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Wilhelm H Flatz, Annika Henneberger, Maximilian F Reiser, Robert Gürkov, Birgit Ertl-Wagner
Analysis of neural structures in Menière's Disease (MD) is of importance, since a loss of such structures has previously been proposed for this patient group but has yet to be confirmed. This protocol describes a method of in vivo evaluation of neural changes especially well suitable for cranial nerve analysis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MD-patients and normal hearing persons were examined in a 3-T MR-scanner using a scan protocol including strongly T2-weighted 3D gradient-echo-sequence (3D-CISS)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Koichi Yabunaka, Masaru Matsumoto, Mikako Yoshida, Shiho Tanaka, Yuka Miura, Takuya Tsutaoka, Mayumi Handa, Gojiro Nakagami, Junko Sugama, Shingo Okada, Hiromi Sanada
The aim of this study was to assess rectal feces storage condition by a pocket-size ultrasonography (PUS) in healthy adults so as to define normal rectal defecation desire. Participants were first assessed rectum by PUS imaging immediately after defecation desire (pre-defecation). Nurses checked the amount and quality of the participants' feces using King's Stool Chart and Bristol stool scale. Finally, PUS was performed for defecation with no defecation desire (post-defecation). Pre-defecation PUS detected high echo area in all patients...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Nobuyuki Kosaka, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Tetsuji Kurokawa, Tsuyoshi Matsuda, Masayuki Kanamoto, Naoyuki Takei, Kenji Takata, Jin Takahashi, Yoshio Yoshida, Hirohiko Kimura
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the vascularity of retained products of conception (RPOC) using arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) to clarify the clinical feasibility of this approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pulsed-continuous ASL sequence with echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisitions was used. Ten consecutive patients with RPOC were enrolled. All ASL images were evaluated visually and semiquantitatively and compared with the findings of Doppler ultrasound (US) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI)...
March 16, 2018: Magma
William Craddock, Troy Smithers, Craig Harris, William du Moulin, Robert Molnar
BACKGROUND: Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries of the knee are common and sometimes difficult to diagnose. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed using standard orthogonal plane views, is the investigation of choice. It can be particularly difficult to differentiate acute partial and complete tears and identify elongation of chronic healed tears. The aim of the paper is to describe a new method of positioning the patient with the knee flexed at 90°, allowing the PCL to be visualised in a position of greatest length and tension which may assist in differentiating and identifying these injuries...
March 14, 2018: Knee
Armin Eftekhari, Han Lun Yap, Michael B Wakin, Christopher J Rozell
Delay-coordinate mapping is an effective and widely used technique for reconstructing and analyzing the dynamics of a nonlinear system based on time-series outputs. The efficacy of delay-coordinate mapping has long been supported by Takens' embedding theorem, which guarantees that delay-coordinate maps use the time-series output to provide a reconstruction of the hidden state space that is a one-to-one embedding of the system's attractor. While this topological guarantee ensures that distinct points in the reconstruction correspond to distinct points in the original state space, it does not characterize the quality of this embedding or illuminate how the specific parameters affect the reconstruction...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Radosław Mrówczyński, Artur Jędrzak, Kosma Szutkowski, Bartosz F Grześkowiak, Emerson Coy, Roksana Markiewicz, Teofil Jesionowski, Stefan Jurga
Polydopamine (PDA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with mono-6-thio-β-cyclodextrin (SH-βCD) were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Nuclear and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR and MRI), and doxorubicin (DOXO)-loading experiments. The liver cancer cellular internalization of DOXO-loaded nanoparticles was investigated by confocal imaging microscopy. Synthesized nanomaterials bearing a chemotherapeutic drug and a layer of polydopamine capable of absorbing near-infrared light show high performance in the combined chemo- and photothermal therapy (CT-PTT) of liver cancer due to the synergistic effect of both modalities as demonstrated in vitro...
