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A Perutelli, C Tascini, L Domenici, S Garibaldi, C Baroni, E Cecchi, M G Salerno
OBJECTIVE: Tigecycline is a glycylcycline antimicrobial structurally related to minocycline, with a wide spectrum of activity that includes anaerobes and typical and atypical microorganisms causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). This study aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of tigecycline in complicated PID and un-complicated PID after the failure of first-line antibiotic therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between May 2014 and April 2016 at the 2nd Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Santa Chiara Hospital of Pisa a pilot study on 20 women with mild/moderate PID after the failure of first-line antibiotic therapy and on 8 women with complicated PID was conducted...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Moritz Fritzenwanker, Can Imirzalioglu, Susanne Herold, Florian M Wagenlehner, Klaus-Peter Zimmer, Trinad Chakraborty
BACKGROUND: Rates of colonization and infection with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens are on the rise, particularly in southeastern European countries, and this is increasingly true in Germany as well. The organisms in question include enterobacteriaceae such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli and non-fermenting bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. As the carbapenems have been the gold standard to date for the systemic treatment of serious infections with Gram-negative bacteria, carbapenem resistance presents new and difficult challenges in therapeutic decision-making, particularly because of the high frequency of coresistance...
May 21, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Vishal Diwan, Nada Hanna, Manju Purohit, Salesh Chandran, Emilia Riggi, Vivek Parashar, Ashok J Tamhankar, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the seasonal variation, over one year, in water-quality, antibiotic residue levels, antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from water and sediment of the Kshipra River in Central India. METHODS: Water and sediment samples were collected from seven selected points from the Kshipra River in the Indian city of Ujjain in the summer, rainy season, autumn and winter seasons in 2014. Water quality parameters (physical, chemical and microbiological) were analyzed using standard methods...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ya-Sung Yang, Hsing-Yu Chen, Wei-Jane Hsu, Yu-Ching Chou, Cherng-Lih Perng, Hung-Sheng Shang, Yuan-Ting Hsiao, Jun-Ren Sun
OBJECTIVES: Tigecycline non-susceptible Acinetobacter nosocomialis (TNAN) have been discovered in clinical isolates. The resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux system plays a major role in tigecycline non-susceptible of Acinetobacter baumannii, but the mechanism in Acinetobacter nosocomialis remains unknown. Our aim was to analyze the contribution of efflux based tigecycline resistance in clinical A. nosocomialis isolates collected from multiple medical centers in Taiwan...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Rezak Drali, Meryem Berrazeg, Laldja Lilia Zidouni, Fella Hamitouche, Amina Aicha Abbas, Abdelhamid Deriet, Fawzia Mouffok
Colistin is currently regarded as one of the 'last-resort' antibiotics used for the treatment of critical infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Recently, there have been numerous reports of the emergence of a transferable plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1 in patients, animals, food, and environment. Here, we characterize the support of colistin resistance among environmental isolates collected from seawater of Algiers coast. Our study was carried out on 246 isolates resistant to colistin (MIC > 2 μg/L)...
June 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Fangyou Yu, Jingnan Lv, Siqiang Niu, Hong Du, Yi-Wei Tang, Robert A Bonomo, Barry N Kreiswirth, Liang Chen
Carbapenem-resistant and hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-hvKp) strains have emerged while antimicrobial treatment options remain limited. Herein, we tested the in vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam and other comparator antibiotics against 65 CR-hvKp isolates. Ceftazidime-avibactam, colistin and tigecycline are highly active in vitro against CR-hvKp isolates (MIC90 ≤ 1μg/ml), including KPC-2-producing ST11 CR-hvKp. Based upon previous clinical experience and the in vitro data presented herein, we posit that ceftazidime-avibactam is a considered therapeutic option against CR-hvKp infections...
