in healthy subjects and patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). A total of 15 pediatric volunteers (10 healthy subjects and 5 subjects with cervical SCI) with a mean age of 11.41 years (range 8-16 years) were recruited and scanned using a 3.0T Siemens Verio MR scanner. T2-weighted axial images were acquired covering entire cervical spinal cord level C1 to C7. These gray-scale images were then converted to color images by using five different techniques including hue-saturation-value (HSV), rainbow, red-green-blue (RGB), and two enhanced RGB techniques using automated contrast stretching and intensity inhomogeneity correction...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340383/alamethicin-self-assembling-in-lipid-membranes-concentration-dependence-from-pulsed-epr-of-spin-labels
#18
Victoria N Syryamina, Marta De Zotti, Claudio Toniolo, Fernando Formaggio, Sergei A Dzuba
The antimicrobial action of the peptide antibiotic alamethicin (Alm) is commonly related to peptide self-assembling resulting in the formation of voltage-dependent channels in bacterial membranes, which induces ion permeation. To obtain a deeper insight into the mechanism of channel formation, it is useful to know the dependence of self-assembling on peptide concentration. With this aim, we studied Alm F50/5 spin-labeled analogs in a model 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) membrane, for peptide-to-lipid (P/L) ratios varying between 1/1500 and 1/100...
January 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338570/a-novel-rubric-to-evaluate-wearable-cameras-for-assessment-of-interrater-reliability
#19
Amanda C Jozkowski, Echo A Presgraves, Krista L Hodges, Erica N Wirth, Nicole E Brandstetter, Molly T Thayer
Research has reported on traditional methods of assessing interrater reliability but, currently, no such standard protocol exists for selection of alternative methods of assessing interrater reliability, such as wearable video cameras. The professions of occupational therapy and occupational science take a unique ecological perspective when evaluating individuals, which focuses on the naturalistic perspective of an individual, ideally resulting in optimal performance. Given current advancements in technology, wearable, low-cost, unobtrusive, first-person view digital video cameras are readily available for use in research...
January 1, 2018: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337914/acoustic-transducers-as-passive-cooperative-targets-for-wireless-sensing-of-the-sub-surface-world-challenges-of-probing-with-ground-penetrating-radar
#20
Jean-Michel Friedt, Gilles Martin, Gwenhael Goavec-Mérou, David Rabus, Sébastien Alzuaga, Lilia Arapan, Marianne Sagnard, Émile Carry
Passive wireless transducers are used as sensors, probed by a RADAR system. A simple way to separate the returning signal from the clutter is to delay the response, so that the clutter decays before the echoes are received. This can be achieved by introducing a fixed delay in the sensor design. Acoustic wave transducers are ideally suited as cooperative targets for passive, wireless sensing. The incoming electromagnetic pulse is converted into an acoustic wave, propagated on the sensor substrate surface, and reflected as an electromagnetic echo...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
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