March 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Kazuma Takashima, Takashi Sakai, Hidetoshi Hamada, Masaki Takao, Nobuhiko Sugano
BACKGROUND: Many studies have confirmed that the size and location of necrotic lesions are major factors that affect the prevalence of collapse and prognosis in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Although several classification systems categorize and quantify ONFH, there is no agreement on which one is most useful for the purpose. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We compared the Steinberg, modified Kerboul, and Japanese Investigation Committee (JIC) classifications of ONFH in terms of (1) the correlation among the three different classification systems...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Diana Schoeppler, Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler, Annette Denzinger
Bats of the Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae families, and Pteronotus parnellii, compensate for Doppler shifts generated by their own flight movement. They adjust their call frequency such that the frequency of echoes coming from ahead fall in a specialized frequency range of the hearing system, the auditory fovea, to evaluate amplitude and frequency modulations in echoes from fluttering prey. Some studies in hipposiderids have suggested a less sophisticated or incomplete Doppler shift compensation. To investigate the precision of Doppler shift compensation in Hipposideros armiger, we recorded the echolocation and flight behaviour of bats flying to a grid, reconstructed the flight path, measured the flight speed, calculated the echo frequency, and compared it with the resting frequency prior to each flight...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Naoki Ohno, Tosiaki Miyati, Shuto Suzuki, Hirohito Kan, Toshitaka Aoki, Yoshitaka Nakamura, Yuki Hiramatsu, Satoshi Kobayashi, Toshifumi Gabata
PURPOSE: To suppress olefinic signals and enable simultaneous and quantitative estimation of multiple functional parameters associated with water and lipid, we investigated a modified method using chemical shift displacement and recovery-based separation of lipid tissue (SPLIT) involving acquisitions with different inversion times (TIs), echo times (TEs), and b-values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-shot diffusion echo-planar imaging (SSD-EPI) with multiple b-values (0-3000 s/mm2 ) was performed without fat suppression to separate water and lipid images using the chemical shift displacement of lipid signals in the phase-encoding direction...
March 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Ingo Hoffmann, Claudia Hoffmann, Bela Farago, Sylvain Prévost, Michael Gradzielski
In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of small unilamellar vesicles with the aid of neutron spin-echo spectroscopy. The purpose of this investigation is twofold. On the one hand, we investigate the influence of solubilised cosurfactant on the dynamics of the vesicle's surfactant bilayer. On the other hand, the small unilamellar vesicles used here have a size between larger vesicles, with dynamics being well described by the Zilman-Granek model and smaller microemulsion droplets which can be described by the Milner-Safran model...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Deepak Ojha, Andrés Henao, Thomas D Kühne
Based on quantum-mechanical path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, the impact of nuclear quantum effects on the vibrational and hydrogen bond dynamics in liquid water is investigated. The instantaneous fluctuations in the frequencies of the O-H stretch modes are calculated using the wavelet method of time-series analysis, while the time scales of the vibrational spectral diffusion are determined from frequency-time correlation functions, joint probability distributions, and the slope of three-pulse photon echo...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Tobias Budenz, Annette Denzinger, Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler
Bats lower the emission SPL when approaching a target. The SPL reduction has been explained by intensity compensation which implies that bats adjust the emission SPL to perceive the retuning echoes at the same level. For a better understanding of this control mechanism we recorded the echolocation signals of four Myotis myotis with an onboard microphone when foraging in the passive mode for rustling mealworms offered in two feeding dishes with different target strength, and determined the reduction rate for the emission SPL and the increase rate for the SPL of the returning echoes...
2018: PloS One
Sylvie Perreault, Payman Shahabi, Robert Côté, Stéphanie Dumas, Étienne Rouleau-Mailloux, Yassamin Feroz Zada, Sylvie Provost, Ian Mongrain, Marc Dorais, Thao Huynh, Simon Kouz, Ariel Diaz, Mark Blostein, Simon de Denus, Jacques Turgeon, Jeffrey Ginsberg, Jacques Lelorier, Lyne Lalonde, Lambert Busque, Jeannine Kassis, Mario Talajic, Jean-Claude Tardif, Marie-Pierre Dubé
BACKGROUND: Over- and under-coagulation with warfarin is associated with hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events, respectively. Genetic and clinical factors affect warfarin response, and the causes of this variability remain unclear. We present descriptive statistics and test for predictors of poor anticoagulation control. METHODS: The Quebec Warfarin Cohort (QWC) comprises 1,059 new warfarin users, with prospective follow up using telephone questionnaires every 3 months for one year, and using healthcare administrative databases (RAMQ and Med-Echo) for 5-year prior to cohort entry and up to 10-years following active patient participation...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Tatsuya Hayashi, Kei Fukuzawa, Hiroshi Kondo, Hiroshi Onodera, Shuji Toyotaka, Rie Tojo, Shimpei Yano, Masakatsu Tano, Tosiaki Miyati, Jun'ichi Kotoku, Takahide Okamoto, Keiko Toyoda, Hiroshi Oba
A diameter of glass bottles in phantoms in the above article (2 cm) was incorrect. The correct diameter is 4.5 cm.