June 11, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Fanny Hidalgo-Villeda, Edgardo Tzoc, Luque Torres, Efraín Bu, César Rodríguez, Carlos Quesada-Gómez
In recent years, reports of NAP1/RT027/ST01 epidemic strains of Clostridium difficile producing outbreaks of healthcare-associated diarrhea have increased in America and Europe. We cultivated multidrug-resistant NAP1/RT027/ST01 strains from the FQR2 linage from TcdA/TcdB+ stool samples obtained from patients in two Honduran hospitals. The PFGE macrorestriction patterns of two of the isolates were new. These bacteria were toxigenic and induced with different magnitude classical cytopathic effects on HeLa cells...
June 8, 2018: Anaerobe
Sabrina Royer, Paola Amaral de Campos, Bruna Fuga Araújo, Melina Lorraine Ferreira, Iara Rossi Gonçalves, Deivid William da Fonseca Batistão, Rebecca Tavares E Silva Brígido, Louise Teixeira Cerdeira, Luiz Gustavo Machado, Cristiane Silveira de Brito, Paulo Pinto Gontijo-Filho, Rosineide Marques Ribas
The emergence of infections associated to new antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab) genotypes represents a major challenge. In this context, this study aimed to determine the diversity of resistance mechanisms and investigate clonal dissemination and predominant sequence types (STs) in multidrug-resistant Ab strains of clinical (tracheal aspirate, n = 17) and environmental (surface, n = 6) origins. Additionally, the major clones found in clinical (A) and environmental (H) strains had their complete genomes sequenced...
2018: PloS One
Nicholas J Mercuro, Susan L Davis, Marcus J Zervos, Erica S Herc
The role of enterococci in infectious diseases has evolved from a gut and urinary commensal to a major pathogen of concern. Few options exist for resistant enterococci, and appropriate use of the available agents is crucial. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss antibiotics with clinically useful activity against Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium. The article specifically discusses: antibiotics active against enterococci and their mechanism of resistance, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles, in vitro combinations, and clinical studies which focus on urinary tract, intra-abdominal, central nervous system, and bloodstream infections due to enterococci...
June 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Jean-Winoc Decousser, Paul-Louis Woerther, Claude-James Soussy, Marguerite Fines-Guyon, Michael J Dowzicky
Background: A high level of antibiotic consumption in France means antimicrobial resistance requires rigorous monitoring. The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) is a global surveillance study that monitors the in vitro activities of tigecycline and a panel of marketed antimicrobials against clinically important Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates. Methods: Annually clinically relevant strains were prospectively included in the survey through a national network of hospital-based laboratories...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Joseph L Kuti, Qi Wang, Hongbin Chen, Henan Li, Hui Wang, David P Nicolau
Objectives: We report the in vitro activity of amikacin and comparators against Gram-negative bacteria collected from blood and respiratory specimens in China during a 1-year period between December 2015 and December 2016. Materials and methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution methods using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, and susceptibility was assessed using CLSI breakpoints, except for tigecycline against Enterobacteriaceae...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Dinah B Aziz, Jeanette W P Teo, Véronique Dartois, Thomas Dick
Lung disease caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), relatives of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , is increasing. M. abscessus is the most prevalent rapid growing NTM. This environmental pathogen is intrinsically resistant to most commonly used antibiotics, including anti-tuberculosis drugs. Current therapies take years to achieve cure, if cure if achieved. Thus, there is an urgent medical need to identify new, more efficacious treatments. Here, we explore the possibility of repurposing antibiotics developed for other indications...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kamilia Abdelraouf, Aryun Kim, Kevin M Krause, David P Nicolau
Background : Plazomicin is a next-generation aminoglycoside with potent in vitro activity against multidrug- and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of plazomicin exposure, alone and in combination with meropenem or tigecycline, against Enterobacteriaceae in the immunocompetent murine septicemia model. Methods : ICR mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with bacterial suspensions. Eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates with wide ranges of plazomicin, meropenem and tigecycline MICs were utilized...