March 14, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
Adnan Khan, James M Pope, Pavan K Verkicharla, Marwan Suheimat, David A Atchison
We investigated changes in ciliary body ring diameter, lens dimensions and lens refractive index distributions with accommodation in young adults. A 3T clinical magnetic resonance imaging scanner imaged right eyes of 38 18-29 year old participants using a multiple spin echo sequence to determine accommodation-induced changes along lens axial and equatorial directions. Accommodation stimuli were approximately 1 D and 5 D. With accommodation, ciliary body ring diameter, and equatorial lens diameter decreased (-0...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Arata Abe, Tetsuro Sekine, Yuki Sakamoto, Mina Harada-Abe, Ryo Takagi, Satoshi Suda, Kentaro Suzuki, Junya Aoki, Masami Yoneyama, Kazumi Kimura
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is clinically important to evaluate time course changes in symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenotic plaques because of likely recurrence. The objective of this study is to determine whether contrast-enhanced high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a feasible method for this purpose. METHODS: Contrast-enhanced, high-resolution, 3D turbo spin-echo images with low refocusing flip angle control (3D LOWRAT) applied to 7 patients with symptomatic MCA stenosis were evaluated at the initial (1 month after stroke onset) and follow-up (7 months after stroke onset) stages, and statistical variables, including plaque-to-thalamus signal intensity ratio, degree of stenosis, and stroke recurrence obtained at the 2 stages, were compared...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Maria Oliveira, James Fraser McConnell, Thomas W Maddox, Daniel Sanchez-Masian, Rita Gonçalves
The constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence has been widely used in human neuroimaging. It has been shown to be advantageous in the evaluation of intra-axial and extra-axial cystic abnormalities, arteriovenous and dysraphic malformations and disturbances of cerebrospinal fluid circulation. To assess the utility of this technique in small animals, interpretations based on this sequence were compared with those based on T2-weighted (T2W) sequences in 145 dogs that underwent MRI of the spine for suspected spinal cord disease...
March 14, 2018: Veterinary Record
Ella Z Lattenkamp, Samuel Kaiser, Rožle Kaučič, Martina Großmann, Klemen Koselj, Holger R Goerlitz
Sensory systems experience a trade-off between maximizing the detail and amount of sampled information. This trade-off is particularly pronounced in sensory systems that are highly specialized for a single task and thus experience limitations in other tasks. We hypothesised that combining sensory input from multiple streams of information may resolve this trade-off and improve detection and sensing reliability. Specifically, we predicted that perceptive limitations experienced by animals reliant on specialised active echolocation can be compensated for by the phylogenetically older and less specialised process of passive hearing...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Déa Silvia Moura da Cruz, Neusa Collet, Vanessa Medeiros Nóbrega
This study aimed to analyze the scientific literature on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. This is an integrative review whose inclusion criteria were full-text papers available online in Portuguese, English and Spanish; published and indexed in databases Lilacs, Medline, Adolec, BDENF, in the period 2003-2013 that reflected the theme HRQOL, Type 1 diabetes and adolescents. Twenty-two papers were analyzed, from which the following themes were retrieved: development and validation of tools to measure the HRQOL of diabetic adolescents; HRQOL of adolescents with diabetes; factors affecting the quality of life of adolescents with diabetes and resources used to assist adolescents in diabetes management...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Jianhua Yan
PURPOSE: Fibrous histiocytomas (FHs) involving the orbit are uncommon. To our knowledge, here the authors report the first patient with an orbital low-grade malignant FH originating from the medial rectus muscle. METHODS: A clinical report relating clinical features as well as imaging and histopathologic findings is presented. RESULTS: A 26-year-old female presented with a left eye proptosis that had been present for 4 months. A small left exotropia was observed and ocular motility evaluation revealed a -3 adduction and -1 abduction of the left eye...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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