June 4, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Nurver Ulger Toprak, Alida C M Veloo, Edit Urban, Ingrid Wybo, Ulrik S Justesen, Helene Jean-Pierre, Trefor Morris, Oncu Akgul, Guven Kulekci, Guner Soyletir, Elisabeth Nagy
Knowledge about the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of different Prevotella species is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the current antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Prevotella species from different parts of Europe, Kuwait and Turkey. Activity of 12 antimicrobials against 508 Prevotella isolates, representing 19 species, were tested according to Etest methodology. EUCAST, CLSI and FDA guidelines were used for susceptibility interpretations. All Prevotella species were susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, meropenem, tigecycline and metronidazole...
May 17, 2018: Anaerobe
Monica Licker, Teodora Sorescu, Maria Rus, Natalia Cirlea, Florin Horhat, Cristiana Jurescu, Mircea Botoca, Alin Cumpănaş, Romulus Timar, Delia Muntean
Purpose: We report an outbreak of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Myroides odoratimimus , which occurred in the largest clinical hospital in western Romania. Patients and methods: From June to August 2017, four strains of M. odoratimimus were isolated from the urine samples of patients hospitalized in the urology, diabetes, and surgery departments. Hospital records of all patients whose urine cultures were positive for M. odoratimimus were reviewed retrospectively...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Stefano Veraldi, Anna Minuti
INTRODUCTION: Cats can transmit bacterial infections to humans through biting and scratching. Streptococcal infections in wounds caused by cat bites or scratches rarely have been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT: The case of severe streptococcal skin infection after a 2-day-old cat scratch of the right arm, elbow, and forearm in a 68-year-old woman is presented herein. Group A β-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) was isolated from the wound of the patient as well as the oral cavity and claws of the cat; likewise, Escherichia coli also was isolated from the oral cavity and claws of the cat...
May 2018: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
Cherng-Ru Hsu, Jiann-Torng Chen, Kuo-Ming Yeh, Chi-Kang Hsu, Ming-Cheng Tai, Ying-Jen Chen, Yun-Hsiang Chang
PURPOSE: To report the clinical features and treatment outcomes in a cluster of patients with endophthalmitis after cataract surgery caused by nontuberculous mycobacterium. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review and noncomparative, consecutive case series. Nine consecutive cases of endophthalmitis, after cataract surgery in a local clinic, were referred to our hospital. The treatment outcomes and analysis of risk factors for infection are reported. RESULTS: The major symptoms at presentation were pain, redness, and decreased vision...
May 29, 2018: Eye
Turky AlSaeed, Ali Nosrat, Mary Anne Melo, Ping Wang, Elaine Romberg, Huakun Xu, Ashraf F Fouad
INTRODUCTION: The optimal concentration for the use of endodontic topical antibiotics is not known. The aims of this study were to determine the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, minocycline, Augmentin (GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC), and tigecycline against common endodontic pathogens and to evaluate ex vivo the antibacterial efficacy and discoloration effect of triple antibiotic paste (TAP), Augmentin, and tigecycline at different concentrations using a slow-release hydrogel scaffold...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Yen-Hua Huang, Sheng-Hua Chou, Syun-Wun Liang, Chung-En Ni, Yi-Tsung Lin, Yi-Wei Huang, Tsuey-Ching Yang
Background: Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae causes high mortality owing to the limited therapeutic options available. Here, we investigated an emergent carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strain with hypervirulence found among KPC-2-producing strains in Taiwan. Methods: KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strains were collected consecutively from clinical specimens at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital between January 2012 and December 2014. Capsular types and the presence of rmpA/rmpA2 were analysed, and PFGE and MLST performed using these strains...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Sherein G Elgendy, Muhammad R Abdel Hameed, Mohamed A El-Mokhtar
Febrile neutropenic patients are at a high risk of life-threatening bacterial infections. Tigecycline was developed to treat multidrug-resistant isolates, however resistance to tigecycline in Klebsiella pneumoniae has been reported. Here, we investigated tigecycline resistance among K. pneumoniae isolated from febrile neutropenic patients admitted to Hematology ICU, Egypt. Out of 75 enrolled febrile neutropenic patients, 48 cases showed bacteriologically confirmed infection. The majority of cases were infected with K...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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